Gente Singular (Portuguese Edition)
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The Portuguese possessive pronouns are translated as the English words my , mine , your , etc. Unlike English, there are no distinct words for attributive or other uses.
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For example, my and mine would be considered identical in Portuguese. However, there is a tendency for omitting articles in attributive context.
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The pronouns seu , sua , seus and suas have a high degree of ambiguity: Usually in dialectal or colloquial contexts, the contractions dele , dela , deles and delas are used instead. Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Instead, they employ the imperative forms: As for other grammatical persons, there is no such phenomenon because both the positive imperative and the negative imperative forms are from their respective present tense forms in the subjunctive mood: Also, other forms such as teu possessive , ti postprepositional , and contigo "with you" are still common in most regions of Brazil, especially in areas in which tu is still frequent.
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In addition, in all the country, the imperative forms may also be the same as the formal second-person forms, but it is argued by some that it is the third-person singular indicative which doubles as the imperative: A speaker may thus end up saying "I love you" in two ways: Most Brazilians who use tu use it with the third-person verb: A few cities in Rio Grande do Sul but in the rest of the state speakers may or may not use it in more formal speech , mainly near the border with Uruguay , have a slightly different pronunciation in some instances tu vieste becomes tu viesse , which is also present in Santa Catarina and Pernambuco.
In spoken informal registers of BP, the third-person object pronouns 'o', 'a', 'os', and 'as' are virtually nonexistent and are simply left out or, when necessary and usually only when referring to people, replaced by stressed subject pronouns like ele "he" or isso "that": Eu vi ele "I saw him" rather than Eu o vi. If no ambiguity could arise especially in narrative texts , seu is also used to mean 'his' or 'her'. In Portuguese, one may or may not include the definite article before a possessive pronoun meu livro or o meu livro , for instance.
The variants of use in each dialect of Portuguese are mostly a matter of preference: Minha novela , Meu tio matou um cara. Formal written Brazilian Portuguese tends, however, to omit the definite article in accordance with prescriptive grammar rules derived from Classical Portuguese even if the alternative form is also considered correct, but many teachers consider it inelegant. Some of the examples on the right side of the table below are colloquial or regional in Brazil.
Literal translations are provided to illustrate how word order changes between varieties. Word order in the first Brazilian Portugues example is frequent in European Portuguese. Similar to the subordinate clauses like Sabes que eu te amo "You know that I love you ", but not in simple sentences like "I love you. The example in the bottom row of the table, with its deletion of "redundant" inflections, is considered ungrammatical, but it is nonetheless dominant in Brazil throughout all social classes.
Chamar 'call' is normally used with the preposition de in BP, especially when it means 'to describe someone as':. When movement to a place is described, BP uses em contracted with an article, if necessary:. In BP, the preposition para can also be used with such verbs with no difference in meaning:. According to some contemporary Brazilian linguists Bortoni, Kato, Mattos e Silva, Perini and most recently, with great impact, Bagno , Brazilian Portuguese may be a highly diglossic language.
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This theory claims that there is an L-variant termed "Brazilian Vernacular" , which would be the mother tongue of all Brazilians, and an H-variant standard Brazilian Portuguese acquired through schooling. L-variant represents a simplified form of the language in terms of grammar, but not of phonetics that could have evolved from 16th-century Portuguese, influenced by Amerindian mostly Tupi and African languages , while H-variant would be based on 19th-century European Portuguese and very similar to Standard European Portuguese, with only minor differences in spelling and grammar usage.
Perini, a Brazilian linguist, even compares the depth of the differences between L- and H- variants of Brazilian Portuguese with those between Standard Spanish and European Portuguese. However, his proposal is not widely accepted by either grammarians or academics. Azevedo wrote a chapter on diglossia in his monograph: Portuguese language A linguistic introduction , published by Cambridge University Press in From this point of view, the L-variant is the spoken form of Brazilian Portuguese, which should be avoided only in very formal speech court interrogation, political debate while the H-variant is the written form of Brazilian Portuguese, avoided only in informal writing such as songs lyrics, love letters, intimate friends correspondence.
Even language professors frequently use the L-variant while explaining students the structure and usage of the H-variant; in essays, nevertheless, all students are expected to use H-variant. There is a claim that the H-variant used to be preferred when dubbing foreign films and series into Brazilian Portuguese, [ citation needed ] but nowadays the L-variant is preferred, although this seems to lack evidence. Movie subtitles normally use a mixture of L- and H-variants, but remain closer to the H-variant.
Most literary works are written in the H-variant.
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Still, many contemporary writers like using the H-variant even in informal dialogue. This is also true of translated books, which never use the L-variant, only the H one. Children's books seem to be more L-friendly, but, again, if they are translated from another language The Little Prince , for instance they will use the H-variant only.
This theory also posits that the matter of diglossia in Brazil is further complicated by forces of political and cultural bias, though those are not clearly named. Language is sometimes a tool of social exclusion or social choice. According to Bagno the two variants coexist and intermingle quite seamlessly, but their status is not clear-cut. Brazilian Vernacular is still frowned upon by most grammarians and language teachers, with only remarkably few linguists championing its cause. Some of this minority, of which Bagno is an example, appeal to their readers by their ideas that grammarians would be detractors of the termed Brazilian Vernacular, by naming it a "corrupt" form of the "pure" standard, an attitude which they classify as "linguistic prejudice".
Their arguments include the postulate that the Vernacular form simplifies some of the intricacies of standard Portuguese verbal conjugation, pronoun handling, plural forms, etc. Whether Bagno's points are valid or not is open to debate, especially the solutions he recommends for the problems he claims to have identified. Whereas some agree that he has captured the feelings of the Brazilians towards Brazil's linguistic situation well, his book Linguistic Prejudice: What it Is, What To Do has been heavily criticized by some linguists and grammarians, due to his unorthodox claims, sometimes asserted to be biased or unproven.
The cultural influence of Brazilian Portuguese in the rest of the Portuguese-speaking world has greatly increased in the last decades of the 20th century, due to the popularity of Brazilian music and Brazilian soap operas. Since Brazil joined Mercosul , the South American free trade zone, Portuguese has been increasingly studied as a foreign language in Spanish-speaking partner countries. Many words of Brazilian origin also used in other Portuguese-speaking countries have also entered into English: While originally Angolan, the word "samba" only became famous worldwide because of its popularity in Brazil.
After independence in , Brazilian idioms with African and Amerindian influences were brought to Portugal by returning Portuguese Brazilians luso-brasileiros in Portuguese. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For Brazilians of Portuguese descent, see Portuguese Brazilians.
For other languages, see Languages of Brazil. The neutrality of this article is disputed. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page.
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Reforms of Portuguese orthography. Brazil portal Languages portal. Retrieved 31 August Retrieved 6 June Retrieved 23 July Irineu da Silva Ferraz. Jorge Zahar Editora , p. Archived 22 December at the Wayback Machine. Archived from the original on 5 April Archived from the original PDF on Revista de Estudos da Linguagem in Portuguese. Retrieved 27 November Archived from the original on 19 April Archived from the original on 17 May Retrieved 25 September As its name suggests, Portugal is the birthplace of the Portuguese language.
Nowadays, however, the vast majority of Portuguese speakers live outside of Portugal. Brazil alone has about million Portuguese speakers, which is about twenty times the entire population of Portugal! Due to its geographical isolation from Portugal, it has come to develop a distinct dialect compared to European Portuguese. European Portuguese refers to the language spoken by the some 10 million inhabitants of Portugal. One might expect that this version of the Portuguese language would be truer to the more ancient forms.