La religion : Cicéron, Spinoza, Lucrèce, Bergson, Hegel (Hors collection) (French Edition)

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L'accueil d'Emile Verhaeren en Allemagne entre et Formes et structures du dialogue dans Le Neveu de Rameau, de Diderot. De voorzetsels in het Middelnederlands — Betekenis en structuur. Thomas Manns weg von Luebeck zur Welt. Het oeuvre van Gaston Duribreux. Toponymisch onderzoek over de gemeente Oudergem.

Thematiek in de werken van Paul Leveau. Een thematisch en stilistisch onderzoek. Temporeel aspect van het participium praesentis in enkele volksboeken. Het thema van de eenzaamheid in het werk van Filip de Pillecijn. Tone Brulin, van fantasie en realisme tot fantasie in de realiteit. De vernieuwing van het Zuid-Nederlands toneel tussen en The evolution in the choice of the relative pronoun in the english language as shown by the successive editions of the New-Testament.

Recherches d'architecture et d'urbanisme antiques sur les curies provinciales du monde romain. Kritiek en waardering voor het godsbewijs van Bergson. Geschiedenis van de Oudheid. Het Forum Romanum in de laatantieke tijd Een onderzoek naar hun aantal, lokalizering en sociale structuur. Apulia Daunia van de legendarische tijd tot het einde van de republikeinse periode. Studie van de geschreven bronnen. Geschiedenis van de Moderne Tijden.

De Stichting van de Bijloke te Gent Het stadsbestuur van Antwerpen in het Hollands Tijdvak De Kriminaliteit in de Kasselrij Kortrijk van tot De bestuurlijke inrichting van de stad Kortrijk tijdens het Oostenrijks Bewind Het Regulier Kapittel van O. Ten Walle te Elsegem Het Loonse Sint-Odulphus-Kapittel ca. De Crisissen te Antwerpen tijdens de periode Economische, sociale en demografische aspecten.

De Schepenen te St. Een bestuurlijke en rechterlijke instelling in de stadsorganisatie. De levensstandaard van de arbeiders in de XVIe eeuw. Een lonenstudie voor Mechelen. Een klooster aangesloten bij het Kapittel v. Kapelanen en Kapelaniewezen van het St. Het Sint-Agnes- klooster te Maaseik Het Stand onckkollege te Leuven. Ontstaan en eerste groei De Kamer van Koophandel te Brugge De opvattingen van Westeuropese geschiedschrijvers over historiografie aan de hand van prologen van Latijnse universele kronieken.

De stemming over de grondwet van in het Dijledepartement. De Heren van Vogelzang. De Gasthuizenkommissie te Tienen tijdens het Frans Bewind. Gregorius VII en de vrouwelijke hoge adel. De criminaliteit te Tongeren Het Paasverzuim in het Bisdom Brugge 1. Bijdrage tot de geschiedenis van het kerkelijk leven in West-.

Kapelanen van de Sint- Pieterskerk te Leuven vanaf de oorsprong tot De Schepenen van Sint-Wincksber- gen. Bijdrage tot de sociaal-economische geschiedenis tussen De Ambachten te Diest in de 18e eeuw. Een demografische studie van het platteland omheen Brugge in de achttiende eeuw Aspecten van het kerkelijk leven inde dekenij Evergem onder deken J.

Kapelaniewezen en Kapelanen van de Sint- Pieterskerk te Ander- lecht vanaf de oorsprong tot Demografie en doopnaam- geving te Lokeren Het Lager Onderwijs te Kortrijk Detolte RupelmondeenuitWiel en Moderne Devotie te Deinze. Geschiedenis van Sint-Margrieten of Bethlehem van de 12e tot het begin van de 16e eeuw.

Het kanton Borgloon tijdens de Franse overheersing mei Het Provinciaal correctiehuis te Gent en de gevangenen uit het land van Aalst. Plautus en de Westgriekse wereld. De constructie van het adjectief en participium als bepaling van het substantief bij Demosthenes: Liefde van de vrouw tegenover de man in de Homerische epen. De Deianeira-fi- guur in de Trachinische Vrouwen van Sophocles: Het gebruik van de completiefzin bij Thucydides: Godsdienstige aspecten in de utopische romans van de Oudheid en de neolatijnse literatuur. Erasmus' Opvoedkunde vanuit haar antropologische vooropstellingen in haar geschiedkundige samenhang.

De Slavernij in de Odusseia. De drijfveren, die Antigone aanzetten tot het begraven van haar broer Polynices. Pu- blius Faustus Andrelinus Foroliviensis: De dood van Memnon in de literatuur en beeldende Kunst der Oudheid: Plato en de Sofisten. Bijdrage tot de studie van de tropen in Vergilius' Georgica.

De verhouding van de mens tot zijn fysische omgeving in Cicero's redevoeringen en filosofische werken. De postume uitgave van Latijnse werken. De epistrategie in Romeins Egypte. Over de mondelinge traditie in het werk van Titus Livius. Diminutieven bij Catullus en.

Het archief der familie van Laches. De Nijlbeschrijving bij de Latijnse dichters. Hieronymus van Stridon als geestelijk leidsman bestudeerd in zijn brieven. De mythe van Cacus en Hercules. Vergelijking naar inhoud en vorm. Hulp en offervaardigheid in de Homerische epen. Geschiedenis en geschiedschrijving in het Oeuvre van Plinius Junior. Bijdrage tot de studie van de P. Papyri Trinity College Dublin. Het Symposiongenre in de Oudheid en zijn invloed op het Lucasevangelie.

De buitenlandse reizen van Cicero. Een studie over Cicero's grote reizen aan de hand van getuigenissen uit zijn schriftelijke nalatenschap. Studie over de betrekkingen tussen Kreta en de Lagiden. Een bijdrage tot de identificatie en de lokalisatie van auteurs en geschriften, vanaf de oorsprong tot de aanvangsdecennia van de zevende eeuw.

De transposities in Lukas. Het probleem der verplaatsingen in de Markus-stof van het derde evangelie. Les symboles et la construction romanesque. Max Elskamp, Enluminures Gilles le Muisit, Li complainte de dames. Markten en kermissen in het arrondissement Antwerpen. Colijn van Rijssele en De Spiegel der Minnen. De Vrouw bij Top Naeff. Analyse van het Nederlands bij jarigen.

Het herbergwezen te Antwerpen in verband met opschriften en uithangborden. Volkskundige studie over de moderne bijnamen in de streek van Leopoldsburg. Sagenonderzoek in het zuidelijk gedeelte van de roede van Tielt en Izegem. Volkskundige bijdragen uit Limburgse tijdschriften Dat Boecsken der Verclaringhe van Jan van Ruus- broec. Tekstuitgave met inleidende studie en commentaar. De Zeeuwse tijdschriften van tot Bijdrage tot de studie over de dialectwoorden- schat van Zingem en omgeving.

Romanstruktuur bij Gerard Walschap van tot Analyse van het Nederlands bij jarigen, prov. Systematische registers op tijdschriften, reekswerken en gelegenheidsuitgaven. Het Mensbeeld in het verhalend Proza van Albert Heiman. Shall and will in Novels from to De Vrouw in de Romans van Johan Daisne. De ontwikkeling van de germaanse eu in het zuiden van het Nederlandse taalgebied. Systematische registers op Zuidnederlandse toeristische tijdschriften. Tijdschriften van de reguliere en seculiere geestelijkheid in Vlaanderen.

De Middelnederlandse Graaltraditie in het licht van de West- europese. Een vergelijkende studie van motieven. Foneemstructuur van het Oost- en Westvlaams dialect Bijdrage tot de structuralistische klankgeographie. Mechtild von Magdeburg und die abstrakta auf-heit. De invloed van de rijksgrens op de woordenschat in een grensstrook tussen Noord-Brabant en Antwerpen. Realiteit en fictie in de historische romans van L. Terminologie van het Nederlands kinderspel in de middeleeuwen en de 16 e eeuw en haar weerslag op de hedendaagse Nederlandse spreekwoorden, zegswijzen en uitdrukkingen.

Volkskundige bijdragen in de Vlaamse tijdschriften gesticht voor Op zoek naar de sagenmotieven in het grensgebied van de Limburgse Kempen. Klankleer van het Leopoldsburgs en klankgeografie van de omliggende gemeenten. Synchronisch en diachronisch onderzoek van het fonologisch systeem van het dialect van Oost- duinkerke, en een klankgeografisch onderzoek van de omliggende gemeenten. Middelnederlands systematisch glossarium van voedsel en drank. Provincie Oost- Vlaanderen, deel 1. De Familie in de eigentijdse psychologische Romans van Louis Couperus. Fonologie van het Zuidnederlands Beschaafd.

Studie van een verhouding. Studie over de Middelnederlandse werkwoorden van beweging. Onderzoek naar de sagenmotieven in het Oosten van het Houtland. Elementen van een beschrijving van de taal als betekenende praxis. Het Lekespel in Noord-Nederland tussen de twee wereldoorlogen. Bijdrage tot de studie van de Mechelse persoonsnamen, voorkomend in de rekening voor het maken van de relikwiekas van de H. Rumoldus van en in de stadsrekening van Tijdschriften uit de provincie Antwerpen sedert De korte e-fonemen in de provincie Antwerpen. Een struktuur-geo- grafisch onderzoek.

Analyse van de geschreven kindertaal. Woordenschat van de vruchten en veldge- wassen in het Aliddelnederlands. Sagenonderzoek in tien gemeenten uit de Maasvallei. De Tover van het Woord. De Nederlandse ei en ij in het zuiden van het Nederlands taalgebied. De bronnen van drie woordenboeken uit de drukkerij van Plantijn: Death and the Identification of the Self. De distributie van het onderwerp en het lijdend voorwerp in het huidig geschreven Nederlands in zijn A.

De Weerwolf in de Nederlandse volkssage van de negentiende en twintigste eeuw. Point of view and expressive form in James Joyce's Ulysses. De Tussenkomst van de Verteller in de Roman. Een historisch-kritische studie over de Duitse Verhaal- en Romantheorie Seven Manieren van Minne, Lexicografisch Onderzoek.

A la recherche de l'espace perdu. Zur metaphysischen Hoflhungsphilosophie von Ernst Bloch. Les ordonnances comme source du droit urbain: La loi du 20 mai L'orphisme chez Virgile, En. Un historique du droit filial. Syntaxe des modes chez Andocide. Chronique de Georges Ghastellain. L'ange noir et l'ange blanc dans les romans de F. L'emploi contemporain du subjonctif dans les propositions relatives. Origine et formation des noms d'animaux en namurois.

Le portrait physique de la femme chez Colette. Proverbes et expressions du patois de Tournai. Les locutions dans la correspondance de Diderot. Le vocabulaire de l'alpinisme. Emile Verhaeren, Les visages de la vie The order of prepositional groups after a head-noun in English. De toneelkritiek in de Franse tijd. Aldous Huxley and the world of music.

Comparisons in Graham Greene. Zinsdelen met voorzetsel voor of achter de elementen die normaal aan het einde van de zin staan. Juvenilia ofte De Schone Helena, een treurspel van W. Lexicografisch onderzoek van de woordfrequentie in Noord en Zuidnederlandse kranten. De ziekteproblematiek in M.

Lexical infiltration of English into French. Der deutsche Wortschatz des Tennisspiels. Lexical infiltration of English intoF rench. Specificatie van plaats en richting in de zin. The nominal groups in classical, romantic and contemporary Poetry. Systematisch register op de tijdschriften uit Frans- Vlaanderen Nominal and verbal transpositions in contemporary English and French Novel-Prose. Stefan George und Baudelaire. On Conversion and connected Problems. Volkskundige registers op franstalige Zuidnederlandse tijdschriften tot provincie Brabant.

Analyse van het Nederlands bij jarigen, provincie West- Vlaanderen, deel I. The use of the verbal Participle in English and in French. The Novels and Short Stories of H. Mulisch, Het stenen bruidsbed, interpretatie en evaluatie. Status quaestionis de la programmation dans le cadre de l'enseignement des langues. John Wain and the Search for Morality. De vereenzaming van de moderne mens.

Vergelijkende studie over de problematiek van de eenzaamheid bij Fr. Bijdrage tot de kennis van de preteritum-vorming bij het zwakke werkwoord in de Zuidnederlandse dialecten. De intervocalische -d- in de Zuidnederlandse dialecten. Histoire du formulaire grec de la liturgie de Saint Jean Chrysostome. Phonologie der Moresneter Mundart. Eine Beschreibung der segmentalen und prosodischen Zeichenformdiakrise. Brasidas — Essai biographique.

L'expression de la peur chez Sophocle. Les mots tabous chez Virgile. Chronologie des suites du Conte del Graal. Hvdronymie de la province de Luxembourg. Toponymie de l'arrondissement de Philippeville. La transposition temporelle chez Charles Sorel. Trente fables de Marie de France. Proverbes et dictons Dieu et diable. Les situations dramatiques chez Ionesco. Le sentiment de la nature chez les troubadours. Les premiers grammairiens belges. Le lyrisme amoureux d'Apollinaire combattant. La technique du portrait dans Le Neieu de Rameau de Diderot. Le folklore dans UArgayon de Michel Renard.

Meeting point of two Traditions. Joachim van Babylon van Marnix Gysen en zijn Onthaal. Disorder in Bleak House C. Dickens and The Secret Agent J. De Eenzaamheid in de Novellen van W. Der Kritiker und der Satiriker Tucholsky. Das Phantastische bei Ludwig Tieck.

Study of the social Glasses in D. Eliot and the Revival of Poetic Drama. Godservaring en Godsbeeld in de Lyriek van Karel van de Woestijne. Proeve van verklarende Syntaxis. Alfonso Alvarez de Villansandino. Schwankungen in der deutschen Verbalflexion. Der heutige Gebrauch verglichen mit dem um Plays of James Bridie. The vision of France. Die Blechtrommel — Versuch einer Deutung. James Gould Cozzens' Novels and the conservative Spirit. A la recherche du Dieu Perdu. Le temps et la conscience: Sociale achtergronden van de Belgische Revolutie van La seigneurie de Warcoing.

De verkiezingen van het jaar V in het Departement van de Leie. La date de la bataille des Thermo- pyles. De staking van De federatie Brussel in de Belgische Werklieden- partij. Rome et la Campanie de avant J. Les finances provinciales du Brabant, de la Flandre occidentale, de la Flandre orientale et du Hainaut, Recherches sur l'Empereur Tacite. Beroeps- en vermogen- struk- tuur van de stad Brussel La production du charbon de bois dans les Pays-Bas autrichiens. De oppositievorming tegen het kabinet van Loppem. Proeve tot onderzoek naar de bloei en het verval der Middeleeuwse stadsvrijheid Vilvoorde.

Biographie de Jean Volders. Verkiezingen en verkozenen in het arrondissement Oudenaarde De Bronnen van Plutarchos in het Leven van Marius. De Handeling en de karakters der optredende personen in Ilias Tekst en problematiek van de 26 e Idylle van Theocritus. Les causes de la grandeur romaine dans Tite-Live. Recherches sur l'avortement chez les Grecs.

Communication et lecture selon Maurice Blanchot. L'image de la femme endormie chez P. Lecture des fragments d'un journal d'enfer d'Antonin Artaud. Comparaison succincte avec l'italien. Jean Giono — Le personnage Gionien. Le Paris Nocturne vu par Restif de la Bretonne. L'expression du mouvement dans la Fin de Satan de V. Hugo Parties Hors de la Terre. Psychologie et style dans deux romans de L. Sagesse et ironie dans les romans de Raymond Queneau. De invloed van de filmtechniek in de verhalen van Hugo Claus. Fonetische realisaties van de woorden u en uw in de Antwerpse dialekten.

Claus-Artaud, een parallel geval. Hugo Claus en de Citatenkunst van T. De romans van Paul de Wispelaere. De vrouw in de eerste werken vanjohan Daisne Franse woorden in het Nederlands. Brendan Behan's dramatic works. The conception of time in the novels of Joyce Cary. Vormleer van het dialekt van Bree. Thomas Hinde's African Novels. Melancholie und Zorn im Schatten der Erinnerung. Toponymie van Korten- berg. Bijdrage tot de toponymie van Linkebeek. Uitgave van middelnederlandse tekst. Het tweede boek van Heliseus Camerken.

Gecommentarieerde uitgave naar een handschrift van Koninklijke Bibliotheek te Brussel. A study of syllabication of British and American English. De romantiek inde structuur van J. Tractaat van het leenrecht. Verbs devoting necessity in present- day written British English. Eine Kritik an der deutschen Gesellschaft bei Arno Schmidt. Ralph Ellison — Invisible man. Essai de formalisation d'une Logique Ter- ministe. Frequentie van woorden en structuren in spontaan gesproken Nederlands.

Bijdrage tot de studie van de klankleer van het Brugs, op het einde van de Middeleeuwen. Kritiek van Max Scheler op het plichtbegrip bij Immanuel Kant. Een inleiding tot het denken van de subjectiviteit bij E. Plutarchus' gebruik van archeologisch en epigrafisch materiaal in de Vitae. De spreiding van de civitas Romana in Romeins Egypte 30 v. De ambtelijke loopbaan van de keizers voor hun troonsbestijging volgens de Historia Augusta. De keizerlijke titulatuur in de Historia Augusta.

De organisatie van de census in de vroege keizertijd. Livius' voorstelling van de Romeinse senaat. Een onderzoek van de boeken II-V.

Chroniques- Kronieken

Alba Fucens en Carsioli in het gebied van de Aequi. Bijdrage tot de geschiedenis van de Aequi, en van Alba Fucens en Carsioli. De grote Brabantse watertol mei april De Belgische pers en de organieke wet op het middelbaar onderwijs van 1 juni De Broederschappen te Antwerpen van de 14e eeuw tot ca. Een onderzoek naar haar politieke-sociale gebondenheid en haar taak De tol van Lith en de Maashandel in en De Heren van Belle 12e tot 15e eeuw.

Studie van de Belgische. De Centrale School van het Scheidedepartement te Gent, De verkiezingen voor de Gemeenteraad te Berchem, Ontstaan en domaniale ontwikkeling Het vrachtvervoer over land naar de haven van Antwerpen, Studentenbeweging en taaitoestanden van het katoliek middelbaar onderwijs in het aartsbisdom Mechelen, Het Sint- Hironymusveld en de Congregatie v. De Handschriften van de kartuis Genadendal bij Brugge Dionysus van Holland De pers in Vlaanderen in Haar houding tegenover de Vlaamse beweging op een toppunt van politieke spanning.

Evolutie van de parochiale kerkelijke goederen van tot Het patrimonium van de St. De Bogaarden te Antwerpen, De houding van de politieke partijen tegenover de eerste taalwet De Kom- manderij van de Duitse Ridderorde te Bekkevoort De Leuvense Schepenen op het einde der zeventiende Eeuw. De tafel van de H. Geest van het Leuvens Groot-Begijnhof De plaatselijke pers en de verkiezingen te Leuven De sociale en politieke actie van Mej. Belpaire tijdens de Eerste Wereldoorlog De stemming over de Grondwet van in het departement van Beide Nethen. Domeinstudie Deinze-Drongen-Astene- Petegem De Sint- Richardusabdij 7e-lle eeuw.

Een biografisch en historiografisch onderzoek. De Broederschappen in enkele kerken te Gent tussen en De bevolking van Lier in de xixe eeuw De priorij van O. Vrouw-ten-Hole te Nelle bij Gent Een klooster van Reguliere Kanunniken aangesloten bij de Congregatie van Midenheim. De Abdij Vrouwenpark Nationalisme en kultuurflamingantisme in de Vlaamse studentenbeweging, Het probleem van de dood bij Sophocles. De niet-literaire bedrijvigheden van de Romeinse auteurs vanaf de oorsprong tot de dood van Augustus.

Onderzoek van Plutarchus' objektivi- teit in de Pelopidas-Vita. De Menoecusscene in de Phoenissae van Euripides. Haar plaats in de dramatische handeling. Betekenis en verplichtingen der vriendschap volgens Plinius' Epistulae. Het Zeus-altaar in Olympia. Humor in Ovidius' Metamorfosen, I. Apollofiguur in Euripides' Iphigeneia in Tauris.

Bijdrage tot de studie van het Kleon-archief. De eenheid in de Hecuba van Euripides. Kritischhistorisch onderzoek van het verre verleden door Thucydides I.


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De hoffelijkheid in het gesprek: Cicero's vrouwelijke verwanten en zijn houding in het begin van de tweede burgeroorlog. De redenaarskunst en haar principes met een toepassing op de eerste gerechtelijke pleidooien van Cicero. Zijn persoon en zijn cultus in de werken van Aristophanes. Vroeg-christelijke opschriften in het Rijn-en Aloezelland. De studie van het exordium: Oronymie van de Peloponnesos.

Bijdrage tot de studie over humor, ironie en sarkasme in de Philippicae van Cicero. Studie over de stadscommandant in de buitenlandse bezittingen van de Lagiden. Het licht in de Ilias en de Odysseia. De problematiek rond Commodianus ; een overzicht van de recente literatuur. Themata van literaire kritiek in Horatius' gedichten. Een studie in het licht der naoorlogse commentaren. De klacht van Radegonde en het lied van Gelesvintha.

Het leven van T. De historische infinitief bij C. De literaire en ecologische studie der villa-beschrijvingen uit de romeinse literatuur der zilveren eeuw. Het maritieme bij Homerus. Toponymie van de Kukladen ; heuristiek, semantische verklaring en classificatie. Studie over het vroeg-middeleeuws vocabulaire van Sisebutus. Met kritisch geannoteerde vertaling van zijn werk. Michael Psellos en Michael Attaleiates.

Een vergelijkende studie van hun parallel werk Herodotus' opvattingen over de Monarchie. De Philoc- tetes van Sophocles. Een onderzoek naar de innerlijke samenhang tussen de Heracles- scene en de rest van het drama. De verkenningstocht en de dood van Dolon in de letterkunde en de beeldende kunst van de Oudheid.

De betrekkingen van Egypte met het buitenland ten tijde van Ptolemaios I v. De kansspelen te Rome ten tijde van Cicero in hun betekenis voor het zedelijk verval. De vriendschap in de Latijnse komedie en satire, Een beschouwing ten opzichte van de vriendschapsopvattingen van Cicero en Seneca. Het Latijnse diminutief en zijn gebruik door Janus Secundus De wraak van Medea. Een onderzoek naar haar motivering in de Medea van Euripides.

De vrijheidsleer in Aristoteles' Ethica Eude- mia. Het visioen van Wetti. Bijdrage tot de studie van Walafried Stra- bo's Visio Wettini ; met een kritisch geannoteerde vertaling. Bijdrage tot de studie van vier Pannonische legioenen in de keizertijd 27 v. Ulrich von Hutten's Arminius. De epische vergelijkingen in Petrarca's Africa en hun verwantschap met de Vergiliaanse.

La technique romanesque d'Ignazio Silone. Galileo Galeu et Giambattista Vico. La fortune de Multatuli en France. L'amour dans les romans de Maxence Van der Meersch. Esquisse d'un portrait spirituel. Tachtig over Multatuli ; Multa- tuli over Tachtig. Scherplange en zacht- lange o in de Zuidnederlandse dialecten. The Novels of Ivy Compton-Burnett. Gerard Walschaps trilogie in het licht van zijn opvattingen over Verhaalkunst. Vormen van protest bij H. Der Ystorien Bloeme Ie Deel. Uitgave-techniek en Tekstkritiek in de Mnl.

Scherplange en Zachtlange seinde Zuidnederlandse dialecten. De invloed van het Middelnederlands of van het Middel- nederduits op de Scandinavische talen? Index op de Handelingen van de Kon. Der Ystorien Bloeme 2 e deel — Een tekstuitgave met inleiding en aantekeningen. Het kind in de werken van Ina Seidel. Een reflektie op de I. Taalkundige studie van het dialect van Wevelgem en geografisch onderzoek van de omgeving. De literair-historische bedrijvigheid van J. Intonatie, Waarneming en Funktie. Een Inleiding tot het Intonatie-onderzoek in de Wie- en Wat-vraag. Taalbeheersing bij leerlingen uit het M.

Studie van de hypotactische zin. Nederlands van jarige kinderen. Een auteur uit de 18 e eeuw. Au- den's Poetry through the Eyes of the Critics: Volkskundige Bibliografie uit 4 bibliografische tijdschriften. Mededelings- vormen in 3 romans vanA. De Stijlevolutie van Gerard Walschap ' The Sensitive Hero in J. De Nederlandse taalkunde in Land bouwtermen opgetekend te Grimbergen en omgeving. Woordenschat van de bomen en planten in het Middel-nederlands. Beeldspraak bij Hugo Claus. Symbolism in the Work of Iris Murdoch. Lindemans' antroponymische dokumentatie Letters u, v, w.

Apocope van de auslautende -e in de Oostvlaamse en Brabantse dialecten. The World of Wooster: A Study of P. Wode- house Bertie Wooster Novels. Klankleer van het dialect van Lille, met een geografisch onderzoek van de omgeving.

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De voornaamste begrippen der hoofse Terminologie bij Hendrik van Veldeke. Oude en Moderne Bijnamen in Hamont. Het boek Alfa — Dans le labyrinthe. Sagenonderzoek ten oosten van Aalst en in Noord- West-Brabant. Analyse van het Nederlands bij jarigen: The Novels of Kingsley Amis: Roose's Positional Subclassification of the Adjective.

De Metsiers — As I lay. Nederlandse volkskundige bibliografie, Systematische register, op tijdschriften, reekswerken en gelegenheidsuitgaven. Driemaandelijkse bladen ; Driemaandelijkse Bladen ; Neerlands Volksleven Bijdrage tot de studie van de persoonsnamen te Geraardsbergen in en , 2 d. De priester als literaire figuur in de Zuidnederlandse verhaalkunst van tot nu.

Het dialect van Heldergem en dialectgeografisch onderzoek van de omliggende gemeenten. Meningen en gedachten van G. Wouters, De heylighe Genoveva ofte herkende Onnoselheyt. Tekstuitgave met inleiding en aantekeningen. De evolutie in het taalgebruik bij Herman Teirlinck. De Problematiek in het Werk van Paul Lebeau. Das Meissnische Deutsch und die Herausbildung der neuhochdeutschen Schriftsprache. Den broederlycken Haert teghen den onnooselen Joseph De persoonsnamen in de oorkonden van St.

A Critical Status Quaestionis. De onderschikkende, niet predicerende, endocentrische substantiefgroep in het Nijlens dialect. Sound change at R. Monophtongization of Diphthongs and Dipthongization of Monophthongs. Sagenonderzoek in 19 gemeenten ten westen van Brussel. De ouderdom van de huisnamen op grond van hun sociaal-economische dimensie. Het luisterspel als taaikunstwerk.

De beschrijving van het adjectief: Algemene Konst- en Letterbode Interpretations of Philip Larkin: Registers op Brabantse tijdschriften: Schellings hermeneutiek van de mythologie. De bisschoppelijke kanselarij te Kamerijk. De ontwikkeling van Adso's traktaat over de Antikrist. Bijdrage tot de studie van de eschatologische literatuur in de Middeleeuwen. Het Filhellenisme in het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden Een bijdrage tot de studie van de publieke opinie in het begin van de negentiende eeuw.

De jonge Romein volgens de literaire bronnen der periode ca. De literatuur in het licht van de vroegste psychoanalytische leer. L'amour naturel dans la philosophie de Soren Kierkegaard.

Categories

Le sensualisme dans la philosophie de Ludwig Feuerbach. La psychologie des tendances chez Alexandre d'Aphrodisias. Les guerres cattiques de l'empereur Domitien — Implications politiques. Apollonius de Tyane ou le sage parfait de Philostrate. L'industrie du fer dans les pays de Couvin et Chimay, Les semaines sociales flamandes et les semaines syndicales wallonnes, La seigneurie de Muno et la Gaume septentrionale. Eine Landschaft im Stadium der Unterentwicklung. Agrarstruktur des Hofes Amel gegen Ende des Essai sur les structures agraires du canton de Gembloux. Morphologie d'un groupe de pression scolaire: Nivelles septembre Les images illustrant le sentiment dans l'Iliade.

La souffrance dans VIliade. Virtus et Fortuna chez Velleius Paterculus. Le parfait de l'indicatif chez Thucydide. Euripide et les sophistes. L'aspect du parfait chez Sophocle. La vie de Philopoemen de Plutarque. Hortensius Hortalus, citoyen romain et orateur. From the point of view of the theory of elements, the imaginary construction of the new world is supposed to account for the way they come into being. Gaukroger has noted an interesting difference between the way Descartes and Newton treated fluids.

For Newton and Galileo fluids in general and ether in particu- lar were treated as resisting media; Descartes thinks of the fluid which carries the bod- ies along. See Gaukroger, , At the very first moment of creation, the universe is an undivided extended and impenetrable body. How this first division and the redistribution of motion are sup- posed to work is not entirely clear.

There is certain arbitrariness in defining these parts: There is much to be said about this process and its flaws but this is beyond the point of this paper. The Principles of Philosophy: It is true that Principia is a textbook and has the appropriate structure of a textbook in philosophy.

More interesting is the construction and place of Part II, The principles of material things. Here we find some of the mate- rial of Le Monde: Meanwhile, also in Part II of the Principles there are metaphysical issues like the existence of extended substance, the infinity of the Universe and the questions of individ- uation and identity.

It is an interesting example of natural philosophy as part of a larger scheme including physics and metaphysics As such, it provides a basis for cosmology. But this time there is no theory of matter in the traditional sense or, rather, what is presented as a theory of matter is not a theory of elements anymore.

Instead, what we have are abstract entities, parts of matter called bodies whose properties are not that they are made of earth, air or fire but simply geometrical prop- erties: However, the structure of the second part of Principia is very sim- ilar with the structure of Le Monde. It starts with an argument against the testimony of senses. This time, what we have here is the scepti- cal deconstruction familiar from the Meditations, together with a sum- mary of the argument for the existence of bodies. Then, the follow- 40 Des Chene, , Esprits Modernes ing principles are concerned with the problem of individuation41 and identity over time.

The main question is how an intelligible division of matter can be constructed in such a way as to account for indi- vidual bodies. But the first step is the demonstration of equivalence between matter and extension Therefore, the bodies are firstly and mostly geometrical shapes endowed with some properties, motion included The objects of physics and cosmology are geometrical shapes in motion and no longer elements or particles as in Le Monde. Difficult as it is to construct this partition, it involves a strategy entirely different from the one of Le Monde.

Starting from equating space and matter, Descartes proposes a model of physical bodies defined through the surface, shape, quantity of motion, determinatio or conatus and so on All these properties are special properties in the way they can be quantized As a result, the physical bodies are abstract parts of matter defined in a highly abstract way with the means of mathematics47 mainly geometry but, arguably, geometry is not always enough and 90 with the help of the laws of nature.

They take part in collisions through which motion is redistributed and sometimes the whole body changes. As such they are subject of a cosmological account: See for example Des Chene, , Garber, We can see how the theory of matter was already replaced by something much closer to mechanics. Even in Part III, when Descartes reintroduces the theory of ele- ments, its form and status are no longer the same. Interesting enough is the summary of what is already demonstrated in Part II and what we cannot know through the deductive path of natural philosophy.

We also know that there is a global conservation law concerning motion. Although the basic principles of cos- mology are accessible to pure thought, for the details we need obser- vations and hypotheses Therefore, the theory of elements follows an entire part of empirical considerations concerning the composi- tion and behaviour of celestial fluids, stars and planets Then, the exposition of the theory of elements starts with the kind of evolu- 91 tionary approach of Le Monde.

This time, the initial state of the world is not a block universe, but an infinite extension equally divided in an infinite number of equal parts See also Larmore, in Gaukroger, Esprits Modernes of the initial parts of matter into three forms of matter or three ele- ments.

Descartes gives no names to his elements in the Principia: Moreover, this time the three forms of matter are the constituents of all the bodies of the universe. Nothing is left of the tendency of an element to remain so; instead, we have the infinite divisibility of matter and the geometrical distinctions between bodies or particles whose shapes can change from one moment to the other.

The static sponge model had prevailed. In conclusion what we have in the Principia is a cosmological theory organised on a structure which, from the seventeenth-century point of view must have been very peculiar. Its main steps are: Conclusion Apparently we have the same universe: The same plenum and the same vortex theory to account for the motions and behaviour of celestial bodies.

However, a closer look at the structure of Le Monde and Principia philosophiae shows substantial differences. I have tried to demonstrate that most of the differences can be understood in terms of the objects of the theory. What we have in Le Monde is a rather traditional cosmological account in terms of matter theory with some new elements of mechanics. In Principia the situation is different. The account of the evolution of the universe and the behaviour of celestial bodies is no longer made in terms of matter theory. Instead, part II of Principia marked the rewriting of the conceptual structure of natural philosophy in terms of new abstract entities, bodies, defined through their mathematical properties.

They are the objects of the new physics and the new cosmology. Descartes and Newton, in S. Philosophy, Mathematics and Physics, , ; 5. Gaukroger et alii, , ; 7. Philosophy, Mathematics and Physics, ; An Intimate Relation, , ; Descartes and Regius, in Gaukroger, Schuster, Sutton, , ; De la vision, AT VI, Je remercie ici mon ami H. Utar tamen hic aliqua comparatione. Plerique Philosophi, qui putant gravitatem lapidis esse qualitatem realem, a lapide distinctam, putant se satis intelligere, quo pacto ista qualitas possit movere lapidem versus centrum terrae, quia se putant habere ejus rei experientiam manifestam.

Ego vero, qui mihi per- suadeo nullam esse talem qualitatem in rerum natura, nec proinde ullam ejus in huma- no intellectu veram ideam, existimo illos uti idea quam in se habent substantiae incor- poreae, ad istam gravitatem sibi repraesentandam; adeo ut nobis non sit difficilius intel- ligere, quomodo mens moveat corpus, quam istis aliis quomodo talis gravitas lapidem deorsum ferat. Nec refert quod istam gravitatem dicant non esse substantiam; revera enim illam instar substantiae concipiunt, quandoquidem existimant ipsam esse realem, et per aliquam potentiam nempe Divinam absque lapide posse existere.

Unde manifeste concluditur, nullas substantias incor- poreas proprie esse extensas. Hoc vbique non admitto. Videris enim hic infinitatem Dei in eo ponere, quod vbique existat; cio opinioni non assentior: Rodis-Lewis et de F. III du Concile est: His method had been famous even before the first book he published. Regulae ad directionem ingenii1.

However, for us both his claims to an infallible method and the fame of the method are sources of many questions: Paris, , and will be abbreviated as follows: Esprits Modernes My purpose in this paper is to show that there is only one method, and that it is coming from the ancient geometers2. But before answering to the questions about the nature and the role of the method in Cartesian philosophy, I shall make a short historical presentation of the pre-Cartesian discussions concerning the method3. In philosophy, there was a high interest in method as the result of the development of mathematics, especially of geometry.

Thus, first of all, the method becomes a part of the logic, logical papers from that period having a section about method. Dear identifies two meanings of method: In the second sense we can find the following elements: Bonnen, Descartes and method. The role of the method in the Cartesian system is not very well established, being some divergent opinions. According to Garber we can talk about method in the first per- iod Rules, Discourse , and this method consists into a reductive step followed by a constructive one.

But after this period the method disappears completely from Descartes writings. In a writing dating at the beginning of the seventeenth century, called Summa philosophiae , of Eustachius, the true method was consid- ered to be the second one the order 6. In this way the analysis and the synthesis are considered to be favorable to discoveries, and the defin- ing is seen as favorable only for pedagogical purposes.

Another impor- tant figure to be quoted in connection with the method of analysis and synthesis is Zabarella, strongly influenced by Aristotle. What is this method of analysis and synthesis? In what concerning the first, it shows what the first things that we know are and what is the basis of the deduced things.

The method of demon- stration is presented as having two ways: The first consists of a reductive step, and the second of a con- structive step. To these Descartes adds a few considerations about the method that was displayed by the ancient geometers in their writ- ings. Descartes considers that between analysis and synthesis only 4 Pappus, cf. The translation is made from Romanian text. Descartes offers in Geometry a solution for the problem of Pappus10 applied to more than four lines. In this article we are not interested in Descartes solution, it is important that we can find the method of analysis at Pappus.

Jakko Hintikka distinguishes11 two steps of this method: The first represents the search of the premises that can get us to the result. The second step is a deduction. We can write this formally: The analysis begins from p, and goes through p3 and p2, and finally gets to p1. The synthesis is the reverse of the analysis. This method that appears with Pappus is considered to be the method of the Greek mathematicians and some commentators The book in which the method is the main subject, and in which it is extendedly presented it is an early work of Descartes.

It remained unfinished and it appeared only posthumous. It was men- tioned earlier: Regulae ad directionem ingenii. By this Descartes made a connection between all the sciences. The problem is to find a point C from which to be drown straight lines on the initial lines and to form with these ones some specified angles. Another requirement it is that the result of the multiplication of some lines to be equal with the result of the multi- plication of the other lines, or to be into a given relation.

What does he understood by this? The method is the one that shows us how we could use the ways of finding the truth, such as nothing that is false to be taken as true; and also the way to the knowledge of all things. The two ways that we can take to get to the knowledge of all things are specified in AT X We cannot proceed further without seeing what does Descartes mean by each of them. In the commentary of the third rule we can find some definitions: These two can lead us to certainty, but they could not do this by themselves.

There is another element besides the mental processes of intuition and deduction, namely the simple natures, the first certain objects of our knowledge. The simple natures are mentioned for the first time in the sixth rule18, where Descartes talks about series of things, series based on these simple natures.

How does Descartes arrive to the simple natures? By intu- ition AT X If we go back to the formal scheme of analysis, then the simple natures are represented by p1. Esprits Modernes deduce later on p2, and p3, and finally p. In this way the simple natures become the first objects of our knowledge. Until now we found out that the method is necessary for obtain- ing a certain knowledge of all that is shown to us. The elements of certainty are the mental processes of intuition and deduction, and the simple natures.

The simple natures are the first objects of our knowl- edge and they are obtained through intuition. So, the conclusion of what it was said before is that our certain knowledge begins from the intuited simple natures and goes on by deductions to find out the composed natures. Is there any connection between what we have said so far and the method of analysis that I have presented? If we want to try to answer to this question, then we should focus our attention to the rule IV Here Descartes affirms that the method of the ancient geometers, such as the new arithmetic algebra appears in his method In this moment we should abandon the study of the Rules and we should look for the applications of this method.

Forward, in Rules there are other norms to be kept in mind if we want to attain certain knowl- edge: These are beyond the pur- pose of this paper. Instead, I will turn to the second writing of Descartes, and the first published: This has been published together with three Essais: An intellectual biography Clarendon Press, Oxford, , p. For this see Pamela A. At the present time a sort of arithmetic called alge- bra is flourishing, and this is acheving for numbers what the ancients did for figures.

Descartes uses his method in the three essays for solving a series of problems such as the explanation of the apparition of the rainbow. The Discourse looks like a preface for the three Essays. Here, Descartes renounces to a systematical exposition of some rules, and he begins with an autobiographical exposition. He told us how he had begun to be concerned about method, and which were the steps that he took for the completion of the method. In short, those are: But let us see what is happened with the Essays, if that we could find these rules applied in the process of solving the problems that can be found here.

The beginning of both Dioptrics and Meteors consists in the formulation of some hypotheses, and this is the point where the arguments started. But we can find an exception, and this is presented in the same manner as the method of the Rules: Into a letter addressed to Vatier, and who dates from 22 February AT I , Descartes wrote that the example of the rainbow contains his method, and it is an illustration of this.

This has made Daniel Garber22 to con- sider that discourse eight of Meteors dates not from when it was wrote the Discourse, but from the earlier period, , the last peri- od when Descartes was writing at the Rules. This affirmation is sus- tained by the way of solving the problems into another writing of Descartes from the same period: As I have said, there is only one place in the Discourse where Descartes applies his own method.

Esprits Modernes from the discourse 8 of Meteors. Into the other essays that came with the Discourse all discussions begins from some hypotheses. The same thing happens in The World, where some of the laws that stay at the foundation of his natural philosophy can be found, but the manner of presenting the arguments is a hypothetical one. We notice a loosening of the interest for method, and after this topic disappears com- pletely from Descartes concerns both in the published writings and in the correspondence. Why does this happen?

Since after , Descartes begins the reconstruction of the whole body of knowledge into a unified system of knowledge, the method of Rules is not appropriate. First, this method needs cer- tain questions to respond to, and secondly, there is a question concerning the way in which we can pass from a question about some- thing to an intuition of its simple nature. Now there is a need for a previous justifi- cation of those. Therefore, there must be formulated a stronger answer, and a better founded than the intuitions of the Rules. Is the Greek geometers method lost, then?

For Descartes the dependencies are conceptual In the last case the dependencies being physical. It is a choice made by Descartes when he wrote the eighth discourse of the Meteors, too, but not in other essays. The reason for such choice is this: Further on I shall analyse such an application of the method; it is the problem of the formation of the rainbow from the Meteors.

Descartes begins his analysis from the empirical observation that the rainbow does not appear only on the sky, but it can be seen also into the fountains. We have then a problem p that can be formulated in the following way: We saw where can we found it, and by the observations we discover that the rain- bow appears only in the presence of the water drops. To find out if the cause of the phenomenon is the light that came into contact with the water drops, Descartes has built a glass28 and filled it up with rain- water.

In such a way he has build a model of the rainbow. After the end of the experiment, he has found out that into a certain point we can see the appearance of a red region, and that into the bow formed by the rainbow there seems to be two regions of colors. Further on, Descartes has tried to find what is the cause of the red color, and what is the cause of the two regions of colors.

The initial problem what is the cause of the rainbow? This last question can be divided in two To answer to these new questions we need to make observations. An intellectual biography, p. Esprits Modernes result of the combinations between two reflections and two refrac- tions; and the colour is produced on a curve surface by a ray of light and subsequent refraction. From these observations we came to other questions: Here, we can reduce these two questions to a more general problem: After we came to this general question, Descartes considers that we could answer, because we intuit clearly and distinctly what is the nature of light.

Once that we have the intuition we can begin the con- structive step following in the opposite direction each question and answering to them. In this way, from the intuition concerning the nature of light we came to the law of refraction and to the theory that states that the change suffered by the light passing thought a medium, is a change of the tendency of rotation The answer is about the cause of the two regions, and about the apparition of the colour in respect with the change of the movement of rotation in the case of the particles of light These two answers are combined and we find the answer to p1: From this we have only one answer to give for solving the initial problem.

So, this approach is exemplary for the way Descartes conceives the application of the method, and also for presenting the role of the experiment and its relation with the method. As far as the method is concerned, we notice that Descartes begins from one problem p which is reduced to another p1 ; and this one is divided in two p2. This is the reductive step of analysis, and from here he starts the constructive step, of syn- thesis. This one begins with the intuition that was found through the question p4, and goes on answering to the questions p2.

First of all we notice that we start from a phenomenon which can be found in nature both in artificial environment: This phenomenon needs an expla- nation, and we search for it by the use of analysis. But the first ques- tion needs supplementary explanations, and we can arrive to them only by appealing the experiment. By doing various observations we came to the fact that the spots of red colour appear in the rainbow only when there are fulfilled some conditions; e. These observations help us to build new questions and they lead us to the problem to which we could answer by intuition.

Another example where the method of analysis can be applied though not presented in this way by Descartes, is the theory concern- ing the movement of the Earth. By this I want to show that most of the problems that appear in Descartes writings are solved by the use of the same method, but they are presented in different manner. The question about the movement of the Earth appears at the beginning of the third part of the Principles and it is presented by Descartes on the form of some presuppositions, from where he advances until the formulation of the theory.

Forward I shall present this theory in con- formity with the method of analysis, in the same way that I have made in the discussion about the rainbow. So, we have a problem from where we begin and to which we try to find the answer: By appealing to experiment we are able to find that Earth is similar to the other planets33, so our question becomes: We go on with the experiment and we observe that the planets are surrounded by havens, and this raises two questions: To these last questions we can answer by intuition: From these two intuitions begins the constructive step synthesis and responds to p2: The same answer is also true for the starting question: The conclusion is apparently surprising, but this answer depends, as we saw by the way it is conceived the motion.

The reason for which I presented this example is because the theories that appear in Descartes are treated in conformity with the method of analysis. Even that we found the expo- sition as being closer to the synthesis, and starting from the diverse accepted things; such as axioms, definitions; the way in which problems are solved is by means of reductive step, through successive questions until an answer is find by intuition.

In the case of the prob- lems that belong to the natural philosophy, like the two examples pre- sented before, the questions are accompanied by experiments. Gilson Paris, Librairie Philosophique J. Vrin, , p. And the third is similar with the crucial exper- iments of Bacon. For Descartes the meaning is more similar with the second interpretation. Experiment means the combination between the observation of the phenomenon and the deductive construction. I have said that the Rules had two problems concerning the method: I believe that these two problems are solved by the subsequent construction of the Cartesian system.

Thus, intuition is justified by the three metaphysical princi- ples: The order of deductions that appears in the step of synthesis is established by the order in which the questions are raised in the steps of analysis. In most of the cases we meet the synthetically manner of writing, which was considered by Descartes as being more easy to be under- stood and who was asked by his readers But both manners of writ- ings are parts of the same method, a method that starts from diverse problems and try to bring them to simpler ones, in such a way that their answer could be intuited.

The reverse step begins from these intuitions by answering successively in the opposite order the ques- tions that were raised before. Cambridge University Press, ; 2. Cambridge University Press, ; 7. Vrin, ; 8. Cambridge University Press, ; Retenons bien ce point. Cela ne se peut et serait injuste. Ferreyrolles, Poche-Classique, , fr. La Passion de la raison. La raison en est radi- calement incapable. Taylor, Les sources du moi, Seuil, , p. Mais comment devons-nous penser ce lien? La critique des illusions du rationalisme dogmatique vient appuyer les connaissances positives du coeur.

Si le coeur nous apprend que nous 19 S. Voici le texte fondamental de Pascal: Although there have been some attempts, especially in the sociology of knowledge promoted by the Edinburgh School, to contextualise the advancement of the modern natural science by paying attention to its socio-economical and technological ingredients, few readings 1I am grateful to my former supervisor at New College, Oxford, Dr Elizabeth Frazer, for her careful reading of a previous version of this paper and to my former colleagues Chris Brooke, Micah Schwartzmann, Dan Butt, Edward Skidelski, James Panton and Uri Gordon for some comments on this paper.

I am also indebted to Dr Michael Freeden for his useful suggestions regarding the structure of this paper and to my friend Dana Jalobeanu for all the captivating discussions about the content of this paper. Esprits Modernes so far have tried to connect the underlying principles of the physical theory, on the one hand, with the structures of thinking of larger social groups and with their more or less explicit political interests in the 17th Century England.

This paper is meant to do something in this regard, by questioning the widespread view that mainstream 17th Century science has a sheer natural science pedigree, owing no influence to both the political debates and the ideological struggles of the era. This is not intended to omit the fact that some indi- vidual thinkers had contributed more substantially than others to those intellectual shifts, and does by no means suggest that they owe all their philosophical inspiration to broader ideological patterns.

Nonetheless, as authors having deployed their views about nature and society in a certain historical context, they may not have been com- pletely alienated to the political and historical tendencies of their time. Finally, I will try to locate somehow this political ontology on the map of Western ideologies by identifying its semantical features and try to match them with a certain ideological family.

Although my approach here is not primarily diachronic but rather structural, since I shall take seriously a political and ideological motivation which is likely to have fuelled all these methodological generalizations, I will also pay atten- tion to the broader context in which the mainstream atomistic social and physical theories have emerged. These doctrines are taken here as mainly represented by Hobbes and Locke, on the one hand, and by Newton, on the other hand.

Roughly speaking, both Hobbes and Locke, as well as Newton, wrote in a period of social struggle for sovereignty between the upholders of civil society, seen as an economic market area independ- ent of the government and based on contract relations, and the con- servative nobility. In other words, this struggle could be seen as involving at least two political ideologies supporting the interests of two different social groups, which is politically structured later on in England as the division between Whigs and Tories.

In like manner, the position expressed by the notorious spokesman of Tories, the feudal-abso- lutist theorist Filmer, was later encountered by the famous Whig the- orist Locke in the First Treatise of Government. These theoretical positions could be, of course, connected also to the crisis of religion that influenced the ideological arrangements of the time.

The concept was contested by Whigs, who strongly rejected all authority of the Pope, while sustaining the official Church of England. In addition, there had been also another political actor in the 17th Century to be considered here. This is the group of the so-called Levellers, who are sometimes categorized by historians as radical Puritans, or nonconformist Protestants Manning, , Politically, they supported av. Their programme push- es thus the liberal democratic political doctrine emerging in the 17th Century England to a very equalitarian extreme.

Nonetheless, insofar as they argued for their political goals by claiming that each men has the natural right to property, they too used what I shall call here the atomistic principle of the system civil society compounded out of independent particles private proprietors. The Whigs only wanted to sustain the proper- ty right as a formal principle, and not as a moral egalitarian prescrip- tion such as the levelling of estates that the Levellers claimed.

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Locke have thus taken seriously some principles put forward by the Levellers during , but without justifying however an absolute or simple equality. He notoriously added, in a passage from the third edition Second Treatise, published in , that the larger wealth of a small number of proprietors would actually contribute to the wealth of mankind, instead of undermining it: Social and Physical Atomism in the 17th Century What Locke claims here is, thus, that the accumulation of large estates by the expropriation of the peasants who become wage-earn- ers of the large entrepreneurs is more profitable, and that it does not necessarily lead to the impoverishment of the rest of mankind, being, on the contrary, beneficial to all the people.

This liberal argument is consistent with a policy of wealth, rather than with social assistance, charitable policies. It is also an argument that legitimates the existence of large estates in the modern world, which was interestingly advanced after the appointment of William III of Orania by the Parliament in February , when the capitalists and landowners had accumulat- ed big estates, either by buying them at very low prices, or by a mere annexation Hill, , But this should be not interpreted, as I already mentioned, according to a Marxist orthodox class dialectic, since the Levellers and the Whigs did not belong to the same social class, but to a larger social group transcending class- boundaries and yet shared some interests in self-ownership and had some common ideological motivations.

The common interest of Levellers and Whigs was, arguably, to defend a theoretical view that could legitimize the image of civil society as an aggregate of autarchic individuals, which was instrumental for establishing con- tracted social relations, while at the same time undermining the insti- tution of inherited property. In like manner, though perhaps with greater methodological cau- tion, the process formation of a scientific theory such as the Newtonian mechanics may be seen as somehow interrelated to the set of political values that were defended by both the Levellers and the Whigs.

Both texts were aimed at supporting the religious tolerance, against the intransigence of the Presbyterian Church. Locke will express the same view in , in his First Letter on Toleration. Woodhouse, , , and for the petition to the House of Commons from 11th September Petition to the House of Commons.

All these texts express liberal-demo- cratic ideals that will be re-asserted and elaborated by Locke in his political theory. The same kind of concept of civil society as the one pioneered by the Levellers may have informed, albeit in very indirect ways, the presuppositions of the Newtonian science, as I shall try to suggest further on.

In my view, the basic criteria for an atomistic ontological position are the following: I add that difference is to be read here as separateness, whereas sameness is to be taken as connectiveness. Both properties are applicable to the first case i of the relation of atoms to the system and to the second case ii of the relation of atoms to other atoms alike. These would be the minimal criteria I propose here for a descrip- tion of an atomistic structure of matter civil society. Since in some cases a methodological prescription of an atomistic structure of socie- ty would be useful, we might need to draw also the criteria for some atomistic methodological prescriptions.

These could be put as follows: The same attributes may be, arguably, applied to a single particle in empty space. The extension, hardness, impenetrability, mobility, and force of inertia of the whole arise from the extension, hardness, impenetrability, mobility and force of inertia of each of the parts; and thus we conclude that every one of the least particles of all bodies is extended, hard, impenetrable, movable, and endowed with a force of inertia.

And this is the foundation of all natural philosophy. Social and Physical Atomism in the 17th Century each particle from the mode of existence of the system or from the plurality of particles. But here again, we can see that nothing is supposed by Newton to have preceded the individual existence of the particles of matter. Descartes, for example, notoriously assumes that, in order to be apprehended, phenomena need to be traced back to the laws of nature he formulated in Principles of Philosophy II, as a second cause for the movement of matter, that accounts for the individua- tion of matter into corpuscles.

On the contrary, Newton seems to rely on the supposition that phenomena are to be ultimately explained by the existence of the essential properties of particles. The most striking statement of Hobbes in this regard is to be found in De Cive: The assumption of a possible origin of the state without the premise of already existing social relations is conspicuous here. But, insofar as Hobbes invites us to consider men as if they were emerged on earth like mushrooms, this is to be considered a model, or a pre- scriptive methodology, rather than a description of the real condition of actual human beings.


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  5. In other words, what Hobbes puts forward here is rather an ideal of how men should be conceived of, and not a picture of discrete entities, with no social connections between them. De Corpore II, 8. The conclusion of this thought experiment is clearly drawn by Freudenthal: Since Hobbes attributes to the body the essential property of extension, almost like Descartes, while at the same time denies the existence of void, can one derive from here that the former relies on an atomistic ontology in his natural philosophy, and that he sees the difference between distinct entities, separated by void, as a primitive ontological category?

    For it is clear that this thought exper- iment relies on the assumption of the individual existence of the par- ticles of matter or bodies, regardless of the previous existence of the world system. Since such bodies are not the result of an individuation of the matter into corpuscles, like in the Cartesian theory of matter, being supposed to emerge as already shaped bodies or extended things, it seems to be grounded to say that Hobbes actually sustains in his natural science the primitive category of the atomistic difference between bodies, in terms of ontological degrees of existence.

    If this is accurate, such a normative atomism would be unable to convey a stronger atomistic ontology. For no other author in the 17th Century but Hobbes employed this atomistic principle before Newton Freudenthal, , Even if we accepted that this presupposition was first pro- posed by Hobbes on a normative methodological level, the fact that it further re-entered in his more general methodology in De Corpore could be still significant.

    And even if we admitted that there is a difference between an ontological postulate and a methodological prescription, which we normally do, the fact that the same principle that is first proposed in normative terms, as a model of political theory, does re- emerge later on as a part of a more general philosophical method, and informs the mainstream natural science of the time, may suffice to engage inquiries. Social and Physical Atomism in the 17th Century only as influenced upon by the former, but also as a way of concep- tual strengthening and possible contextual need for a scientific legit- imization of social atomism.

    What I try to hypothesize here is that there may be a tacit interplay between the normative methodological atomism in the civil philosophy of Hobbes and the further developments of the concept of system in physics. This could be interpreted as a rhetorical need of legitimizing the former by the latter, as Quentin Skinner suggests in his Reason and Rhetoric in the Philosophy of Hobbes On the other hand, these scientific concepts reinforced the credit of the social theories sustaining the atomistic images of society as an ideal political standpoint.

    This interplay can be seen as fuelled by a single structure of interest, which may unify somehow the political and ideological stands of the various support- ers of atomism, though a reductionist uniform structure is, on the other hand, less desirable. Property right is, therefore, similar to a non-relational property of an atom in Newtonian physics. The resulting image of civil society is thus the atomistic aggregate of independent proprietors. Since this independence is assumed to be the basic condition of individuals in the state of nature, besides the formal equality between them and the property right, the community based on the sharing of interests is a constructed stage in the Lockean political model.

    Such an atomistic standpoint seems to be taken up by Locke as an already warranted evidence, after its being implicitly sustained by the norma- tive atomism of Hobbes and reinforced through the scientific concepts of Newtonian mechanics. Despite the fact that there is a philosophi- cal controversy regarding the ontological status Locke would attrib- ute to space, which is sometimes interpreted as an absolute space Grant, , , n.

    Chappell highlights the difference between the two kinds of masses and organ- isms, both being conceived by Locke as compounded substances, i. But presumably these simple substances are to be attributed themselves a different kind, and hence are supposed to be ontologically different from the two compounded substances. Social and Physical Atomism in the 17th Century let us suppose an atom, i. In like manner, if two or more atoms be joined together into the same mass, every one of those atoms will be the same, by the foregoing rule Essay, Book 2, Chapter 27; The Works, I, The main pattern for the explanation of the principle of individ- uation is thus given by one single atom which has a determined size and shape and exists in a certain period of time and in a certain place.

    This atom or body is thus supposed to be a distinct thing and a model for the individuation of all compounded substances. It is thus, appar- ent, that simple substances are supposed by Locke to be of a distinct kind and, furthermore, to exist prior to compounded substances. Although this may be seen as merely speculative, it seems to be, however, consistent with what Locke says. Since the unity of substance is implied in the idea of a single substance, it is clear that an atom could main- tain its identity over time, whereas neither masses nor organisms could endure. So atoms could be seen as having, so to say, a higher ontological degree than some other compounded things, while the distinct spatio-temporal determinations between such atoms sustain a primitive difference between them.

    Esprits Modernes What kind of political ontology? Despite the fact that the inquiries over the connections between the social and the physical atomism are controversial, I have sup- ported here the thesis of an underlying uniformity of an atomistic principle that was used in both 17th Century social and physical theories. Yet, this uniformity is to be seen in terms of a driving influ- ence that an atomist prescriptive methodology put forward in political science could have had upon the construction of an atomistic ontology which legitimated in return the social atomism.

    This inter- play between political science and physics is, arguably, paired by the fact that both methodological atomistic prescriptions used in early modern political science and further atomistic concepts developed in physics can be seen, in their turn, as impacted upon by the interests to sustain some political and ideological positions in 17th Century England. But to what sort of political doctrine or ideology could be attached this atomistic structural order?

    The first candidate here is of course the political ideology of liberalism. The atomistic disconnection of social individuals with each other and with the system could indeed fit within an important rubric of liber- alism, that is individualism. But this individualistic principle of the formation of system cannot be, of course, equated with the very core of the liberal ideology, as focused upon the constraining of authority to the benefit of individual.

    At best, we can sustain that individualism it is an important ingredient of the modern liberal doctrine. But the question above is still left unanswered. Despite the fact that this position is rather congenial with a social- democratic agenda, the atomistic principle of independent propri- etors defended by the Levellers is again an individualistic one. This principle could help arrange on the same semantical side these doctrines, although from the single view- point I have mentioned, the atomistic political ontology.

    This is not necessarily identifiable with liberalism or proto-liberalism, but could stand on its own regardless of a broader ideological framework. The Hegelian dis- missal of the atomist starting point of social contract theories, for example, does not come to grips with the idea that individual free- dom should be acknowledged in the construction of a theory of state a classic liberal premise. It only censures the atomist individualistic side of social contract theories.

    So, at least on a theoretical level, a social atomistic view could be treated criticized or sustained as autonomous, even by those authors who recognize some liberal prin- ciples. Of course, this ideological structure is to be seen primarily as expressed through intentional conceptualiza- tions, though it may be also informed by some semi-articulated and partially unconscious views espoused by many progressive or anti- feudal actors in the 17th Century England. Thus, an atomistic scenario of the world-order and of the social arrangements seems to be a plausible candidate for that shared political doctrine which relied, up to a certain extent, on a common value-system.

    The struc- tural continuity I stressed here relies on the principle of the system compounded out of independent elements, which gives priority to the existence of the essential properties of a particle over the whole system of particles. But this principle is not, as it were, a traditional silent scientific melody, and it could be consistently linked with the broader emergence of a bourgeois concept of civil society made up by the aggregation of the independent, private proprietors.

    Since the political and ideological struggles to assert this concept of society were coincident with both the sustaining of a prescriptive atomistic methodology in political theory and with its reinforcement in physi- cal science, the conjecture that social and political biases had had an influence upon the process formation of such theoretical structures seems to be a reasonable one. Otherwise, the striking structural convergences I have stressed here could simply not be captured by a less structural account of their historical emergence, that would omit every kind of theoretical, rhetorical and hermeneutical alliances.

    Social and Physical Atomism in the 17th Century References 1. Studies, 60 , ; 2. A Conceptual Approach, Oxford: Clarendon Press, ; 4. Reidel Publishing Company, ; 5. Cambridge University Press, ; 6. Philosophicall rudiments concerning Government and society, a critical edition by Howard Warrender, Oxford: Clarendon Press, ; 8. Scientia Aalen, ; 9. Penguin Books, ; The Legacies of Descartes and Gassendi, , Princeton: Princeton University Press, ; The power of mind over matter, Cambridge etc.: Hobbes to Locke, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ; Penguin Books, , ; University of California Press, ; Hobbes, Boyle and the experimental life, Princeton: Rogers, Alan Ryan eds.

    Clarendon Press, ; The Making of the Modern Identity, Cambridge: In doing so, I shall offer an inter- pretation of the constitution of the political philosophy of the Enlightenment and, ultimately, of the nature of modern political science in general. I admit this is an ambitious goal. Therefore, I suggest offering first a justification of my enterprise. In order for the theory of social contract to be able to offer us the insights that I claim it might, we should verify to what extent contractualism is fundamental for the political theory of the 18th century. To give just one example, the ideas of voluntary union and fabrication of the body politic are interpreted as instances of a denial of traditional natural hierarchies and a defence of indi- vidualism and artifice.

    There is, however, a difficulty here. References to a political and social contract are, granted, somewhat common in the 18th century. Yet, we have to steer clear from relying excessively on this. An analy- sis of the political literature of that time will convince us that there were a number of other issues that were more frequently debated and often without any reference to a contractualist framework. It could fairly be said that in the political discourses of the 18th century, sub- jects as poverty, population or social ranks were more important that the social contract.

    Even more damaging to the idea that contractualism was essential to the social dissertations of the Enlightenment is the fact that in most cases when contract was mentioned at all, it was so only in a cursory fashion. It is true, for instance, that Hutcheson of the Inquiry into the Original of our Idea of Beauty and Virtue1 or Diderot of the Encyclopedie see the article on Political Authority adhere to the theory of contract; however, they did not develop systematically this intu- ition. For them, as for various others, the social contract is only a secondary element in the architecture of their theories.

    Nevertheless, while it is true that the theory of social contract was not indispensable to the social and political discourse of the 18th cen- tury, it is equally true that contractualism was the basic form of most of the 18th century political science. The Theory of Social Contract and the Idea of Political Science of political theory , this was a difference which the 17th and 18th cen- tury thinkers regarded as important.

    John Locke for one, made this clear in a text called Some Thoughts concerning Reading and Study for a Gentleman where he shows that: Rousseau writes, in the Second Discourse: There is a specific theoretical genre then, that we are now about to investigate. It could be briefly characterised by a conscious effort to devise a comprehensive and systematic science of politics of universal significance and not simply to comment on a set of particular facts or to influence the behaviour of certain political actors.

    The essential difference lies in the nature of the problems of what we have labelled the scientific inquiry in matters political of the 18th century philoso- phers. The focus of this body of writings is rather the perennial ques- tions of the nature and origin of the political order, the end of political association or the legitimity of political authority in general.

    They refer to the tradition of political philosophy rather that to the political context. This last point is especially important, I believe. The development of the theory of social contract in the second part of the 17th and in the 18th century was largely the result of internal criticism in a line of thinkers that constantly paid attention to a distinguished but limited set of predecessors. In the same vein, Kant was influenced by Rousseau when he criticised in his Metaphysics of Morals [], some of the consequences of the theory of another notable propagator of contractualism in the 18th century, Beccaria.

    Insofar as there was a political science in the 18th century, it was more often than not contractualist in character. Even those political philosophers critical of the contract arguments, took their time to refute them Leibniz and Hume. This distinction, however, would leave us only with a modest number of works and authors: The question then is what a restrict- ed collection of writings could teach us about the transformations of the contract theory in the 18th century that would take us beyond hair-splitting details.

    There is a transformation of classical contractualism of capital importance in the history of political thought. At the end of the 18th century, the theory of social contract almost disappears from the vocabulary of the political philosophy. We see now that the distinc- tion between mere practical political discourse and theoretical science is useful to measure the magnitude of the transformation accom- plished at the end of Enlightenment.

    Despite isolated occurrences of the notion of contract in the practical and juridical discourse, the 19th century political and social sciences would reject or rather ignore the theory of contract. The relegation to the cabinet of curiosities what was until then the principal form of the scientific interrogation of the body politic is a fundamental transformation in the human sciences in general that is yet to be explained.

    The Theory of Social Contract and the Idea of Political Science The quasi-disappearance of the social contract theory is surpris- ing since it is only the general conception of contract as an explana- tory device together with its systematic treatment that is eliminated. In other words, what is left behind is only the contractualist esprit de systeme.

    By contrast, there are numerous individual elements of this theory kept and re-interpreted in a new spirit in the XIXth century. However, the theory of social contract itself does not survive in a changed intellectual milieu and its demise and partially that of the natural law theories, I should perhaps add should surprise us, in my opinion. It included a psychology in Hobbes and Rousseau , it was mould on the language of economics in Locke and again Rousseau and it might easily have been re-formulated to suit the vocabulary of quantitative analysis.

    All these fields of knowledge evolved in the 19th century and developed into institutionalised fields of systematic inquiry. The term itself seems to have been utilised first to a young friend of Condorcet, Garat, in a pamphlet from the end of What I con- sider most interesting in the profile of this relatively new science is that its formation coincides, more or less, with the elimination from the horizon of fundamental knowledge of the philosophies of the social contract. Only on the background of this massive disappearance we could fully appreciate, I claim, the nature of the problems that qual- ify as central for, and the nature of political objects that are legiti- mately under the gaze of, the modern political scientist.

    I think we could understand the significance and the forms of the transformation I refer to when we realise that the end of the 18th century is the moment when political science ceases for all purposes 3 Seethe discussion on the origin of the term in Keith Michael Baker, Condorcet. Esprits Modernes to be a science of the passions. True enough, in the early 19th century there are still references to the passions in a political context Tocqueville with his Democracy in America is perhaps the most remarkable example.

    Modern social sciences though, become increasingly immune to a vocabulary inherited from the analysis of passions of the previous centuries. In contrast, the political science of the 17th and 18th century is effectively inseparable from this analy- sis. We now see a further reason for which I insisted on the system- atic and comprehensive character of the theory of social contract. In Rousseau, the study of passions is very much the object and the form of his theoretical enterprise. In Emile, for instance, a work that, let us not forget, contains an exposition of a political doctrine very similar to that of the Social Contract, dissertations on the passions are commonplace.

    This centrality of human passions is also important for the school of natural jurisprudence.

    In that context, discussions about natural sociability, right of punishment and prop- erty are almost unintelligible if we consider them separately from the physiology of passion. The focal point of this theory of passions, its main object, was undisputedly the notion of soul. By no means alone in the economy of critical concepts of the 18th century political science, the soul nevertheless provided the fundamental reference of the discourse on moral and political passions. The consequences of this are, I believe, important.

    We should reinterpret the passage from the moral and political science of the 18th century to the social sciences of the 19th as the history of the elimination of the soul as a legitimate object of political enquiry. This is evident if we consider the range of questions that govern the fundamental knowledge of the nature and goal of political asso- ciation in the Classical Age and in the Enlightenment.

    The problem of political virtue, divine justice, that of the happiest optimal regime or that of glory are, from the 19th century, outside of the jurisdiction of the positive social sciences, since these were intelligible only or mainly in the framework of a doctrine of the passions of the soul. It is not, therefore, only the epistemological method and the object of theoretical attention that changed in the passage from the theory of social contract and natural law to the social sciences.