Textos & pretextos sobre a arte de contar histórias (Portuguese Edition)

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Il Ministero dell'Agricoltura della Repubblica Ceca ha recentemente inaugurato Food Pillory, un sito web in cui vengono segnalati alimenti potenzialmente dannosi per i consumatori e classificati in base a tre categorie: Vengono segnalati, ad esempio, alimenti con etichette errate o ingannevoli, alimenti avariati o manipolati. Un'iniziativa esemplare che mira alla tutela dei consumatori e alla massima trasparenza dell'offerta alimentare sul mercato.

La Commissione non prevede di chiedere ai singoli Stati membri di realizzare iniziative analoghe. The Czech Republic's Ministry of Agriculture has recently opened Food Pillory, a website on which foods that are potentially harmful to consumers are reported and classified according to three categories: For example, foods with incorrect or misleading labels are reported, as are rotten or adulterated foods.

This is an exemplary initiative which aims to protect consumers and to provide the utmost transparency with regard to the food on the market. Could the Commission ask individual Member States to implement similar initiatives nationally? The Commission, through the RASFF Rapid Alert System for Feed and Food portal already makes available to the public some information about the products that have been rejected at the border or found in the internal market representing a possible risk for public health.

This information concern the risk posed, the type of product, the origin, the countries where the product has been distributed and the measures taken. The Commission does not plan to ask individual Member States to implement similar initiatives. Armonizzazione dei pass per i disabili: Nonostante la raccomandazione del Consiglio dell'Unione europea n.

Ha essa previsto una fase transitoria per permettere che non si incorra in sanzioni amministrative in attesa del rilascio del certificato europeo? Occorre rilevare che le raccomandazioni del Consiglio non sono vincolanti e non costituiscono la base per comminare eventuali sanzioni agli Stati membri che non le seguono.

La Commissione continua a promuovere l'adozione e l'utilizzo del modello europeo di contrassegno di parcheggio per i disabili. The Commission is aware that this is still not the case in Italy. It should be noted that Council Recommendations are not binding and do not provide a basis for imposing any penalties on Member States that do not comply with them. The Commission continues promoting the adoption and use of the European model parking card for the benefit of persons with disabilities. The relevant rules governing the statistical classification of such receipts are the European System of Accounts ESA 95, paragraphs 4.

These rules are general and differences in specific national circumstances related to an economic and institutional setup of similar activities in Member States explain that there can be different statistical treatments. Is the Commission aware of this threat that results from the vulnerability of such machines and the software they use? What steps will it take to remedy this situation and protect the privacy of users and the interests of transport companies?

The EU has an established legal framework for the protection of personal data and privacy. Without prejudice to the powers of the Commission as guardian of the Treaties, the supervision and enforcement of the data protection legislation falls under the competence of national data protection authorities; in this case, the Spanish Data Protection Authority. It is up to such authorities to monitor data controllers' compliance and, if appropriate, impose fines.

Análise econômica da primeira Lei de Patentes brasileira

The Commission intervenes only if the national authorities systematically fail to deliver the effective implementation of national law transposing the directive. We do not have evidence of such systematic failure. The Commission is aware of increasing risks in this area and has taken several actions to address them.

It has carried out a study on the implementation of the RFID Recommendation and will publish a report on this issue. Sin embargo, a mi juicio, estas cuestiones deben ser tratadas, no en el marco nacional, sino en el europeo comunitario. La pregunta se refiere al impuesto de sociedades. Despite their massive revenues, the large technological and Internet companies are paying practically no tax in European countries thanks to the existence of a complex network of subsidiaries and the particular nature of their accounting procedures.

For example, both the Apple subsidiary and Google Spain have declared losses running to hundreds of thousands of euros to the Spanish tax authorities, with the result that their tax returns are negative. While I am aware that a number of governments, for example in France, have been seeking to introduce a tax on the activities of these companies, it seems to me that such matters should be dealt at EU rather than national level. What view does the Commission take of this? What measures would be appropriate to remedy this situation, particularly in view of the serious economic crisis we are currently facing?

The question refers to corporate income tax. To the extent that the co-existence of 27 different tax systems may have the effect of hindering the functioning of the internal market, a legislative initiative or a coordination exercise could be considered. It should be emphasised that Commission Services have already engaged in a debate with Member States on tax issues relating to e-commerce and notably on direct taxation of electronic activities in a territorial tax system.

International taxation practice requires the existence of a permanent establishment of a foreign company, including Internet companies, before business activities in the territory of a state can be taxed. The current structures used by Internet companies do not commonly qualify as permanent establishments under double taxation conventions. The Commission Services are carefully analysing different approaches for the purpose of addressing this issue in order to evaluate the feasibility of a coordinated action at EU level. El fin es proteger la actividad de los periodistas y los derechos de propiedad intelectual.

The German Government has sent Parliament a draft law governing the economic links between companies providing news-related Internet search services and the media. It is designed to protect the work of journalists and uphold intellectual property rights. This is a Europe-wide problem which needs to be addressed in a uniform manner throughout Europe. With this in mind, what steps does the Commission intend to take on this issue so as to guarantee adequate protection across the board, given that such action involves property as well as the right to reliable, high-quality news?

The Commission is aware of the German legislative initiative mentioned by the Honourable Member. It follows closely the developments pertaining to the question raised by the Honourable member, not only in Germany but also, for instance, in France where a similar approach is being discussed and may come under examination. The viability of independent, high quality and professional written media is an important factor in European culture, pluralism and democracy.

The Commission is also receptive to the current concerns about copyright protection of press works online and the preservation of high quality journalism. Copyright is indeed a key tool for creation and innovation in the digital as well as in the analogue environment. At that time, the Commission said that it was carrying out a study. A year has now passed and I, as a member of the Committee on Industry, Research and Energy, have yet to be informed of the existence of any proposal or initiative.

I once again ask the Commission why this situation is tolerated and why the principle of technological progress — which is so often mentioned in European anti-pollution rules — is not used as a basis for action? In this vein and in order to simplify the current legislative package for type-approval of such light vehicles, the current sound provisions will be repealed and replaced by four UNECE Regulations Nos. The Commission has also adopted a new legislative package on roadworthiness inspections COM final which would, inter alia , make periodical roadworthiness testing of mopeds mandatory.

These amendments should help Member States to better cope with road noise concerns. Los beneficios previstos incluyen una democracia eficaz, mejor justicia y mejor gobernanza. Is the Commission still of the same opinion, given the decline in respect for democratic freedoms and the violation of fundamental rights in Ukraine? What specific measures does the Commission intend to take to ensure that in the next elections in Ukraine, different political options can be put forward by leaders freely chosen by the various political parties? This in turn is an important prospect for Ukrainian citizens to be assured of a future which is based on European values and standards in a whole range of areas that affect their daily lives.

The expected benefits include a functioning democracy, better justice and better governance.

They expressed regret that the consequences of the current situation will prevent two important leaders of the opposition — Yulia Tymoshenko and Yuryi Lutsenko — from standing in parliamentary elections following trials which did not respect international standards as regards fair, transparent and independent legal processes. El urogallo y el control de su comercio.

The capercaillie, which is found in various European countries, is under threat of extinction. Two subspecies of this bird live in the Iberian peninsular, the Cantabrian capercaillie and the Pyrenean capercaillie. The Cantabrian capercaillie is most affected by the decline in numbers owing to, inter alia , the destruction of habitats as a result of human activity.

The EU has responded to this situation by opposing the continued operation of open-cast mines in Spain, since they harm the habitat of a number of protected species including the capercaillie. The Commission has drawn up a proposal for a regulation on the protection of wild species of fauna and flora by means of trade controls, revising the text that has been in force since Is there a specific reason why the capercaillie should not be included on the list of species to be protected through trade controls? Is there not a degree of inconsistency between existing Community legislation and this new proposal?

The town of Krefeld and other towns and communes in the vicinity have been affected for many years by noise from planes taking this detour route. Will the deadline for the final establishment of the FABs, namely the end of , be met? What steps is the Commission taking in order to ensure that the SES II proposals can be implemented in full as soon as possible? The preliminary findings of the Commission report on the implemenation of the Single Sky legislation.

The Commission is currently urging Transport Ministers of all Member States to implement decisive corrective action. The reason is that legislation defines FABs in a bottom-up approach where Member States choose which FABs to implement and national interests often have priority over the European interest.

One concern which is frequently raised is an apparent delay or drag in the downward movement in petrol prices when the price of crude oil decreases. Has this specific issue been considered from an anti-competition perspective by the Commission? There are suggestions that there may be price collusion within very local areas, for example within a radius of just a few kilometres.

Has the Commission ever investigated this particular issue in the past? In particular, it will be looking at whether falling costs of crude oil have been reflected in consumer prices while, in addition, focusing on whether anti-competitive behaviour is occurring in rural areas.

Would the Commission please confirm that it will monitor and follow the investigation that will now take place in the UK, and consider whether an investigation is warranted at European level? Spain, Portugal have already investigated the asymmetries in the speed at which pre-tax retail prices adjust to variations in international fuel prices. The Commission has not specifically analysed this phenomenon so far, as it never had, either directly or via national investigations, any indication that it could have been the result of anticompetitive practices.

If it appears that price collusion may exist within very local areas, NCAs will normally investigate the issue under national competition law. This is because effect on trade between Member States may not be affected and the Commission may not have jurisdiction to apply European law. It will not hesitate to act, either itself or in coordination with the well-placed NCAs, if it receives sufficient information pointing to collusive behaviour of undertakings or abusive behaviour of individual companies in this sector.

Nucleaire controles ten gevolge van problemen in Doel 3. Heeft de Commissie weet van reacties uit andere lidstaten op deze problematiek? Indien ja, op welke manier? De Commissie is er niet van op de hoogte of in andere lidstaten soortgelijke inspecties worden uitgevoerd als door de Belgische autoriteiten. For the first time, an ultrasonic measurement technology was used to check the underlying material of the reactor vessel.

Thiange 2 nuclear power station, whose reactor vessel was supplied by the same manufacturers, is also being kept offline for the time being, for further inspection. Is the Commission aware of any responses from other Member States relating to this problem? Are any similar inspections whether or not with the same ultrasonic measuring technology currently being performed or planned in other Member States?

Does the Commission intend to monitor or coordinate these measures? Does the Commission itself intend to take action in Belgium? Or in other Member States? The Commission has no information on inspections in other Member States similar to those undertaken by the Belgian authorities. However, according to public domain information.

Following this meeting, cooperation amongst the participant countries commenced through the creation of three expert groups, also with participation of the Commission, to discuss the available information.

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Countries endeavour to protect, preserve and promote their world cultural heritage monuments not only with national resources, but also with funds from Unesco and community resources. Do these specific programmes make any provision for the creation of jobs subsidised by the Structural Funds in the field of culture and for the promotion of monuments of global cultural significance? This figure represents 2. During the period, cultural projects are supported through the Greek regional and thematic programmes.

The programmes contains indicators concerning job creation through the co-financed projects. The period is ongoing and those indicators will be evaluated at programme closure. According to recent Cedefop data, there has been a substantial rise in unemployment among the unskilled and those with lower educational qualifications. Can the Commission indicate how serious the problem is with regard to young people? What is the situation in Greece?

Given that measures to remedy the problem of unemployment in this category to a certain extent depend on the upskilling and reskilling of the unemployed, will the Commission increase funding for this specific purpose? Are increased funds in fact being earmarked for this purpose in the programmes being submitted by the Member States for Commission scrutiny? What is the situation with regard to Greece? The unemployment rates for persons with no educational qualification or only a primary or lower-secondary qualification Action to tackle youth unemployment includes reskilling or upskilling, support for a first job experience, subsidies for short-term placements in the private sector or local communities, and boosting of entrepreneurship.

It has come to my attention that the United States still places individual European Union Member States on these lists, even as priority foreign countries. In relation to the Member States, this suggests a means for the United States Trade Representative to influence, and fragment, the development of the internal market. What is the Commission currently doing to ensure that soft-law tools used by foreign governments do not end up hindering the prosperity and harmonisation of the single market? More specifically, what is the Commission doing to ensure that the Special Reports are not used to fragment the single market?

The Commission is in close contact with its US counterparts where issues relating to intellectual property are regularly raised. Repatriamento de capitais em Portugal. It should be emphasised that RERT III does not involve the public identification of infractors, nor is it concerned with establishing whether the amounts thus legalised were legally or illicitly obtained. Does the Commission not consider this to be an infringement of the directives on money-laundering, given that the system allows undeclared capital to be regularised without lifting banking secrecy or making enquiries as to the real beneficiaries of the capital and how it was acquired?

Does the Commission not consider it to be a violation of the principle of equality and other principles of law and justice enshrined in the Treaty on European Union, not to mention the most basic principle of fair taxation at national level, for a Member State to allow the recovery of a small percentage of unpaid tax to serve as a pretext for rewarding those who break tax rules, permitting them to legalise their situation without any type of penalty or sanction and thereby demonstrating that crime pays?

The RERT III contains elements which encourage regularisation of the tax situation with respect to investments, but it does not include any provisions suggesting that such assets or the income derived therefrom, as declared under the present scheme, could be exempted from AML measures. The Commission will present a more detailed Action Plan by the end of Policy-makers need to weigh up the revenues raised through a tax amnesty against other less positive effects, such as the fact that law-abiding taxpayers dislike seeing tax breaks given to fraudsters and that such amnesties might reduce future incentives to comply with tax law.

The Commission considers that, in any case, amnesties need to be accompanied by a significant strengthening of enforcement efforts to ensure an improved compliance with tax laws in the future. Member States must first improve their administration and enforcement mechanisms to improve their tax collection capacities and then deepen cooperation between Member States, and between Member States and third countries, and strengthen common tools.

The Commission has no jurisdiction to collect the statistical information asked, which is a matter solely for the national authorities concerned. The Commission understands that the Greek authorities have published relevant data on the following Internet site:. Some clear progress has been made in collecting arrears: More detailed data on recent collection of SME and insurance company arrears is not published. It is also still not clear why a decision was taken to install railings along the cycle path.

This can include railing on cycling paths. However, the directive leaves the issues of the adoption or the application of standards on construction, or on the application of railings along cycling paths, to the competent road managing authorities. Therefore, the Honourable Member should direct any questions on this topic to the national authorities.

Zurzeit liegt die Entscheidung, eine Flugausfallversicherung auszugeben, lediglich bei den Fluggesellschaften. Already in several European airlines have ceased operations and applied to start insolvency proceedings. In such cases, passengers are offered neither an alternative flight nor a refund of the ticket price. At present, the decision as to whether to provide flight cancellation insurance lies solely with the airlines themselves. Is the Commission thinking of introducing legislation requiring airlines which face insolvency to provide flight cancellation insurance? What are its reasons for taking, or not taking, such a step?

The lack of consumer protection continues to be highlighted by the two recent European airline collapses within one week Spanair and Malev and a Commission impact assessment of passenger protection in the event of airline insolvency. Does the Commission agree that, by virtue of an airline being declared insolvent, its passengers are effectively being denied boarding?

While aviation is an open and competitive market, the Commission is conscious of the impact that airline failure may have on flight only passengers. This shows that the current legislation allows to deal adequately with bankruptcies. The Commission considers that measures — not necessarily of a legislative nature — must be put forward swiftly in order to ensure an implementation as fast as possible. The Commission has the intention to come up with such measures in late or early Europos Komisija m. Komisija mano, kad m.

If this unfavourable Protocol comes into force, are there plans to put any compensation mechanisms in place for those Member States that will suffer most as a result of the new requirements under the Protocol and lose their fishing capacities? The initialled Protocol is in line with the mandate from the Council and the principles therein, in particular regarding the use of the best available scientific advice and targeting only the surplus resources.

The fishing quotas correspond exactly to the wishes conveyed by the industry, with the exception of cephalopods, for which there is no surplus granted by Mauritania. The new Protocol was negotiated in full transparency and with the involvement of the stakeholders. In the light of data provided by the industry, the European Commission considers the new fishing opportunities profitable, viable and worth using.

Concerning accompanying measures for the fleets, Member States may decide to use the European Fisheries Fund to contribute to the financing of aid measures for the temporary or permanent cessation of fishing activities. If vessels continue their fishing operations under the new Protocol, no compensation mechanisms are foreseen.

Beschadiging betonconstructie Tihange 2. In waren er vergelijkbare problemen, die men heeft proberen te herstellen. Bij de controle dit jaar werd echter vastgesteld dat sommige reparaties niet voldoen aan de eisen. Momenteel wordt er een aangepast herstellingsplan opgesteld. Werd het omhulsel, en de staat van het beton, ook daadwerkelijk onderzocht in het kader van de stresstests? Indien ja, werden er toen gelijkaardige gebreken vastgesteld, en werd hieraan gevolg gegeven?

De stresstestmethode, die is ontworpen op basis van de eerste lessen uit de Fukushima-ramp, was toegespitst op de adequaatheid van de bestaande veiligheidsmarges voor kerncentrales tegen het effect van extreme natuurlijke gebeurtenissen, namelijk aardbevingen, overstromingen en extreme weersomstandigheden. In there were similar problems, and attempts were made to solve them. However, during the inspection this year it was discovered that some of the repairs did not comply with requirements.

At present, an altered remedial plan is being drafted. As the damage in question affects the containment, which is intended to protect the reactor against external threats, an inspection of the condition of the containment ought to form part of the stress tests. Was the containment, and the condition of the concrete, also genuinely inspected as part of the stress tests?

With regard to the state of the external containment of the Tihange-2 reactor, according to information made available by the Belgian regulatory authority, the results of visual inspections in led to a program for the repair of the concrete by the operator which is still ongoing. The stress tests method, which was designed on the basis of the first lessons learned from the Fukushima accident, focused on the adequacy of existing safety margins of nuclear power plants against the impact from extreme external events, namely earthquakes, flooding and extreme weather conditions.

According to the specifications of the stress tests, the reassessements concerned consisted in an evaluation of the response of a nuclear power plant when facing such extreme situations and a verification of the measures chosen following a defence-in-depth logic: Therefore, stress tests went beyond safety evaluations during the licensing process and periodic safety reviews. Inwieweit hat die Kommission Kenntnis von der Tatsache, dass jahrelang radioaktiv verseuchtes Wasser aus dem Atomkraftwerk Tihange in die Maas geflossen ist?

Die Entscheidung, Kernkraftwerke abzuschalten, wird auf einzelstaatlicher Ebene getroffen. Lesdits tests ont-ils pris la forme de tests physiques ou administratifs? Grensoverschrijdend gevaar kerncentrales Tihange en Doel. In hoeverre is de Commissie op de hoogte van het feit dat jarenlang radioactief vervuild water uit de kerncentrale in Tihange in de Maas is gelekt?

Zijn deze gebreken in de Europese stresstests aan het licht gekomen? Zijn de stresstests fysiek of administratief uitgevoerd? Kan de Commissie de checklists, protocollen en resultaten van de stresstests overleggen? Erkent de Commissie de gevaren voor nabijgelegen landen als Nederland, Duitsland en Luxemburg evenals voor de Maas?

Bevoegdheden buiten beschouwing latend, hoe beoordeelt de Commissie de veiligheid van kerncentrales Tihange en Doel met de nu beschikbare informatie? Mocht dit buiten de bevoegdheden van de Commissie vallen, is zij dan toch bereid hieromtrent aanbevelingen te doen, net als de Commissie doet bij pensioenbeleid dat formeel ook buiten haar bevoegdheden valt? Om een goed inzicht te krijgen in de visie van de Commissie, verzoek ik u de vragen stuk voor stuk te beantwoorden.

De stresstests zijn uitgevoerd in de vorm van zelfbeoordelingen door de exploitanten van de kerncentrales. De Commissie verwijst het geachte Parlementslid hiervoor naar haar antwoorden op vraag nr. Besluiten om kerncentrales te sluiten worden op nationaal niveau genomen. Is the Commission aware of the recent alarming reports about the Belgian nuclear power stations in Tihange and Doel? Is the Commission aware that the outer concrete mantle of the Tihange 2 reactor is starting to show serious signs of decay?

Has the Commission been informed about cracks in the walls of the Tihange 2 and Doel 3 reactor tanks? Is the Commission aware that for years radioactively contaminated water has been leaking out of the Tihange nuclear power station into the River Meuse? Did the European stress tests bring these problems to light? If not, why not? Were the stress tests physical or administrative in nature? Did experts carry out tests on the spot?

Can the Commission provide copies of the checklists used to carry out these stress tests, the official reports and the findings? Does the Commission recognise the potential cross-border risks posed by the nuclear power stations in Tihange and Doel? Does it recognise the risks for neighbouring countries, such as the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg, and for the River Meuse?

Does the Commission feel that it has a responsibility to protect people in Belgium and neighbouring countries against the potential impact of pressing cross-border problems? Does the Commission have the power, and is it prepared, to take measures to protect European waterways, in this case the River Meuse?

To what extent can Belgium draw on EU funding to develop sustainable energy sources in order to offset the loss of generation capacity resulting from the closure of dangerous nuclear power stations? Setting aside the issue of legal powers, on the basis of the information currently available how safe does the Commission think the Tihange and Doel nuclear power stations are?

Is the Commission prepared to urge the Belgian Government to close nuclear power stations which pose a serious safety risk? If the Commission does not have the power to do this, is it prepared to make recommendations, as it has done in the area of pensions policy, which likewise strictly falls outside the scope of its powers?

The Commission is requested to answer each question individually, so as to provide a proper insight into its thinking. The Commission has no information on any uncontrolled leaks from the plant into the Meuse. Stress tests took place in the form of self assessments by nuclear operators, which were then reviewed by national regulators, with international peer reviews by experts from nuclear and non-nuclear Member States.

This involved physical and administrative actions, performed directly at nuclear power plants or at topical expert meetings. As the two reactors in question are currently in shutdown, there is no immediate danger for the population, workers or environment in Belgium or any neighbouring country. The Commission would like to refer the Honourable Members to its replies to questions no. Member States are obliged to ensure compliance with its provisions and to this end to monitor all effluents from nuclear installations, including discharges to waterways.

Belgian companies can consider joining or forming project consortia to take part in calls for proposals in the field of energy. For a reconsideration of medium term new energy technologies development, H could support innovative projects in low carbon energy sectors. The decision to close down nuclear power plants is taken at national level. The Commission is currently assessing possible ways to further improve the existing EU nuclear safety framework.

Osipova was then accused of producing and selling drugs. She denied the accusation, claiming that the drugs had been planted on her. The prosecutor called for Osipova to be imprisoned for four years, but the judge imposed a sentence of eight years in a penal colony. Supporters have made many appeals for Osipova's release from jail in view of her poor state of health — she suffers from chronic pancreatitis and diabetes, and she also requires insulin injections. The Russian authorities are attempting to crack down on the opposition, harassing activists, and — as the case of Taisiya Osipova shows — fabricating criminal cases against activists and sentencing them to many years in prison.

It has also been raised at recent political dialogue meetings held with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation. This issue is regularly addressed at the EU-Russia human rights consultations. Broad press coverage has recently been given to an investigation conducted by the University of Harvard and published on the specialist website of the Alliance for Natural Health, according to which pasteurised milk can cause the onset of certain types of cancer.

The investigation claims that concentrated nutrients fed to cows so that they produce larger quantities of milk could provoke cancer in humans. Can the Commission state whether it intends to launch information campaigns to restore consumer confidence in milk quality and in its health benefits? Whenever health claims are made within such campaigns, the proposing organisations must according to Art.

That name is a slur on Romania. The Member States were obliged to transpose this framework Decision by The Commission is assessing the notifications on Member States' implementing measures and will prepare a report to this end for His appointment has now caused a wave of protest in civil society. What measures does it intend to take in future to combat anti-Semitic tendencies in the European Union?

A recent Commission report on agricultural crops shows that cereal crop output will fall by an average 2. However, there are major differences between Member States as regards the extent to which output will decrease in Romania, for example, cereal crop output is forecast to drop by This situation is worrying when viewed in the perspective of the decrease in world stocks.

The Committee on Agriculture has already remarked on this, indicating the structural measures under the future CAP that are needed to keep the impact of excessive market volatility under control. Can the Commission state what tangible, targeted measures it will adopt to address this situation? The Commission is analysing market developments and puts forward legislative proposals to adapt the relevant policies to address existing and emerging challenges, as demonstrated by the recent proposals on the CAP post These measures aim for sustainable farming practices, further productivity gains and removal of various production limiting measures.

Beside the proposals that aim to further improve the competitiveness of EU agriculture while providing an effective safety net for farmers, as well as strengthening the position of farmers in the food supply chain, direct payments would continue their role to provide a certain level of income for farmers and rural development measures would provide additional means of support in the form of aid for investment and restructuring, of risk management and increased financing for research and development.

Triggering of market measures such as intervention and private storage have been reviewed in order to be more efficient and to answer better to a more volatile economic environment. Furthermore, the Commission has launched a number of initiatives towards an improved transparency of financial as well as physical markets and the Commission actively participates in G20 discussions on price volatility, including regarding the launch of the Agricultural Market Information System.

Anche cinque banche europee, le olandesi Abn Amro e Ing, le britanniche Barclays e Lloyd e il Credit Suisse, sono accusate di condurre affari con Corea del Nord, Cuba e Iran che finanzierebbero terrorismo e traffico di droga. Il quadro del sistema finanziario mondiale mostra tuttora crepe grandi come voragini.

Intanto la speculazione continua e comincia ad accanirsi contro l'Europa. Quali proposte ha presentato in sede internazionale nella prospettiva della risoluzione della crisi sistemica e per evitare che l'Europa diventi la preda preferita della speculazione, resa ingorda dai traffici illegali e dai conflitti d'interesse di certe agenzie di rating? Ritiene che le misure di controllo adottate dalla zona euro siano sufficienti a combattere la crisi del sistema, oppure pensa che possano soltanto evitare il peggio?

Nei mesi a venire la Commissione intende proporre delle modifiche al quadro giuridico dell'UE in materia di antiriciclaggio. La Commissione ritiene che le proprie analisi sulla crisi finanziaria e le relative cause siano sempre state trasparenti e approfondite.

Storytelling: A Arte de Contar Histórias Memoráveis

This shows that many fronts are now open. The framework of the global financial system is still showing cracks that are as wide as chasms. The crisis of the system is not only still open, but is not even showing signs of being resolved. Meanwhile, the speculation continues and is beginning to plague Europe. Does it not think the time has come to tell the whole truth about the systemic crisis and to condemn the trafficking on which the speculation was based? Does it not agree that all this speculation on sovereign debt, with the painful austerity measures being imposed on millions of European families, is diverting attention from the real problem that needs to be solved, i.

What proposals has the Commission made internationally with a view to resolving the systemic crisis and preventing Europe from becoming the favourite prey of speculators, who have been made greedy by their trafficking and by the conflicts of interest of certain credit rating agencies? Does it consider the safeguards adopted by the eurozone to be sufficient to combat the crisis of the system, or does it think they can only avoid the worst?

The Commission has always provided what it considers an open and thorough analysis of the financial crisis and of its causes. It has set out a large and ambitious plan for financial reform, which is being implemented, for instance concerning hedge funds and short selling. It has recently issued a Green Paper on shadow banking and it envisages to propose further regulatory actions in the coming months.

The Commission has actively contributed to the definition of the global G20 agenda for the reform of the financial system. It is actively engaged in international fora such as the G20 and the Financial Stability Board to ensure that all our global partners implement these commitments in a consistent way. The safeguards adopted in Europe to solve the current crisis of confidence in the single currency will be sufficient on the condition that the complete set of measures proposed by the Commission is put in place, both in terms of governance and for the completion of the Banking Union.

Today there is inadequate direction as to what should follow the agenda. This is creating uncertainty among investors, governments and citizens. The task of developing post strategies is urgent. Could the Commission indicate some of the aspects that will be included in this paper on the implications of the Roadmap? The current energy policy of the European Union operates within the framework of the Europe agenda. On the basis of the Energy Roadmap the Commission is preparing activities to frame energy policies as well as climate policies to form a long-term perspective on investment beyond As one of the pillars of EU energy policy, energy efficiency is expected to play an important role within this policy framework.

The precise timing, content and form of related Commission initiatives currently envisaged for the course of are yet to be determined. Marokkaan cel in voor eten tijdens ramadan. Zo ja, is de Commissie bereid om te stoppen met het gratis verstrekken van geld? Zo neen, waarom niet? Ze volgt ook aandachtig de dialoog met Marokko over mensenrechten in het kader van de universele periodieke evaluatie. The Commission is aware of the case raised by the Honourable Member.

The EU is engaged in a thorough dialogue with Morocco on human rights issues and in particular about the reform of the judiciary and the reform of the penal code. The EU is also following closely the dialogue on human rights with Morocco in the framework of the Universal Periodic Review. One of the objectives of these dialogues is to have an open debate on the justification of certain penal sanctions in the light of the stated willingness of Morocco to advance in reforms in the area of human rights and freedoms. La situazione si presta comunque a diversi interrogativi relativi alla trasparenza delle banche e alla tutela dei risparmiatori.

La Commissione non dispone di poteri diretti in materia di garanzia dei depositi. Al fine di garantire un'ordinata e rapida risoluzione dei problemi delle banche in fallimento e quindi impedire che i depositanti siano pregiudicati nei loro diritti e nei loro crediti, la Commissione ha proposto un quadro armonizzato.

In this hot summer not only are foods being frozen to make them last longer, but bank accounts are too. Even a class action, as it currently stands, is a blunt tool, according to the chair of the Adusbef consumer association. The situation does, however, raise a number of issues with regard to the transparency of banks and the protection of investors.

That said, can the Commission say whether it has any powers with regard to the protection of depositors? With a view to establishing rules on the possible establishment of a banking union, is it prepared to safeguard the rights and interests of depositors in respect of bank failures? What proposals is it willing to submit imminently in order to avoid further cases like this? The Commission has no direct powers as regards deposit guarantees. This compensation must be paid out to depositors within the time limit of twenty days from the date when the authorities make the determination that the deposits have become unavailable.

Italy has transposed the directive in and it is the Bank of Italy which is responsible for its application and supervision. In order to ensure an orderly and swift resolution of failing banks and thus prevent that depositors be affected in their rights and claims, the Commission has proposed a harmonised framework. Conflitto d'interessi delle agenzie di rating.

Rischierebbe inoltre di penalizzare i nuovi operatori privati del mercato. At the end of the investigation, the prosecutor stated that the Moody's analysts had intentionally provided the markets with biased, distorted and therefore misleading information. In the wake of the investigation, the chairs of the Italian consumer associations Adusbef and Federconsumatori stated that with regard to Moody's, since the suspects had been charged with the offence of market manipulation, appropriate criminal penalties were required.

Meanwhile, Moody's continues to disseminate false reports and unfounded news, adversely affecting the proper functioning of stock exchanges and markets. In addition, many critics have pointed out that Moody's, like other agencies, is paid by the very companies which it has to rate. Furthermore, its own major shareholders banks, financial groups and private funds use its credit ratings to buy financial products on the financial market, thereby demonstrating a clear conflict of interest.

Moody's has also been criticised for having given the top rating triple A to Lehman Brothers, until just before it went bankrupt.

Congress to corrupt them. Does it not think it would be appropriate to take action to denounce the illegitimacy of this conflict of interest of the credit rating agencies, which is frequently the cause of the misleading and false information that is spread to the markets? What tools can it use to ensure that the European institutions affected by false and malicious opinions are protected?

Is it able to speak out against credit ratings that are not consistent with the true facts and prevent them from being released? Since the major agencies that lay down the law on the global financial markets are all American, would it not be useful and advisable to consider setting up European agencies, in order to restore some balance to the opinions expressed?

CRAs would provide ESMA with the detailed disclosure on the fees received from the provision of both credit rating and anxillary services to each client. Moreover, it could put new private market players to a disadvantage. For these reasons, the Commission decided not to pursue this idea further. In rural France, the cooperative movement is at the heart of farming activity, and farmers often belong to several cooperatives operating in various sectors.

However, in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe, including in Poland, trade organisations are still relatively unpopular. As the Honourable Member knows, individual producers, particularly growers of fruit and vegetables, are encouraged to join producer organisations POs , which, for the fruit and vegetables sector, receive EU support for implementing operational programmes. In Member States joining the Union as from , producer groups PGs in this sector also benefit from EU support, with the aim to reach producer organisation status within maximum five years.

The Commission co-finances every year information measures relating to the common agricultural policy which aim, in particular, at explaining, contributing to, implementing and developing the policy, promoting the European model of agriculture and helping people understand it, informing farmers and other parties active in rural areas and finally raising public awareness of the issues and objectives of that policy.

As regards the fruit and vegetables sector, in , there were 37 POs and PGs operational in Poland. This is a significant increase from the 7 POs and 23 PGs in , and their number is still increasing. Poland's share in the total Union's support for PGs has been constantly increasing over recent years: Da cinque anni la donna vive in Arabia Saudita, a Jedda, dopo aver sposato un uomo del luogo. La difesa del marito si avvale di tali argomentazioni per trattenerle il passaporto.

The case of an Italian citizen repudiated by her Muslim husband who, under Islamic law, is refusing to allow her to travel abroad, is liable to become not only a diplomatic clash between different legal cultures but also another international case of gross violation of human rights, in particular of the fundamental individual and personal freedom of women. For five years, this woman has been living in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, after marrying a local man. The end of her marriage has been dramatic: Moreover, she ended up in court after reporting to the authorities the violence and threats to which she was being subjected by her former husband, who accused her of misappropriation of money and adultery — a crime subject to the death penalty under Islamic Sharia law.

Islamic law, in fact, does not grant women the right to travel abroad, even women of different nationalities who wish to return to their countries of origin, without the consent of their husband as their legal guardian; the same applies to foreigners who are dependent on sponsors who can only be Saudi nationals and, as such, have the right to prevent foreigners from leaving the country.

The life of this Italian citizen is in danger, pending a trial that could end in her being sentenced to death. The refusal to issue her with a passport is a clear infringement of her right to personal freedom, and the international legal protection afforded by the right to diplomatic asylum would enable her to be legally protected, as an Italian citizen, from the imminent threat of being unfairly tried and tortured. The EU Delegation in Saudi Arabia and the European External Action Service in Brussels are in close cooperation with the Italian authorities and will continue this, taking every step that will prove appropriate or necessary in the future.

La cuota de pesca de marisco corresponde a la solicitud del sector y las zonas de pesca ofrecen recursos suficientes.

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This has been particularly strong in Galicia, where implementation of the protocol is proving very traumatic. The sector has been hit hard, with the expulsion of the cephalopod fishing fleet, restrictions on shellfish harvesting and the imposition of more restrictive and costly conditions on the hake fishing fleet and on other fishing activities. In view of the current situation — made worse by the loss of fishing opportunities in the region — fishing opportunities and conditions in Mauritania need to be renegotiated and revised and measures adopted to tackle the problems created.

The Spanish Government has announced temporary aid for the Spanish cephalopod and shellfish fleets affected by implementation of the protocol. However this aid, described as insufficient and discriminatory, cannot sweep away worries over the future of the fleets concerned. Why did the Commission sign a protocol that is so restrictive and one-sided?

Does it intend to renegotiate fishing opportunities for cephalopod and shellfish vessels? Is it considering a compensation system for the fleet concerned? Has it received a request from the Spanish Government to this effect and does it intend to bring in suitable measures? It was negotiated in full transparency and with the involvement of the stakeholders. Moreover, it allows for technical adjustments to be agreed in the context of the upcoming Joint Committees with Mauritania. Concerning the shellfish fleet, the Commission considers that this fishery is viable. One of the extremely serious consequences of the bloody civil war in Syria has been to trigger a large wave of refugees to neighbouring countries Turkey, Jordan, Iraq and Jordan.

However, the impact of the refugee wave is already causing ripples of alarm further afield in the Eastern Mediterranean, including the territories of EU Member States, such as Greece and Cyprus. The problem is expected to worsen both as a result of the situation in Syria, which is deteriorating day by day, and because of the inability of neighbouring countries, such as Turkey and Jordan, to accommodate the massive influx of refugees.

The recent statement by the Turkish Foreign Minister that Turkey would soon no longer be able to cope with the influx of refugees from Syria into its territory is typical. Has she already taken any measures or drawn up plans to address this situation which also has implications for EU Member States? Does she agree with the proposal already being considered by the UN Security Council to set up refugee camps on Syrian soil? Has she initiated cooperation to this effect with the UN and if so what is the content and outlook for such cooperation? Has she considered or will she consider measures to assist those Member States that will be affected by this situation, such as neighbouring countries of Turkey which will by extension be receiving large numbers of refugees?

The EU responds to humanitarian needs of the affected populations, throughout Syria and in neighbouring countries, both with humanitarian funding and in-kind assistance European Monitoring and Information Centre. The EU strongly supports Syria neighbouring countries in their efforts to provide assistance to refugees. The EU closely cooperates with UN humanitarian agencies. Neither the UN nor major donors are of the opinion that, in the current circumstances, camps inside Syria provide a sound solution for the people concerned. The Commission is following the situation of refugees from Syria and stands ready to provide or coordinate assistance to those Member States that could find themselves under pressure.

Such measures are activated at the request of the Member States concerned. The agreement will contribute to address irregular migration flows, while fully respecting the rights of the persons in need of international protection. The urgent need to safeguard the European deposit guarantee system and for European banking consolidation is leading towards a European Banking Union. Will a Banking Union concern only European banks in the eurozone or will it also concern European banks outside the eurozone? Will it concern only systemically important European banks a two-tier system or all banks without exception?

Resolution authorities will be responsible for bank resolution. The role of the three European Supervisory Authorities will not be affected. They will continue to develop the single rulebook and to enhance convergence of supervisory practices across the whole Union, in cooperation with the ECB. The ECB will carry its supervisory task in relation to banks in the Euro area Member States and may also supervise banks established in other Member States which decide to establish a close cooperation with the ECB.

All banks will be covered since they all represent a potential threat to financial stability, regardless of their size. The ECB will first start supervising banks receiving public funding and systemically important banks, and within one year, all banks of the Euro area will be placed under ECB supervision. National banking supervisors of Member States participating in the single supervisory mechanism will continue to play an important role, assisting the ECB and keeping supervisory tasks.

National supervisors of other Member States will retain all existing tasks and powers. E in che modo prevede di agire per rendere consapevoli i giovani cittadini europei dei pericoli che derivano dal consumo di cannabis durante l'adolescenza? La Commissione ritiene che la prevenzione del consumo di droghe tra i giovani adolescenti rappresenti un aspetto importante della politica per la riduzione della domanda di sostanze stupefacenti. La Commissione sostiene e integra le azioni degli Stati membri, i quali sono competenti per l'elaborazione e l'attuazione di politiche in materia di riduzione della domanda di sostanze stupefacenti, comprese le campagne di prevenzione del consumo di droghe.

A study published by PNAS and conducted by Duke University over twenty years on a sample of more than a thousand young New Zealanders has revealed that regularly smoking cannabis during the teenage years may cause permanent damage to brain power. This is due to the fact that adolescents' brains stop growing at around the age of twenty; the use of psychoactive substances at that age therefore affects an organ that is still vulnerable to structural changes. A teenager who smokes cannabis can lose up to 8 IQ points, with irreversible long-term consequences, including memory loss and cognitive decline.

Is the Commission aware of this study? Can it say whether any similar studies have been conducted in any of the Member States? If so, were the same results found? And what action does it intend to take to raise awareness among young Europeans about the dangers of cannabis use during adolescence? The European Commission is aware of the results of the study referred to by the Honourable Member.

Although some studies suggest that early use of cannabis may have detrimental health effects on young adolescents, this may depend on a range of additional factors including exact age, patterns of use, cannabis potency and its combined use with other substances. The Commission considers prevention of substance use among young adolescents an important part of drug-demand reduction policy.

The Commission supports and complements the actions of Member States, which are competent for developing and implementing policies on drug-demand reduction, including drug prevention campaigns. Smaltimento di rifiuti pericolosi nell'area di Porto Marghera. Nel frattempo la popolazione locale si trova esposta ad una situazione di potenziale grave rischio ambientale con possibili conseguenze sulla salute.

In , a plant in the Porto Marghera area which had produced phosphoric acid up to was demolished, and the site decontaminated. The reason why the problem has not been resolved up to now is the apparent inability of the relevant Italian authorities to determine which rules should apply to the disposal of this material, in other words, whether it is covered by the rules relating to waste given that the radionuclides are of natural origin and have not been processed in view of their radioactive, fissile or fertile properties or by radiation protection legislation.

Meanwhile, the local community is being exposed to a potentially serious environmental and public health risk. Have the Italian authorities informed the Commission of the situation outlined above and asked for its opinion as to which legislation should apply? The provisions of Title VII clarify further that Member States shall ensure the identification, by means of surveys or by any other appropriate means, of work activities which may be of concern. Should Member States declare that a work activity, in this case the production of phosphoric acid, is of concern and the exposure to natural radiation sources due to the work activity concerned needs attention and has to be subject to control.

EU wil Hezbollah niet op terreurlijst. De EU weigert Hezbollah, nota bene gesteund door het regime in Iran, op de terreurlijst te plaatsen. Dat maakt het de jihadisten van Hezbollah mogelijk om overal in de EU fondsen te werven. Als de EU Hezbollah op de terreurlijst zou plaatsen, zouden diens tegoeden in de EU bevroren kunnen worden; bovendien zou het werven van fondsen op EU-grondgebied verboden worden.

Lidstaten zouden, gezamenlijk, de Hezbollah-strijders beter kunnen lokaliseren en tegen hen kunnen ageren — bijvoorbeeld bij overschrijding van de binnengrenzen. Kan de Raad aangeven hoeveel Hezbollah-strijders zich naar schatting in welke EU-lidstaten bevinden? Begrijpt de Raad de zorgen die EU-lidstaten, maar ook de Verenigde Staten, hebben ten aanzien van de bewegingsvrijheid van Hezbollah-strijders op EU-grondgebied?

Zo ja, wat gaat de Raad daaraan doen? Zo neen, hoe weerlegt de Raad deze uitspraak? Uiteraard kunnen de lidstaten tijdens de besprekingen in de Raad uiting geven aan hun bezorgdheid over Hezbollah. Het spreekt vanzelf dat de Raad in dat verband rekening houdt met de bezorgdheden van de lidstaten omtrent Hezbollah. The EU is refusing to put Hezbollah, which, lest it be forgotten, is supported by the regime in Iran, on the list of terrorist organisations. Acting together, the Member States would be in a better position to locate Hezbollah activists and take action against them — for example when they cross internal borders.

Can the Council explain why it still takes the view that Hezbollah is clearly not a terrorist group?

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In the light of the attack in Bulgaria which was allegedly arranged by Hezbollah, is the Council now prepared to put Hezbollah on the list of terrorist organisations? If so, when will it do so? If not, what is preventing the Council from taking this step? If not, is the Council prepared to investigate this matter? If so, what practical steps will the Council take to reassure them? Kicking Away the Ladder: Development Strategy in Historical Perspective.

As Patentes Brasileiras de a The Journal of Industrial Economics , Vol.

Patent policy and costly imitation. Patent Length and Breadth. Cliometrics and the Nobel. Journal of Economic Perspectives. Patent statistics as economic indicators: Journal of Economic Literature 28, p. How broad should the scope of patent protection be? The Economics of Patents: The Patent Controversy in the Nineteenth Century. The Journal of Economic History v. Journal of Economic Issues ; v. American Economic Review , v. American Economic Review , 94 4 , p. Why Don't Inventors Patent? Invention, growth and welfare , Cambridge, Mass.

The Optimum Life of a Patent: The American Economic Review , Vol. An International Comparative Study. Oxford University Press, Instituto Nacional do Livro, Nordhaus' Theory of Optimal Patent Life: The American Economic Review. Invention and Economic Growth. Economic foundations of intellectual property rights.

Industrial Investment in an 'Export' Economy: The Brazilian Experience Before Journal of Development Economics 7, no. Proceedings of the 31th Brazilian Economics Meeting , Services on Demand Journal. Abstract Brazil was one of the first countries to have a patent law and one of the only ones to grant patent length according to the quality of the invention.