Darstellung der Entwicklung des Wasserrechts in Österreich: Ein Überblick (German Edition)

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Items of differing difficulties formed a useful ordinal hierarchy for scaling patterns of expected balance ability scoring for a normative population. The FAB Scale appears to be a reliable and valid tool to assess balance function in higher-functioning older adults. The test was found to discriminate among participants of varying balance abilities. Further exploration of concurrent validity of Rasch -generated expected item scoring patterns should be undertaken to determine the test's diagnostic and prescriptive utility.

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Estimating the Multilevel Rasch Model: With the lme4 Package. Full Text Available Traditional Rasch estimation of the item and student parameters via marginal maximum likelihood, joint maximum likelihood or conditional maximum likelihood, assume individuals in clustered settings are uncorrelated and items within a test that share a grouping structure are also uncorrelated. These assumptions are often violated, particularly in educational testing situations, in which students are grouped into classrooms and many test items share a common grouping structure, such as a content strand or a reading passage.

Consequently, one possible approach is to explicitly recognize the clustered nature of the data and directly incorporate random effects to account for the various dependencies. This article demonstrates how the multilevel Rasch model can be estimated using the functions in R for mixed-effects models with crossed or partially crossed random effects. We demonstrate how to model the following hierarchical data structures: Monte Carlo tests of the Rasch model based on scalability coefficients. These coefficients are shown to yield efficient tests of the Rasch model using p-values computed using Markov chain Monte Carlo methods.

The power of the tests of unequal item discrimination, and their ability to distinguish between local dependence For item responses fitting the Rasch model, the assumptions underlying the Mokken model of double monotonicity are met. This makes non-parametric item response theory a natural starting-point for Rasch item analysis. This paper studies scalability coefficients based on Loevinger's H coefficient The neuronal correlate of the current cultural performance arose from developmental processes that can be observed by functional and anatomical magnetic resonance imaging.

The velocity of these maturation processes occurs differently between adolescents, causing implications for both school career and academic performance. Regarding spatial-numerical cognition the myelinization of the superior longitudinal bundle appears to be crucial because this fiber connection intermediates between the linguistic nature of number words and conception of their spatial-numerical magnitude. The neuroscientific observation of anatomical brain maturation and its influence on school-relevant number processing may be helpful for educational purposes as well as for school psychology.

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Diese Reifungsprozesse verlaufen bei verschiedenen Jugendlichen unterschiedlich rasch , sodass sich darueber auch Wechselwirkungen mit der Schullaufbahn und schulischen Leistungen ergeben. Im Fall der raeumlich-numerischen Kognition spielt u. Die neurowissenschaftliche Darstellung anatomischer Reifeprozesse und deren Einfluss auf die schulrelevanten Prozesse der Zahlenverarbeitung koennen im Lichte paedagogischer oder schulpsychologischer Ueberlegungen dienlich erscheinen. Sample size is a major factor in statistical null hypothesis testing, which is the basis for many approaches to testing Rasch model fit.

This paper explores the occurrence of Type I errors with RUMM fit statistics, and the effects of algebraic sample size adjustments. Results suggest the occurrence of Type I errors with N less then or equal to , and that Bonferroni correction as well as downward algebraic sample size adjustment are useful to avoid such errors, whereas upward adjustment of smaller samples falsely signal misfit. Time transfer using global navigation satellite system GNSS is a primary method of remote atomic clock comparisons.

All of them can continuously provide position, navigation and time services. The noise of the observation data is analyzed by code multipath and common clock difference. The results show that the performance of Bei Dou CV is correlated to the number of Bei Dou satellites available in common view. These modernizations include increasing the number of transmission frequencies and changes to the signal components.

Therefore, in view of these new upcoming systems the research and development of GNSS receivers has been experiencing a new upsurge. In addition, the authors implement a novel acquisition technique for long coherent integration in the presence of NH code modulation in Bei Dou D1 signal. Furthermore, a simple phase-preserved coherent integration based acquisition scheme is implemented for Bei Dou GEO satellite acquisition. Apart from the above Bei Dou-specific implementations, a novel Carrier-to-Noise-density ratio estimation technique is also implemented in the software receiver, which does not necessarily require bit synchronization prior to estimation.

Finally, the authors present a Bei Dou-only position fix with the implemented software-defined Bei Dou receiver considering all three satellite constellations from BDS. Positron emission tomography in urological cancer; Positronenemissionstomographie bei urologischen Tumoren. In staging cancer of the urinary bladder, the kidneys and the prostate and of testicular cancer there is a need for detecting tumor involvement of the lymph nodes to avoid surgical exploration.

In carcinoma of the prostate, other radiotracers than FDG e. Ccholine might be more sensitive to detect tumorous lymph nodes. Up to now no diagnostical benefit of PET in germ cell tumors could be demonstrated in the published small series. A multicenter study was initiated to demonstrate the potential of FDG-PET in a sufficient number of patients with germ cell tumor.

Beim Prostatakarzinom koennten sich andere Radiotracer z. CCholin bei der Detektion von tumoroesen Lymphknoten ueberlegen erweisen. Bei Keimzelltumoren konnte ein Nutzen der PET im primaeren Staging bei den bisher publizierten kleinen Studien nicht nachgewiesen werden.

Eine multizentrische Studie wurde begonnen, die hierueber Aufschluss geben wird. Modern psychometrics for assessing achievement goal orientation: A program of research is needed that assesses the psychometric properties of instruments designed to quantify students' achievement goal orientations to clarify inconsistencies across previous studies and to provide a stronger basis for future research. For Study 1, undergraduate students enrolled in educational psychology courses participated.

Thirty-four were male and were female two did not respond. Participants completed the AGQ in the context of their educational psychology class. For Study 2, undergraduate students enrolled in educational psychology courses participated. Thirty were male and 95 were female one did not respond. Participants completed the PALS in the context of their educational psychology class. For both, reliability estimates ranged from good to very good for raw subscale scores and fit for the models of goal orientations were good.

Rasch analyses revealed that estimates of reliability for items were very good but respondent ability estimates varied from poor to good for both the AGQ and PALS. These findings indicate that items validly and reliably reflect a group's aggregate goal orientation, but using either instrument to characterize an individual's goal orientation is hazardous. This paper describes an approach to the assessment of human to human collaborative problem solving using a set of online interactive tasks completed by student dyads.

Within the dyad, roles were nominated as either A or B and students selected their own roles. The question as to whether role selection affected individual student performance measures is addressed. Process stream data was captured from students in six countries who explored the problem space by clicking, dragging the mouse, moving the cursor and collaborating with their partner through a chat box window. Process stream data were explored to identify behavioural indicators that represented elements of a conceptual framework.

These indicative behaviours were coded into a series of dichotomous items. These items represented actions and chats performed by students. The frequency of occurrence was used as a proxy measure of item difficulty. Then given a measure of item difficulty, student ability could be estimated using the difficulty estimates of the range of items demonstrated by the student.

The Rasch simple logistic model was used to review the indicators to identify those that were consistent with the assumptions of the model and were invariant across national samples, language, curriculum and age of the student. The data were analysed using a one and two dimension, one parameter model. Rasch separation reliability, fit to the model, distribution of students and items on the underpinning construct, estimates for each country and the effect of role differences are reported.

This study provides evidence that collaborative problem solving can be assessed in an online environment involving human to human interaction using behavioural indicators shown to have a consistent relationship between the estimate of student ability, and the probability of demonstrating the behaviour. This has provided initial navigation and precise pointing services ability in the Asia-Pacific regions.

The result indicates that the precision of Bei Dou static and kinematic PPP reaches centimeter level. Precise point positioning with the Bei Dou navigation satellite system. Scale construction utilising the Rasch unidimensional measurement model: A measurement of adolescent attitudes towards abortion. Measurement scales seeking to quantify latent traits like attitudes, are often developed using traditional psychometric approaches.

Application of the Rasch unidimensional measurement model may complement or replace these techniques, as the model can be used to construct scales and check their psychometric properties. If data fit the model, then a scale with invariant measurement properties, including interval-level scores, will have been developed. This paper highlights the unique properties of the Rasch model. Items developed to measure adolescent attitudes towards abortion are used to exemplify the process.

Ten attitude and intention items relating to abortion were answered by adolescents aged 12 to 19 years, as part of the "Teen Relationships Study". The sampling framework captured a range of sexual and pregnancy experiences. Items were assessed for fit to the Rasch model including checks for Differential Item Functioning DIF by gender, sexual experience or pregnancy experience. Rasch analysis of the original dataset initially demonstrated that some items did not fit the model.

Rescoring of one item B5 and removal of another L31 resulted in fit, as shown by a non-significant item-trait interaction total chi-square and a mean log residual fit statistic for items of No DIF existed for the revised scale. However, items did not distinguish as well amongst persons with the most intense attitudes as they did for other persons.

A person separation index of 0. Application of the Rasch model produced a valid and reliable scale measuring adolescent attitudes towards abortion, with stable measurement properties. The Rasch process provided an extensive range of diagnostic information concerning item and person fit, enabling changes to be made to scale items. This example shows the value of the Rasch model in developing scales for both social science and health disciplines. We have developed new canopy emission algorithms and land use data for BEIS v3.

Simulations with BEIS v3. Rasch analysis scores were compared with classical test theory CTT scores. The partial credit model demonstrated a high goodness of fit and correlations between Rasch and CTT scores ranged from 0. CRIS scores are supported by both methods. It also shows how to fit less restrictive models obtained by relaxing specific assumptions of the Rasch model. Conditional maximum likelihood estimation was achieved by including dummy variables for the total.

Kohlberg's characterization of moral development as displaying an invariant hierarchical order of structurally consistent stages is losing ground. However, by applying Rasch analysis, Dawson recently gave new interpretation and support to his characterization of stage development. Using Rasch models, we replicated and strengthened her findings in…. A Rasch Measurement Model Analysis. Data of item responses to the Hong Kong Specific Learning Difficulties Behaviour Checklist from Chinese primary grade students were analyzed using the dichotomous Rasch measurement model.

Rasch scaling suggested that the data fit the model adequately with a latent dimension of global dyslexic dysfunctioning. Estimates of item attributes and…. Results from the Many-Facets Rasch Model are compared with those…. A Rasch Model Analysis. Full Text Available This study investigated whether mobile learning via Short Message Service SMS-learning is accepted by the students enrolled in the distance learning academic programme in the Universiti Sains Malaysia. This study explored the impact of perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and usability of the system to their acceptability.

The Rasch Model Analysis was used for measurement correspond to a 5 point Likert. Results indicated that the usability of the system contributed to be effectiveness in assisting the students with their study. Respondents agree that SMS-learning is easy, effective and useful to help them study. However, the results found that there has been a problem in mobile learning that less interaction with lecturers. It implies that the acceptability of students to this mode on communication and interaction is highly endorsed. The development of adequate measures of motivation is needed in order to properly understand the role of this construct in rehabilitation.

The participants were substance abusers under treatment for their addiction. Results show that the functioning of the five response categories is not optimal; our re-analysis indicates that a three-category system is the most appropriate one. By using this response category system, both model fit and estimation accuracy are improved.

The discussion takes into account other factors such as item format and content in order to make suggestions for the development of better motivation-for-treatment scales. Rasch measurement which is based on a probabilistic model was used to identify concepts that students find easy, moderate and difficult to understand.

Data were captured from the e-learning Moodle platform where students provided their responses through an on-line quiz. Full Text Available This paper is a preliminary study on rationalising green office building investments in Malaysia. The aim of this paper is attempt to introduce the application of Rasch measurement model analysis to determine the validity and reliability of each construct in the questionnaire. In achieving this objective, a questionnaire survey was developed consists of 6 sections and a total of responses were received from various investors who own and lease office buildings in Kuala Lumpur.

The Rasch Measurement analysis is used to measure the quality control of item constructs in the instrument by measuring the specific objectivity within the same dimension, to reduce ambiguous measures, and a realistic estimation of precision and implicit quality. The Rasch analysis consists of the summary statistics, item unidimensionality and item measures. A result shows the items and respondent person reliability is at 0.

Rasch scaling paranormal belief and experience: Research on the relation between demographic variables and paranormal belief remains controversial given the possible semantic distortions introduced by item and test level biases. We illustrate how Rasch scaling can be used to detect such biases and to quantify their effects, using the Australian Sheep-Goal Scale as a substantive example.

Based on data from 1. In low back pain research the two most commonly used and well-validated questionnaires to assess functional status in patients with low back pain are the Roland-Morris Disability Full Text Available Item response theory models are often applied when a number items are used to measure a unidimensional latent variable. Originally proposed and used within educational research, they are also used when focus is on physical functioning or psychological wellbeing.

Modern applications often need more general models, typically models for multidimensional latent variables or longitudinal models for repeated measurements. This paper describes a SAS macro that fits two-dimensional polytomous Rasch models using a specification of the model that is sufficiently flexible to accommodate longitudinal Rasch models. The macro estimates item parameters using marginal maximum likelihood estimation. A graphical presentation of item characteristic curves is included. Nagelbefall kann bei Patienten mit Psoriasis auf eine Enthesiopathie hinweisen.

Full Text Available Due to the strong demand for satellite applications and rapid development of new space technology,the cross-integration of space-based radio systems has become a trend. Bei Dou system started from two satellites to build China's first generation satellite navigation and positioning system with the features of fast location reporting RDSSand short message communication MSSservice. This paper expounds the development process,technical frame,main features and prospect of Bei Dou system with three major services and four key functions,in the concept of innovation and transcendence.

Die quantitativ bedeutendste Methode der nuklearmedizinischen Herzdiagnostik ist die Perfusionsszintigraphie mit Tl oder einem der Tc Bechterew MbB, Spondylarthritis ankylosans. Pneumonia in immunosuppressed patients; Pneumonien bei immunsupprimierten Patienten. Pulmonary infections are a common complication in immunosuppressed patients with a frequently fatal prognosis despite modern prophylactic therapy.

An early and correct diagnosis is important for initiation of the appropriate therapy. Chest radiography is the preferred initial imaging examination but is not accurate enough for the detection of pulmonary infections in immunosuppressed patients. Pneumonia is caused by a broad spectrum of pathogens in immunocompromised patients. In addition to imaging, the clinical history and epidemiology also play an important role in the diagnostics. Using epidemiological and anamnestic information, computed tomography CT shows a significantly better sensitivity and specificity particularly for the diagnosis of atypical forms of pneumonia.

Due to the exact imaging of the different infiltration patterns CT provides an increased sensitivity with respect to the etiological classification of pulmonary infections. This article reviews in particular the radiological findings of commonly occurring pulmonary infections in immunosuppressed patients.

Eine korrekte Diagnose ist daher von entscheidender Bedeutung, um die richtige Therapie einleiten zu koennen. Die Roentgenthoraxaufnahme ist selten spezifisch genug fuer die genaue Einordnung atypischer Pneumonien in Folge einer Immunsuppression. Pneumonien unter Immunsuppression werden durch ein sehr breites Erregerspektrum verursacht. Eine wichtige Rolle bei der Diagnosefindung spielen neben der Bildgebung auch die klinische Anamnese und Epidemiologie. Mithilfe der klinischen Anamnese und Epidemiologie bietet die Computertomographie CT bei immunsupprimierten Patienten zum einen eine erhoehte Sensitivitaet bei der Detektion insbesondere atypischer Pneumonien.

Zum anderen weist die CT durch die exakte Abbildung unterschiedlicher Infiltratmuster. The psychometric properties of the 2 versions of the Junior Metacognitive Awareness Inventory were examined with Singapore student samples. Other than 2 misfitting items and an underutilized response scale, Rasch analysis demonstrated that the instruments have good measurement precision, and no differential item functioning was detected across….

A psychometric revision of the Asian values scale using the Rasch model. The item Asian Values Scale B. Yang, was revised on the basis of G. Rasch model and data from Asian Americans. The results led to the establishment of a item measure named the Asian Values Scale-Revised.

A Rasch Modeling Approach. This book meets a demand in the science education community for a comprehensive and introductory measurement book in science education. It describes measurement instruments reported in refereed science education research journals, and introduces the Rasch modeling approach to developing measurement instruments in common science assessment domains,…. Latent trait standardization of the benzodiazepine dependence self-report questionnaire using the Rasch scaling model. The aim of the present study was to obtain standardized scores that correspond with the raw scores on the four Rasch scales of the Benzodiazepine Dependence-Self Report Questionnaire Bendep-SRQ.

The eligible normative group for standardization of the Bendep-SRQ scales consisted of general. Models of modern test theory imply statistical independence among responses, generally referred to as "local independence. Expanding on a formulation of this kind of violation as a process in the dichotomous Rasch model,…. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether mixture Rasch models followed by qualitative item-by-item analysis of selected Programme for International Student Assessment PISA mathematics and science items offered insight into knowledge students invoke in mathematics and science separately and combined.

The researchers administered an…. Historical Views of Invariance: A historical perspective is provided of the concept of invariance in measurement theory, describing sample-invariant item calibration and item-invariant measurement of individuals. Invariance as a key measurement concept is illustrated through the measurement theories of E. Thorndike, Thurstone and Rasch: The methods used by E.

Rasch to address issues related to item-invariant measurement and the scoring of individual performance are compared. The analyses highlight the close connection among the three methods, and suggest that progress in measurement theory reflects the movement from essentially ad hoc methods…. There is a growing awareness of the need for easily administered, psychometrically sound screening tools to identify individuals with elevated levels of psychological distress.

Although support has been found for the psychometric properties of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales DASS using classical test theory approaches it has not been subjected to Rasch analysis. The aim of this study was to use Rasch analysis to assess the psychometric properties of the DASS scales, using two different administration modes.

The DASS was administered to participants with half the sample responding to a web-based version and the other half completing a traditional pencil-and-paper version. To achieve adequate model fit it was necessary to remove one item from each of the DASS subscales. The reduced scales showed adequate internal consistency reliability, unidimensionality and freedom from differential item functioning for sex, age and mode of administration.

Analysis of all DASS items combined did not support its use as a measure of general psychological distress. A scale combining the anxiety and stress items showed satisfactory fit to the Rasch model after removal of three items. The results provide support for the measurement properties, internal consistency reliability, and unidimensionality of three slightly modified DASS scales, across two different administration methods.

The further use of Rasch analysis on the DASS in larger and broader samples is recommended to confirm the findings of the current study. Exploring the measurement properties of the osteopathy clinical teaching questionnaire using Rasch analysis. Clinical teaching evaluations are common in health profession education programs to ensure students are receiving a quality clinical education experience.

Questionnaires students use to evaluate their clinical teachers have been developed in professions such as medicine and nursing. The development of a questionnaire that is specifically for the osteopathy on-campus, student-led clinic environment is warranted. Previous work developed the item Osteopathy Clinical Teaching Questionnaire. The current study utilised Rasch analysis to investigate the construct validity of the Osteopathy Clinical Teaching Questionnaire and provide evidence for the validity argument through fit to the Rasch model.

Senior osteopathy students at four institutions in Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom rated their clinical teachers using the Osteopathy Clinical Teaching Questionnaire. Three hundred and ninety-nine valid responses were received and the data were evaluated for fit to the Rasch model. Reliability estimations Cronbach's alpha and McDonald's omega were also evaluated for the final model.

The initial analysis demonstrated the data did not fit the Rasch model. Accordingly, modifications to the questionnaire were made including removing items, removing person responses, and rescoring one item. The final model contained 12 items and fit to the Rasch model was adequate. Analysis of the questionnaire using McDonald's omega hierarchical supported a general factor quality of clinical teaching in osteopathy. The evidence for unidimensionality and the presence of a general factor support the calculation of a total score for the questionnaire as a sufficient statistic.

Further work is now required to investigate the reliability of the item Osteopathy Clinical Teaching Questionnaire to provide evidence. Assessing social isolation in motor neurone disease: Social withdrawal is described as the condition in which an individual experiences a desire to make social contact, but is unable to satisfy that desire. It is an important issue for patients with motor neurone disease who are likely to experience severe physical impairment. Model fit, category threshold analysis, differential item functioning DIF , dimensionality and local dependency were evaluated.

Factor analysis confirmed the suitability of the four-factor solution suggested by the original authors. Mokken scale analysis suggested the removal of item five. Rasch analysis removed a further three items; from the Community one item and Emotional two items withdrawal subscales.

Following item reduction, each scale exhibited excellent fit to the Rasch model. A item Summary scale was shown to fit the Rasch model after subtesting the items into three subtests corresponding to the Community, Family and Emotional subscales, indicating that items from these three subscales could be summed together to create a total measure for social withdrawal.

Removal of four items from the Social Withdrawal Scale led to a four factor solution with a item hierarchical Summary scale that were all unidimensional, free for DIF and well fitted to the Rasch model. The scale is reliable and allows clinicians and researchers to measure social withdrawal in MND along a unidimensional construct. Published by Elsevier B. Health sciences frequently deal with Patient Reported Outcomes PRO data for the evaluation of concepts, in particular health-related quality of life, which cannot be directly measured and are often called latent variables. Two approaches are commonly used for the analysis of such data: Longitudinal data are often collected to analyze the evolution of an outcome over time.

The most adequate strategy to analyze longitudinal latent variables, which can be either based on CTT or IRT models, remains to be identified. This strategy must take into account the latent characteristic of what PROs are intended to measure as well as the specificity of longitudinal designs.

A simple and widely used IRT model is the Rasch model. The purpose of our study was to compare CTT and Rasch -based approaches to analyze longitudinal PRO data regarding type I error, power, and time effect estimation bias. Four methods were compared: All methods have shown comparable results in terms of type I error, all close to 5 per cent. LRM and SM methods presented comparable power and unbiased time effect estimations, whereas RM and PV methods showed low power and biased time effect estimations. This suggests that RM and PV methods should be avoided to analyze longitudinal latent variables.

Background There is a growing awareness of the need for easily administered, psychometrically sound screening tools to identify individuals with elevated levels of psychological distress. Methods The DASS was administered to participants with half the sample responding to a web-based version and the other half completing a traditional pencil-and-paper version. Results To achieve adequate model fit it was necessary to remove one item from each of the DASS subscales. Conclusion The results provide support for the measurement properties, internal consistency reliability, and unidimensionality of three slightly modified DASS scales, across two different administration methods.

Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a growing awareness of the need for easily administered, psychometrically sound screening tools to identify individuals with elevated levels of psychological distress. Analytische Betrachtung des Quantisierungsfehlers bei grundlegenden Rechenoperationen der digitalen Signalverarbeitung. Der vorliegende Beitrag betrachtet die Auswirkungen der Quantisierung analytisch. Dabei wird von gleichverteilten Eingangssignalen ausgegangen. Endokrinologische Behandlung der Geschlechtsdysphorie bei Menschen mit Geschlechtsinkongruenz. Kulturspezifische Elemente und ihre Problematik bei der Filmsynchronisierung.

Wir schlagen ein Zwei-Ebenen-Modell vor: Auf der zweiten Ebene wird die kulturelle Orientierung der Ergebnisse untersucht. Danach werden einige Schlussfolgerungen aus der spanischen Synchronfassung gezogen. With an increasingly aging population we are faced with the problem of an increasing number of dementia patients. In addition to clinical, neuropsychological and laboratory procedures, MRI plays an important role in the early diagnosis of dementia.

In addition to various morphological changes functional changes can also help in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of dementia. Overall the diagnosis of dementia can be improved by using parameters from MR spectroscopy. This article focuses on MR spectroscopic changes in the physiological aging process as well as on changes in mild cognitive impairment a precursor of Alzheimer's dementia, in Alzheimer's dementia, frontotemporal dementia, vascular dementia and Lewy body dementia.

Neben klinischen, neuropsychologischen und laborchemischen Verfahren spielt die MRT zur Fruehdiagnostik einer Demenz eine wichtige Rolle. Morphologische Veraenderungen wie auch verschiedene funktionelle Verfahren helfen bei der Diagnostik und Differenzialdiagnostik einer Demenz. In diesem Artikel soll auf MR-spektroskopische Veraenderungen im Rahmen des physiologischen Alterungsprozesses eingegangen werden. Ferner werden speziell Veraenderungen bei leichter kognitiver Beeintraechtigung, einer Vorform der Alzheimer-Demenz, bei Alzheimer-, frontotemporaler, vaskulaerer und Lewy-Koerper-Demenz eroertert.

Glukokortikoide sind auch in vivo imstande, die OPG-Serumspiegel deutlich zu reduzieren. Pulmonary manifestations in collagen vascular diseases; Pulmonale Manifestationen bei Kollagenosen. Pulmonary complications are frequent in patients with collagen vascular diseases CVD. Frequent causes are a direct manifestation of the underlying disease, side effects of specific medications and lung infections. The standard radiological procedure for the work-up of pulmonary pathologies in patients with CVD is multidetector computed tomography MDCT with thin-slice high-resolution reconstruction.

The accuracy of thin-slice CT for the identification of particular disease patterns is very high. Both direct pulmonary manifestations, drug-induced toxicity and certain infections can have a similar appearance in thin-slice MDCT in various forms of CVD. Knowledge of the patterns and causes contributes to the diagnostic certainty. Clinical, lung function and imaging follow-up examinations should be performed every months depending on the results of the MDCT. In every case the individual CT morphological patterns of pulmonary involvement must be identified. The combination of information on the anamnesis, clinical and imaging results is a prerequisite for an appropriate disease management.

Haeufig sind eine direkte Manifestation der Grunderkrankung, eine Nebenwirkung der medikamentoesen Therapie oder eine Lungeninfektion die Ursachen. So kann beispielsweise das Muster einer.

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Power analysis on the time effect for the longitudinal Rasch model. Statistics literature in the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences typically stress the importance of power analysis. Patient Reported Outcomes PRO such as quality of life and other perceived health measures pain, fatigue, stress, They cannot be directly observed nor measured as other clinical or biological data and they are often collected through questionnaires with binary or polytomous items. The Rasch model is the well known model in the item response theory IRT for binary data.

The article proposes an approach to evaluate the statistical power of the time effect for the longitudinal Rasch model with two time points. The performance of this method is compared to the one obtained by simulation study. Finally, the proposed approach is illustrated on one subscale of the SF questionnaire. Not Enabled Screen Reader: Enabled Amazon Best Sellers Rank: Amazon Music Stream millions of songs. Amazon Advertising Find, attract, and engage customers. Amazon Drive Cloud storage from Amazon. Alexa Actionable Analytics for the Web. AmazonGlobal Ship Orders Internationally. Amazon Inspire Digital Educational Resources.

Amazon Rapids Fun stories for kids on the go. Amazon Restaurants Food delivery from local restaurants. ComiXology Thousands of Digital Comics. East Dane Designer Men's Fashion. Grundwasser, das mit mehreren und unterschiedlich reagierenden Stoffen kontaminiert ist, kann jedoch nicht mit Hilfe eines einzelnen reaktiven Materials gereinigt werden, daher wurde die Effektivitaet von Kombinationen unterschiedlicher reaktiver Materialien zur Sanierung untersucht. Von den untersuchten Kombinationen erwies sich die Hintereinanderschaltung von reduzierendem Eisen und Aktivkohle als besonders effektiv.

Reduzierbare chlorierte Kohlenwasserstoffe werden im Eisen entfernt, die verbleibenden Kontaminanten adsorbieren auf der Aktivkohle. Auch die Hintereinanderschaltung von Eisen und Sauerstoff abgebenden ORC, in denen ein aerober mikrobieller Abbau statt findet, ist zur Entfernung von Mischkontaminationen geeignet. Eine Kostenschaetzung zeigt, dass die Kombination von Eisen und Aktivkohle in Abhaengigkeit von der Zusammensetzung der Kontamination guenstiger als Aktivkohle allein sein kann und generell guenstiger als die Kombination von Eisen und ORC ist.

Ohne ein guenstigeres Verfahren zum Einbringen von Sauerstoff in den Aquifer wird die Hintereinanderschaltung von Eisen und Aktivkohle zur Sanierung von Mischkontaminationen empfohlen. Untersuchungen im Abstrom dieser reaktiven Materialien zeigen, dass die hohen pH-Werte durch den Kontakt mit dem Aquifermaterial auf Aquifer-typische Werte gepuffert werden, die ueblicherweise unter den Grenzwerten der Trinkwasserverordnung liegen.

Gerade fuer sehr Organik. Investigations on radionuclide release and on the corrosion behaviour of spent fuels from research reactors under disposal conditions. Final report; Untersuchungen zur Radionuklidfreisetzung und zum Korrosionsverhalten von bestrahltem Kernbrennstoff aus Forschungsreaktoren unter Endlagerbeedingungen. From the present report 'Untersuchungen zur Radionuklidfreisetzung und zum Korrosionsverhalten von bestrahltem Kernbrennstoff aus Forschungsreaktoren unter Endlagerbedingungen' with the code number FKZ carried out in the time periode In salt brines, especially in magnesium chloride rich brines the corrosion rate is high.

Addition of GGG40 basic material of the fuel element container with iron as main element had an acceleration effect. A complete dissolution of the fuel is achieved within a couple of months. Under aerobic and under anaerobic conditions the bulk of released radionuclides were fixed by the corrosion products formed secondary phases. The actinides were mobilised by variation of the ionic strength of the leaching solution. This process can be explained by phase conversion reactions within the secondary phases.

This result justifies the assumption, that hydrotalcites are components of the corrosion products from irradiated fuels. To clarify the questions which bindings exist between radionuclides and secondary phases, sorption experiments were performed. The sorption experiments were performed in salt brines and in granite water using repository relevant radionuclides and minerals which are considered to represent thermodynamic final components of the secondary phases.

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Pu sorbed as cationic species quantitatively and the binding is covalent. In granite water the same behaviour was found for Am. Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. Dieses dient dem Forschungsdatenmanagement innerhalb des Sonderforschungsbereiches, was sowohl die Konzeption des Datenmanagements als auch die Bereitstellung der erforderlichen Infrastruktur beinhalten kann.

Their purpose is to facilitate research data management within the Collaborative Research Centres, which can include the approach to data management as well as the establishment of the necessary infrastructure. The concept of the INF projects is designed to encourage cooperation between researchers and their local infrastructure institutions, such as the library or the computing centre. In this regard, the INF projects can be viewed as examples of embedded librarianship. This article presents the results of a survey among and a workshop with members of the INF projects, providing interesting insights into their work.

Development of a catalysts technology to disclosure ultra low emission concepts for vehicles with combustion engines. Final report; Entwicklung einer Katalysatortechnologie zur Darstellung von Niedrigstemissionskonzepten an Kraftfahrzeugen mit Verbrennungsmotor. In Teilprojekt D konnten ausserdem Erkenntnisse gewonnen werden, die in einem gesonderten Entwicklungsprojekt zum PM-Design ausgearbeitet wurden.

Dieser Traeger bietet die Moeglichkeit Russemissionen in Diesel zu reduzieren. Management of auxiliary aggregates - development and testing of methods for improved use of auxiliary aggregates of diesel and spark ignition engines in stationary and unstationary operation. Final report; Nebenaggregate-Management - Entwicklung und Erprobung von Verfahren zum verbesserten Einsatz der Nebenaggregate an Diesel- und Ottomotoren bei stationaerem und instationaerem Betrieb.

Aggregate management is aimed at aggregate operation in consideration of demand, consumption and exhaust.

Demands on reliability are high. Investigations were made using modelling, simulation, model reduction and identification, with the focus on model reduction. The resulting concepts for consumption reduction vary depending on the vehicle type and application. Der sehr weit gespannte Einsatzbereich von Kraftfahrzeugen und die hohen Anforderungen an die Betriebszuverlaessigkeit stellen entsprechende Anforderungen an das Management. Zur Untersuchung eines verbesserten Betriebs von Nebenaggregaten wrden Verfahren der Regelungstechnik wie z.

Modellbildung, Simulation, Modellreduktion und Identifikation eingesetzt, wobei der Modellreduktion in anbetracht des komplexen Gesamtsystems Kraftfahrzeug eine besondere Bedeutung zukommt. Ergebnisse der Untersuchungen sind Konzepte zur Verringerung des Verbrauchsanteils der Nebenaggregate, die je nach Fahrzeugtyp und Einsatzzweck variieren. Safe disposal of nuclear submarines of the Russian Federation. Final report on the German-Russian project. Abschlussbericht ueber das Deutsch-Russische Projekt. Oktober - Dezember Following the conclusion of an intergovernmental agreement, project work began at the end of under the auspices of the Federal Ministry of Economics.

At the end of , this project of German-Russian cooperation could now be completed successfully, within the set financial and time frame. The final report documents the project goals, project organization as well as the task, work results and financial expenses of several sub-projects and summarizes the results of the overall project. Nach Abschluss eines Regierungsabkommens begannen Ende unter der Federfuehrung des Bundeswirtschaftsministeriums die Projektarbeiten. Ende konnte dieses Projekt deutsch-russischer Kooperation nun vollumfaenglich, innerhalb des gesetzten Finanz- und Zeitrahmens erfolgreich abgeschlossen werden.

Der Abschlussbericht dokumentiert die Projektziele, Projektorganisation sowie Aufgabenstellung, Arbeitsergebnisse und finanziellen Aufwendungen mehrerer Teilprojekte und fasst die Ergebnisse des Gesamtprojekts zusammen. Experimental investigations for provision of a data basis for optimization of active surge control. Final report; Experimentelle Untersuchungen zur Bereitstellung einer Datenbasis fuer die Optimierung der aktiven Stabilitaetsverbesserung. Abschlussbericht zum Vorhaben 1. Presently axial compressors have to run with considerable distance to operation points of high load although usually the best efficiencies can be obtained there.

In those areas there is high danger of surge which brings high damaging potential to the compressor. The prediction time to surge presently is very short zum Vergleich von Fruehwarnsystemen zur Verfuegung steht. Handbuch der Forschung zum Lehrerberuf. Diese immer wieder beklagte Situation hat sich jedoch gewandelt. PEM fuel cells for mobile applications. The technical feasibility has been demonstrated by several car manufacturers. One of the reasons is the cost of currently used materials, e.

This project target towards the development of low cost, non-fluorinated membranes, which fulfil all technical requirements in PEMFC systems. In the frame of this project we were able to successfully develop new membranes based on polyaromatic polymers, which can be produced on a technical scale. Therefore, these membranes have sufficient electrochemical stability for the application in fuel cells. The prices in mass production for these new membranes can get significantly below prices of fluorinated membranes.

Die technische Machbarkeit ist bereits mehrfach demonstriert worden. Ziel des Projektes war daher die Entwicklung kostenguenstiger, nichtfluorierter Membranen, die die technischen Anforderungen fuer die Anwendung in der PEM-Brennstoffzelle erfuellen. Im Projekt konnten erfolgreich Membranen auf Basis polyaromatischer Polymere entwickelt werden, die sich auch im technischen Massstab herstellen lassen. Die Lebensdauer der Membranen wurde erfolgreich ueber 5. Die elektrochemische Stabilitaet der untersuchten Materialien ist damit gegeben.

Die Preise dieser Membranen koennen in Massenfertigung deutlich unter den heutigen Preisen verfuegbarer fluorierter Membranen liegen. ARTS - adaptive runtime system for massively parallel systems. In the ARTS project, system software has been developed to support smog and fluid dynamic applications on massively parallel systems.

The aim is to implement and test specific software structures within an adaptive run-time system to separate the parallel core algorithms of the applications from the platform independent runtime aspects. Only slight modifications is existing Fortran and C code are necessary to integrate the application code into the new object oriented parallel integrated ARTS framework. The OO-design offers easy control, re-use and adaptation of the system services, resulting in a dramatic decrease in development time of the application and in ease of maintainability of the application software in the future.

Im Vordergrund steht die Erprobung geeigneter Strukturen, um systemnahe Funktionalitaeten in einer Laufzeitumgebung anzusiedeln und dadurch die parallelen Kernalgorithmen der Anwendungsprogramme von den plattformunabhaengigen Laufzeitaspekten zu trennen. Es handelt sich dabei um herkoemmlich strukturierten Fortran-Code, der unter minimalen Aenderungen auch weiterhin nutzbar sein muss, sowie um objektbasiert entworfenen C-Code, der die volle Funktionalitaet der ARTS-Plattform ausnutzen kann.

Ein objektorientiertes Design erlaubt eine einfache Kontrolle, Wiederverwendung und Adaption der vom System vorgegebenen Basisdienste. Daraus resultiert ein deutlich reduzierter Entwicklungs- und Laufzeitaufwand fuer die Anwendung. ARTS schafft eine integrierende Plattform, die moderne Technologien aus dem Bereich objektorientierter Laufzeitsysteme mit praxisrelevanten Anforderungen aus dem Bereich des wissenschaftlichen Hoechstleistungsrechnens kombiniert. Coordinated subprojects of the Austrian forest damage monitoring system; Koordinierte Teilprojekte des Oesterr.

The Austrian forest damage monitoring system addresses this task. It involves subprojects and interdisciplinary studies integrated within this biomonitoring system to enhance our knowledge about and detection capabilities for forest diseases and injuries. Ein Ueberwachungssystem das rechtzeitig kritische Entwicklung am sensiblen Bioindikator Wald erkennen laesst, ist angesichts der Anzeichen einer globalen Bedrohung der belebten Umwelt eine zwingende Selbstverstaendlichkeit.

Mit dem Waldschaden-Beobachtungssystem wird diesen Aufgabenstellungen Rechnung getragen. Durch die in diesem Biomonitoring-System integrierten Teilprojekte und interdisziplinaeren Untersuchungen wird auch ein wesentlicher Beitrag zur Erkennung von Ursachen fuer Waldschaeden und Waldkrankheiten geleistet. Basic experimental studies on mixing in swirl flow in gas turbine combustion chambers. Grundlegende experimentelle Untersuchungen der Mischungsvorgaenge drallbehafteter Stroemungen in Gasturbinenbrennkammern.

This report describes investigations on advanced lean fuel combustion technologies with stable and low-pollution combustion in an aircraft gas turbine in all load stages. The key factors, i. Lean fuel combustion does not go well with stable combustion which is indispensable inan aircraft engine.

Further, the lean mixture must be maintained throughout the combustion chamber as local stoichiometries would automatically result in higher concentrations of nitric oxides. To solve the problems related to these processes, detailed knowledge of the mixing processes is required. Die hier entscheidenden Attribute der Verbrennung, naemlich Stabilitaet und Schadstoffarmut sind eng mit der Mischungscharakteristik einer Brennkammer verbunden. Hier gilt es, die zum Teil gegenlaeufigen Effekte, die in einer Brennkammer auftreten, kontrollierbar zu machen.

So steht die zur Verminderung der Stickoxidproduktion geforderte magere Verbrennung im ausgesprochenen Gegensatz zur Forderung einer in allen Betriebsbereichen stabilen Verbrennung, die allein schon aus Flugsicherheitsgruenden unabdingbar ist. Desweiteren muss der magere Gemischzustand unbedingt in der gesamten Brennkammer eingehalten werden, da lokale stoechiometrische Zustaende sofort zum Anstieg der Stickoxidproduktion fuehren.

Um diese Prozesse beherrschen zu koennen, ist eine detaillierte Kenntnis der Mischungsvorgaenge bezueglich. Validation of computer codes and modelling methods for giving proof of nuclear safety of transport and storage of spent VVER-type nuclear fuels. Criticality safety during transport and storage of spent VVER fuel elements. The report gives the results of investigations on the validation of computer codes used to prove nuclear safety during transport and storage of spent VVER - fuel of NPP Greifswald and Rheinsberg. Characteristics of typical spent fuel nuclide concentration, neutron source strength, gamma spectrum, decay heat - calculated with several codes - and dose rates e.

Differences and their possible reasons are discussed. The results show that despite the differences in the source terms all relevant health physics requirements are met for all cases of source term. Es werden eine Charakteristik des abgebrannten Brennstoffs Nuklidkonzentrationen, Neutronenquellstaerke, Gammaspektrum, Nachzerfallsleistung - berechnet mit verschiedenen Programmen - und Ortsdosisleistungen z.

Differenzen und Ursachen werden diskutiert. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass trotz der Differenzen in den Quelltermen alle strahlenschutztechnisch relevanten Aussagen unbeeinflusst bleiben. Scientists help children victims of the Chernobyl reactor accident. Report on project phase 1 and annex to the report on phase 1: Reiners, C [Wuerzburg Univ. Im Berichtzeitraum wurden ausserdem insgesamt 41 weissrussische Aerzte und Physiker auf dem Gebiete der nuklearmedizinischen Diagnostik und Therapie des Schilddruesenkarzinoms ausgebildet.

Ausserdem wurde geprueft, ob Mikronuklei geeignet sind, den Verlauf der Radioiodtherapie im Rahmen der Behandlung von Schilddruesentumoren zu verfolgen. Weiterhin wurde an einer im Vergleich zur vorliegenden Literatur grossen Zahl von kindlichen Tumoren geprueft, ob es spezifische Mutationsmuster in Tumor-Suppressorgenen p in Schilddruesentumoren gibt, die zum Nachweis der Strahleninduktion dieser Tumoren geeignet sich.

In diesem Beitrag werden wir daher den neuesten Erkenntnissen besondere Aufmerksamkeit schenken und diese kritisch in Bezug auf Brustkrebsentwicklung betrachten. Investigations of water pollution effects of mining spoil heaps depending on the period of existence. Part project 2; Untersuchungen gewaesserrelevanter Einfluesse von Bergbauhalden in Abhaengigkeit von der Standzeit. Apart form the main elements, the Wiesloch Ag-Pb-Zn mineralisation contains a series of higly toxic trace elements.

The main ore minerals of galena, zinc blende and Menikow pyrites also contain Tl, Cd, As and Sb up to the precent range. The main and trace element contents of ores, flotation residues and slags were examined in detail. Their weathering properties were estimated, depending on the time of existence, from new secondary mineral formations.

An element displacement from the spoil heaps reaching several decimetres in the ceiling was shown. Strong contamination can be proved by washing out and dispersion of As and Tl in agriculturally used areas and can be found in plants. Using elution experiments, the metal release of hevy metals and arsenic from ores, flotation wastes and slags was examined for the quantitative estimation of the material transfer.

Also, the excellent suitability of synthetic Fe-Mn hydroxides for the decontamination of water containing arsenic and heavy metals was shown. Ihre Verwitterungseigenschaften wurden in Abhaengigkeit der Standzeit anhand von sekundaeren Mineralneubildungen abgeschaetzt. Eine mehrere dm-weit reichende Elementverlagerung aus Halden in das Liegende Loessdecke konnte nachgewiesen werden.

Starke Kontaminationen sind durch Auswaschung und Dispersion von As und Tl in landwirtschaftlich genutzen Flaechen nachzuweisen und in Pflanzen wiederfindbar. Zur quantitativen Abschaetzung des Stofftransfers wurde anhand von Elutionsversuchen die Metallfreisetzung von Schwermetallen und Arsen aus Erz, Flotationsabgaengen und Schlacken untersucht. Ausserdem konnte die ausgezeichnete Eignung von kuenstlichen Fe-Mn-Hydroxiden fuer die Dekontamination von Arsen- und Schwermetall haltigen Waesser gezeigt werden. Aerodynamische Anregung von transsonisch durchstroemten Turbinenstufen. For experimental investigations on shock-induced flutter in a linear transonic turbine cascade an elastic suspension system has been developed so that only aerodynamic coupling occurs in the system.

The test facility uses super-heated steam as working fluid and enables Mach and Reynolds numbers to vary independently. The investigated cascade consists of seven prismatic blades. The profiles are taken from the tip section of a transonic low pressure steam turbine blade.

Each blade is suspended by an elastic spring system which allows the respective blade to vibrate in a mode similar to the real blade's first bending mode. The examination mainly deals with the oscillatory behavior of the blades with respect to a variation in the isentropic outlet Mach number. In addition, the complex shock-boundary-layer interactions on the blades' suction sides are described. Flow computations are run by a finite volume Navier-Stokes solver that accounts for moving boundaries. A volume grid generator is integrated into the flow solver producing combined O- and H-type grids.

Some acceleration techniques for unsteady flow computations are investigated. Shock oscillations which occur on a DCA profile are simulated. For the simulation of the experimental setup the blade motions are prescribed. Die Konstruktion der Aufhaengung gewaehrleistet, dass die Schaufeln lediglich durch aerodynamische Effekte zu freien Schwingungen angeregt werden koennen und in ihrem Schwingungsverhalten der ersten Biegeschwingung ihrer Originalschaufeln entsprechen.

Ein gestimmtes und ungestimmtes ebenes Gitter wurde in einem Dampfversuchsstand mit Heissdampf durchstroemt, wobei das Flatterverhalten der Schaufeln von Dehnungsmessstreifen auf den Schaufeltraegern und die auftretenden Stossoszillationen mit Hilfe einer Hoch-Geschwindigkeits-Schlierenoptik, einer Laserschranke, applizierten Foliensensoren und instationaeren Drucksensoren erfasst wurde. Beim Gasturbinengitter sind die Schwingungsamplituden auf Grund einer hohen Daempfung der elastischen Schaufelhalter geringer.

Ein Rechenprogramm zur Simulation der transsonischen, reibungsbehafteten Stroemung durch axiale Turbomaschinen wurde auf die Behandlung bewegter Profile angepasst und fuer instationaere Stroemungssimulationen beschleunigt. An einem Doppelkreisbogenprofil wurden Stossoszillationen nachgerechnet. Die experimentell ermittelten Messdaten dienen als Validierungsgrundlage fuer die numerische Simulation der instationaeren Stroemung durch Schaufelreihen mit schwingenden Profilen. Blades and discs in gas turbines.

Behaviour of material and components. Projektbereiche A bis C. This final report deals with the work in the years , and In the area of optimising casting structure, it was shown that the making grains finer up to the medium temperature range can be a suitable means for significantly raising the resistance to LCF loading with nearly unchanged heat and creep strength properties. Another main point was the characterisation and optimisation of sprayed ceramic layers on metallic substrates heat insulating layers and compound ceramic materials.

Dieser Abschlussbericht behandelt die Arbeiten der Jahre , und Auf dem Gebiet der Gussgefuegeoptimierung konnte gezeigt werden, dass die Kornfeinung bis in den mittleren Temperaturbereich ein geeignetes Mittel sein kann, um den Widerstand gegen LCF-Belastung bei annaehernd unveraenderten Warm- und Kriechfestigkeitseigenschaften signifikant zu erhoehen. Einen weiteren Schwerpunkt bildete die Charakterisierung und. Selection and examination of types of waste relevant to underground disposal. Kenntnisse ueber den Abfall selbst, die geologisch-hydrogeologischen Verhaeltnisse des Deponieraumes und seiner Umgebung sowie der zukuenftigen Entwicklung des gesamten Deponiesystems.

Hierzu muessen insbesondere die Abfaelle selbst sowie deren Reaktionsvermoegen mit fluiden Komponenten in geologischen Systemen bekannt sein und erforderlichenfalls untersucht und bewertet werden. Damit konnten wichtige Aussagen zum Abfallaufkommen selbst und den zu beruecksichtigenden Abfallinhaltsstoffen ermittelt, wie auch eine Abschaetzung deren Gefaehrdungspotentials vorgenommen werden und als Grundlage fuer weiterfuehrende Forschungs- und Entwicklungsarbeiten dienen. Reduction of environmental pollution - Mohndruck Energy Centre with PHC installation and cooperative energy combination.

Abschlussbericht mit Anlagen zum Abschlussbericht. One of the leading printing firms im Europe covers its energy requirements for thermal and cooling energy from a Power-Heat-Cooling-combined installation. The central element of the installation is a gas and steam process with 3 gas turbines and a steam turbine with an electrical performance of 20,5 MW in total.

The waste heat extracted from the combined cycle-process is used to produce refrigeration using absorption refrigeration equipment and to provide district heating for internal and external firms. The waste heat is used several times in the refrigerating centre through cascade switching. The solvent-containing vitiated air from the offset printing machines present is used in the combined cycle-process to generate electricity.

The vitiated air is cleaned in TNV equipment and the hot waste gases used to produce steam. The process steam produced is sent into the combined cycle-progress installation and so used for the generation of more electricity. Die aus dem GuD-Prozess ausgekoppelte Abwaerme wird zur Kaelteerzeugung ueber Absorptionskaelteanlagen und zur Fernwaermeversorgung interner sowie externer Betriebe eingesetzt.

Die Abwaerme wird in den Kaeltezentralen durch Kaskadenschaltung mehrfach genutzt. Der erzeugte Prozessdampf wird in die Gasturbinen der GuD-Anlage eingeduest und so zur zusaetzlichen Stromerzeugung genutzt. Contribution of selected protectorates to the climate protection and its monetary evaluation. Final report; Beitrag ausgewaehlter Schutzgebiete zum Klimaschutz und dessen monetaere Bewertung. In Germany, large-scale nature conservation projects have the task to protect and develop the nature and landscape.

The authors of the contribution under consideration report on an evaluation how far federal funds or EU funds has contributed to the nature protection targets as well as to the climate protection targets. The modelling of the climate relevance of the areas before and after restoration measures derived for all four areas a significant reduction of the emissions. The averaged up to date reduction span between nearly 4 to Advanced computational methods for the assessment of reactor core behaviour during reactivity initiated accidents.

Final report; Fortschrittliche Rechenmethoden zum Kernverhalten bei Reaktivitaetsstoerfaellen. The work performed in the framework of this project was dedicated to the development, validation and application of advanced computational methods for the simulation of transients and accidents of nuclear installations. These simulation tools describe in particular the behavior of the reactor core with respect to neutronics, thermal-hydraulics and thermal mechanics at a very high level of detail. This computational chain shall primarily be deployed for light water reactors LWR , but should beyond that also be applicable for innovative reactor concepts.

Thus, validation on computational benchmarks and critical experiments was of paramount importance. Finally, appropriate methods for uncertainty and sensitivity analysis were to be integrated into the computational framework, in order to assess and quantify the uncertainties due to insufficient knowledge of data, as well as due to methodological aspects. Experimental investigations of the geomechanical behaviour of plastic sealing sheets for sealing dumps. Final report; Experimentelle Untersuchungen zum geomechanischen Verhalten von Kunststoffdichtungsbahnen in Dichtungssystemen fuer Deponiebasisabdichtungen.

Due to more severe environmental requirements, dumps have to be largely sealed to prevent harmful substances escaping into the environment and according to the state of technology, this is done by the combination of clay and plastic sealing tracks. With the aid of a large number of experiments, minimum requirements were determined, which should serve to define the geo-mechanical properties of the plastic sealing sheets and to determine binding limits.


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Mit Hilfe einer groesseren Anzahl von Versuchen wurden Mindestanforderungen bestimmt, die dazu dienen sollen, geomechanische Eigenschaften der Kunststoffdichtungsbahnen zu definieren und verbindliche Grenzwerte festzulegen. Zu viel Salz verdirbt den Boden. Sie sind nur durch hohen Aufwand und Kosten wieder renaturierbar. Comparison of current constitutive models and modeling procedures on the basis of calculations of the thermomechanical and healing behavior of rock salt. Report on the partial project 3; Modellrechnungen zum thermomechanischen Verhalten und zur Verheilung von Steinsalz.

Ergebnisbericht zum Teilprojekt 3. Between October and July , the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy German abbreviation BMWi has funded a joint project within its research program ''Improvement of tools for the safety assessment of underground repositories''. The aim of benchmark calculations was to check the ability of the involved models to describe the temperature influence on deformation, the damage and dilatancy reduction and healing of rock salt.

Development of ceramics for heavy-duty roller bearings in key sectors of future technologies. Ceramic bearings for turbomolecular pumps in semiconductor industry. Final report; Entwicklung von Hochleistungskeramiken fuer Keramikwaelzlager unter extremen Belastungen in Schluesselbereichen von Zukunftstechnologien. Keramikwaelzlager fuer Turbomolekularpumpen in der Halbleiterindustrie. The examined ceramic material shows high resistance against aggressive gases used in the semiconductor industry.

In the test rigs for emergency bearings the full ceramic bearings without any lubricant didn't reach the requested life. The life of the emergency bearings increased when using C-ion implanted rings. By using this method the friction ratio decreased. But they can't reach the life time of the latest state of development of hybrid bearings.

A two row paired angular contact bearing seems to be a most promising modification. But this design shows problems while manufacturing. The so called pin-bush-bearing a sliding friction bearing solution shows good test results. It will be possible to optimise this bearing for different pumps. Tests with ceramic bearings in a conventional levitated pump were planned.

It was not possible to start the tests because of the higher priority of the 'emergency bearing project'. In den Fanglagerversuchen wurde deutlich, dass die untersuchten Vollkeramik-Waelzlager ohne Schmierstoff nicht die geforderten Standzeiten erreichen. Eine vielversprechende Modifikation des Lagers in Richtung eines. Jahrestag der Oktoberrevolution, Op. Vom Historismus bis zum Jugendstil. Architektur und bildende Kunst im Baltikum um Das migrationspolitische Feld der Schweiz: Die wichtigsten Resultate der Analyse sind die folgenden: GaAs thin film solar cells.

Final report; Duennschicht-Solarzellen aus Galliumarsenid; Abschlussbericht. This R and D project focused on the development of materials and technologies for the production of GaAs solar cells on GaAs and other substrates. Three subjects were gone into on particular: Material preparation epitaxy , solar cell technology, characterisation of materials and processes.

Materialpraeparation Epitaxie , Solarzellentechnologie, sowie Material- und Prozesscharakterisierung. The influence of advanced generations of equipment of information- and communication technology on the energy consumption in Germany up to the year - possibilities to increase energy efficiency and -conservation in this domains. Summary of final report. Annex; Der Einfluss moderner Geraetegenerationen der Informations- und Kommunikationstechnik auf den Energieverbrauch in Deutschland bis zum Jahr - Moeglichkeiten zur Erhoehung der Energieeffizienz und zur Energieeinsparung in diesen Bereichen.

Summary of the final report. For , this study ascertained an electricity demand of 38 TWh for ICT end-use appliances in households and offices and their associated infrastructure. The stock of appliances and systems of ICT infrastructure will grow noticeably and since these devices, such as servers or mobile communications systems, are continuously operated, the consumption growth in normal mode is the strongest. The consumption in standby mode shows an increasing tendency, most notably up to the middle of the decade, whereas it decreases in off-mode.

However, this has less to do with efforts for greater efficiency and more to do with the expected substitution of the off- by the standby mode especially in televisions. Da die meisten der im Bestand deutlich wachsenden Geraete und Anlagen der IuK-Infrastruktur wie Server oder Mobilfunkanlagen dauerhaft in Betrieb sind, faellt damit auch der Verbrauchszuwachs im Normalbetrieb am staerksten aus. Der Verbrauch im Bereitschaftsbetrieb zeigt vor allem bis Mitte des Jahrzehnts noch eine steigende Tendenz, waehrend er im Schein-Aus-Zustand ruecklaeufig ist.

Dies ist allerdings weniger auf Effizienzanstrengungen als auf eine erwartete Substitution des Schein-Aus- durch den Bereitschaftsbetrieb insbesondere bei Fernsehern zurueckzufuehren. Full Text Available In Deutschland zeichnet sich bereits vor Schuleintritt im Bereich der literarischen und medialen Sozialisation eine Bildungsbenachteiligung ab. Vor allem Kinder aus bildungsfernen Milieus und mit Migrationshintergrund sind hiervon betroffen vgl.

Durch kreative Medienarbeit soll ein Gegengewicht zur eher passiven Mediennutzung geschaffen werden. Ziel ist es Bildungsunterschiede von Kindern bereits vor Schulbeginn auszugleichen. Already before starting school educational disadvantages in the part of reading and media socialization can be identified within Germany. Therefore, an exceptional intervention and research project KidSmart — media competence by entering school was initiated in the area of early childhood education.

Within this project media-pedagogical work is corresponding with preparation of entering school. The intention is to create a counterbalance to passive media use by creative media work. The scope of the project is to fight against early educational disadvantages. Ein Praxisbericht aus der Mongolei. Dabei wird der Schwerpunkt auf die wichtigsten Entdeckungen und Entwicklungen, beispielsweise der Quantenfeldtheorie, der Eichtheorien und die Zukunft der Teilchenphysik, gelegt. Optimisation of solar collector foils with transparent thermal insulation. Final report; Optimierung von transparent waermegedaemmten Folien-Speicherkollektoren.

The report describes storage collector foils which are used as hybrid systems. State of the art - solar test facility - tests on small test collectors - cost reduction. Fatigue behavior of austenitic steels. Final report; Ermuedungsverhalten Austenit. These loadings are induced e. Therefore it is necessary to characterize experimentally the cyclic deformation behavior of metastable austenitic steels at operating temperature particularly in the HCF- and VHCF-regime and to develop a nondestructive method to detect fatigue processes.

WKK was focused on experimental investigations to characterize the cyclic deformation behavior of the metastable austenitic steel in the HCF- and VHCF-range, taking into account cyclic hardening and softening processes and in particular to consider fatigue-induced changes in microstructure.