Dont Let The Messenger They Shoot Be You! A Survival Guide For Public Speaking

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Clean-up may take many months. Evacuation If local authorities ask you to leave your home, they have a good reason to make this request, and you should heed the advice immediately.

Terrorism Survival Guide

Listen to your radio or television and follow the instructions of local emergency officials and keep these simple tips in mind: Wear long-sleeved shirts, long pants and sturdy shoes so you can be protected as much as possible. Take your disaster supplies kit. Take your pets with you; do not leave them behind. Because pets are not permitted in public shelters, follow your plan to go to a relative's or friend's home, or find a "pet-friendly" hotel. Use travel routes specified by local authorities—don't use shortcuts because certain areas may be impassable or dangerous.

Stay away from downed power lines. Listen to local authorities. Your local authorities will provide you with the most accurate information specific to an event in your area. Staying tuned to local radio and television, and following their instructions is your safest choice. If you're sure you have time: Call your family contact to tell them where you are going and when you expect to arrive. Shut off water and electricity before leaving, if instructed to do so. Leave natural gas service ON unless local officials advise you otherwise.

You may need gas for heating and cooking, and only a professional can restore gas service in your home once it's been turned off. In a disaster situation it could take weeks for a professional to respond. Shelter in place If you are advised by local officials to "shelter in place," what they mean is for you to remain inside your home or office and protect yourself there. Close and lock all windows and exterior doors.

How to Use Rhetorical Questions in Your Speech

Turn off all fans, heating and air conditioning systems. Close the fireplace damper. Get your disaster supplies kit, and make sure the radio is working. Go to an interior room without windows that's above ground level. In the case of a chemical threat, an above-ground location is preferable because some chemicals are heavier than air, and may seep into basements even if the windows are closed. Using duct tape, seal all cracks around the door and any vents into the room. Keep listening to your radio or television until you are told all is safe or you are told to evacuate.

Local officials may call for evacuation in specific areas at greatest risk in your community. Additional Positive Steps You Can Take Raw, unedited footage of terrorism events and people's reaction to those events can be very upsetting, especially to children. We do not recommend that children watch television news reports about such events, especially if the news reports show images over and over again about the same incident. Young children do not realize that it is repeated video footage, and think the event is happening again and again. Adults may also need to give themselves a break from watching disturbing footage.

However, listening to local radio and television reports will provide you with the most accurate information from responsible governmental authorities on what's happening and what actions you will need to take. So you may want to make some arrangements to take turns listening to the news with other adult members of your household. Another useful preparation includes learning some basic first aid.

In an emergency situation, you need to tend to your own well-being first and then consider first aid for others immediately around you, including possibly assisting injured people to evacuate a building if necessary. People who may have come into contact with a biological or chemical agent may need to go through a decontamination procedure and receive medical attention. Listen to the advice of local officials on the radio or television to determine what steps you will need to take to protect yourself and your family. As emergency services will likely be overwhelmed, only call about life-threatening emergencies.

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First Aid Primer If you encounter someone who is injured, apply the emergency action steps: Check the scene to make sure it is safe for you to approach. Then check the victim for unconsciousness and life-threatening conditions. Someone who has a life-threatening condition, such as not breathing or severe bleeding, requires immediate care by trained responders and may require treatment by medical professionals.

Call out for help. There are some steps that you can take, however, to care for someone who is hurt, but whose injuries are not life threatening Control Bleeding Cover the wound with a dressing, and press firmly against the wound direct pressure. Elevate the injured area above the level of the heart if you do not suspect that the victim has a broken bone. Cover the dressing with a roller bandage. If the bleeding does not stop: Apply additional dressings and bandages. Use a pressure point to squeeze the artery against the bone.

Provide care for shock. Care for Shock Keep the victim from getting chilled or overheated. Elevate the legs about 12 inches if broken bones are not suspected. Do not give food or drink to the victim. Tend Burns Stop the burning by cooling the burn with large amounts of water. Cover the burn with dry, clean dressings or cloth. Apply ice or a cold pack to control swelling and reduce pain. Avoid any movement or activity that causes pain. If you must move the victim because the scene is becoming unsafe, try to immobilize the injured part to keep it from moving.

Reduce Any Care Risks The risk of getting a disease while giving first aid is extremely rare. However, to reduce the risk even further: Avoid direct contact with blood and other body fluids. Use protective equipment, such as disposable gloves and breathing barriers. Thoroughly wash your hands with soap and water immediately after giving care. It is important to be prepared for an emergency and to know how to give emergency care. Home Hazard Hunt In a disaster, ordinary items in the home can cause injury and damage.

Anything that can move, fall, break, or cause a fire is a potential hazard. Repair defective electrical wiring and leaky gas connections. Place large, heavy objects on lower shelves. Hang pictures and mirrors away from beds. Brace overhead light fixtures. Strap to wall studs. Repair cracks in ceilings or foundations. Store weed killers, pesticides, and flammable products away from heat sources.

Place oily polishing rags or waste in covered metal cans. Clean and repair chimneys, flue pipes, vent connectors, and gas vents. Family Disaster Planning Disaster can strike quickly and without warning. It can force you to evacuate your neighborhood or confine you to your home. What would you do if basic services--water, gas, electricity or telephones--were cut off?

Local officials and relief workers will be on the scene after a disaster, but they cannot reach everyone right away.

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Four Steps to Safety 1. Find Out What Could Happen to You Contact your local Red Cross chapter or emergency management office before a disaster occurs--be prepared to take notes. Ask what types of disasters are most likely to happen. Request information on how to prepare for each. Learn about your community's warning signals: Ask about animal care after a disaster. Animals are not allowed inside emergency shelters because of health regulations. Find out how to help elderly or disabled persons, if needed. Find out about the disaster plans at your workplace, your children's school or day care center, and other places where your family spends time.

Create a Disaster Plan Meet with your family and discuss why you need to prepare for disaster. Explain the dangers of fire, severe weather, and earthquakes to children. Plan to share responsibilities and work together as a team. Discuss the types of disasters that are most likely to happen. Explain what to do in each case.

Pick two places to meet: Right outside your home in case of a sudden emergency, like a fire. Outside your neighborhood in case you can't return home. Everyone must know the address and phone number. Ask an out-of-state friend to be your "family contact. Other family members should call this person and tell them where they are. Everyone must know your contact's phone number. Discuss what to do in an evacuation.

Plan how to take care of your pets. Complete This Checklist Post emergency telephone numbers by phones fire, police, ambulance, etc. Teach children how and when to call or your local Emergency Medical Services number for emergency help. Show each family member how and when to turn off the utilities water, gas, and electricity at the main switches.

Check if you have adequate insurance coverage. Get training from the fire department for each family member on how to use the fire extinguisher ABC type , and show them where it's kept. Install smoke detectors on each level of your home, especially near bedrooms. Conduct a home hazard hunt. Stock emergency supplies and assemble a Disaster Supplies Kit. Determine the best escape routes from your home.

Find two ways out of each room. Find the safe places in your home for each type of disaster. Practice and Maintain Your Plan Quiz your kids every six months or so. Conduct fire and emergency evacuations. Replace stored water and stored food every six months. Test and recharge your fire extinguisher s according to manufacturer's instructions. Test your smoke detectors monthly and change the batteries at least once a year.

Neighbors Helping Neighbors Working with neighbors can save lives and property. Meet with your neighbors to plan how the neighborhood could work together after a disaster until help arrives. If you're a member of a neighborhood organization, such as a home association or crime watch group, introduce disaster preparedness as a new activity. Know your neighbors' special skills e. Make plans for child care in case parents can't get home. If Disaster Strikes Remain calm and patient. Put your plan into action. Check for Injuries Give first aid and get help for seriously injured people. Do not light matches or turn on electrical switches, if you suspect damage.

You will need a professional to turn gas back on. Clean up spilled medicines, bleaches, gasoline, and other flammable liquids immediately. Call your family contact--do not use the telephone again unless it is a life-threatening emergency. Check on your neighbors, especially elderly or disabled persons. Make sure you have an adequate water supply in case service is cut off. Important basics There are six basics you should stock for your home: Keep the items that you would most likely need during an evacuation in an easy-to carry container such as: Water Store water in plastic containers such as soft drink bottles.

Avoid using containers that will decompose or break, such as milk cartons or glass bottles. A normally active person needs to drink at least two quarts of water each day. Hot environments and intense physical activity can double that amount. Children, nursing mothers, and ill people will need more. Store one gallon of water per person per day. Food Store at least a three-day supply of non-perishable food. Select foods that require no refrigeration, preparation or cooking, and little or no water. If you must heat food, pack a can of sterno. Select food items that are compact and lightweight.

Include a selection of the following foods in your Disaster Supplies Kit: Ready-to-eat canned meats, fruits, and vegetables Canned juices Staples salt, sugar, pepper, spices, etc. Will, insurance policies, contracts deeds, stocks and bonds Passports, social security cards, immunization records Bank account numbers Credit card account numbers and companies Inventory of valuable household goods, important telephone numbers Family records birth, marriage, death certificates Store your kit in a convenient place known to all family members.

Keep a smaller version of the supplies kit in the trunk of your car. Keep items in airtight plastic bags. Important Reminders Change your stored water supply every six months so it stays fresh. Replace your stored food every six months Re-think your kit and family needs at least once a year. Replace batteries, update clothes, etc.

Ask your physician or pharmacist about storing prescription medications. Food Supplies in Case of Disaster How long can food supplies be stored? To judge how long you can store food supplies, look for an expiration date or best if used by date on the product. If you can not find a date on the product, then the general recommendation is to store food products for six months and then replace them.

Some households find it helpful to pull food products for their regular meals from their disaster supplies kit and replace them immediately on an ongoing basis, so the food supplies are always fresh. What kinds of food supplies are recommended to store in case of a disaster? Try to avoid foods that are high in fat and protein, and don't stock salty foods, since they will make you thirsty. Familiar foods can lift morale and give a feeling of security in time of stress. Also, canned foods won't require cooking, water or special preparation. Take into account your family's unique needs and tastes.

Try to include foods that they will enjoy and that are also high in calories and nutrition. Store supplies of non-perishable foods and water in a handy place. You need to have these items packed and ready in case there is no time to gather food from the kitchen when disaster strikes. Sufficient supplies to last several days to a week are recommended. Foods that are compact and lightweight are easy to store and carry.

Try to eat salt-free crackers, whole grain cereals and canned food with high liquid content. Ready-to-eat canned meats, fruits and vegetables. Be sure to include a manual can opener Canned juices, milk and soup if powdered, store extra water. High energy foods, such as peanut butter, jelly, crackers, granola bars and trail mix.

Comfort foods, such as hard candy, sweetened cereals, candy bars and cookies. Instant coffee, tea bags. Foods for infants, elderly persons or persons on special diets, if necessary. They store well, are lightweight, taste good and are nutritious. It is available as a prepackaged product or you can assemble it on your own. They can be nutritious and satisfying, but have some have a lot of salt content, which promotes thirst.

How to Use Rhetorical Questions in Your Speech

They are tasty and lightweight, but will need water for reconstitution. It is rarely necessary to ask a rhetorical question; there is nearly always another way to convey the same idea without using a question. But rhetorical questions, like other rhetorical devices, add variety and interest to a speech. Here are nine strategies that can be fulfilled often in combination with a carefully crafted rhetorical question:. The most popular use of a rhetorical question is to engage your audience to think. On the other hand, you can make them active participants in your speech by inviting them to think about your arguments.

This is most effective if they are asked to think about an issue from a fresh perspective. For example, suppose you are delivering a goal achievement seminar. While many people feel that external forces prevent them from realizing their goals, you might engage your audience to think about their self-defeating behaviors:.

To persuade your audience, they must see you as credible. One way to build credibility is to convince your audience that you are similar to them and share their beliefs. One way to do this is by asking a rhetorical question where the answer has the audience agreeing with you, perhaps even nodding their head in agreement. For example, suppose you are speaking at a networking event for working mothers, and you represent a local health spa:. Effective speakers know how to stir audience emotions. Rhetorical questions do this by making the audience a partner in your emotional statements.

Instead of delivering one-way emotional statements, you can involve your audience more emotionally by hooking them with a rhetorical question. Rhetorical questions can be used as an exclamation point on a preceding statement. While the preceding statement may be a factual statement, a rhetorical question forces your audience to think hard about it. How many will it take before we act? Careful use of misdirection in a speech is an effective way of generating audience surprise , and this results in them being active participants. One form of misdirection is when you make a statement which leads in one direction, and then follow it up with a statement that pulls in the opposite direction.

Financial analysts in our industry predict that sales are going to be down next year. But does that prediction apply to us? In the above example, the rhetorical question followed a contrasting statement. But this pattern can be reversed with the rhetorical question preceding a contrasting statement.

Why would anyone care about the polling data, when it has proven to be inaccurate in the past? The primary reason is that polling firms have been using entirely different methods this time…. Thorough audience analysis will reveal many questions that members of your audience may have. Rather than waiting to address these questions following your speech e.

As a new parent, you often wonder: What can I do to give my child an intellectual jump start? The answer is reading aloud to them every day. A common technique to answer a question either one you have raised, or one coming from your audience is to respond with a rhetorical question. Beware when using this technique as it can sound cliche to your audience. If you can, make the second question fresh and unique to your audience. When speaking about a particularly complex issue, one technique that reinforces this complexity is to ask a series of questions which, if answered, would all point in different directions.

How can we stop bullying in school? Is the answer to educate the bullies? Or educate those being bullied? Do we need more supervision on playgrounds? How about stricter penalties for offenders? A series of questions like this might be used in the opening of a speech, while the body of the speech might follow up on the individual questions one by one. A series of rhetorical questions can also be used in situations where, if the questions were answered, all of the answers would point in the same direction.

This technique is a variation on repetition and could be used to emphasize a point repeatedly. Who has turned around our club and made it prosperous? Who is tireless in her devotion to this club? Who is our undisputed leader? Of course I am speaking of our club president Laurelle who we honor here today.

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I really do want to hear what you think. Please add a comment to share your ideas about how to use rhetorical questions. This is one of many public speaking articles featured on Six Minutes. Subscribe to Six Minutes for free to receive future articles. Thanks, Andrew, for this incredibly helpful article on using the rhetorical question. Already incorporated one of your suggestions in a speech I am writing. This is really a set of useful tips. And all the articles coming in this series are useful and effective tips and inputs. Thank you for sharing all these valid points and eye openers.


I never realised there was so much to them! I wonder if there should be at least as many real questions as rhetorical questions, to maintain balance. What do you think? It depends wildly on the purpose and nature of the presentation. Also, such wide use lessens their power. Anyway, thanks again for sparking this line of thought on a useful speech technique.

Extremely good points and well-articulated. The use of the rhetorical question is far more powerful than most speakers realize so your article gives excellent advice.