News and Journalism in the UK (Communication and Society)
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This culminated in three defeats of the Crown in the cases of Almon, of Miller and of Woodfall , who all had published one of the Letters of Junius , and the unsuccessful arrest of John Wheble in Thereafter the Crown was much more careful in the application of libel ; for example, in the aftermath of the Peterloo Massacre , Burdett was convicted, whereas by contrast the Junius affair was over a satire and sarcasm about the non-lethal conduct and policies of government.
In Britain's American colonies, the first editors discovered their readers enjoyed it when they criticized the local governor; the governors discovered they could shut down the newspapers. The most dramatic confrontation came in New York in , where the governor brought John Peter Zenger to trial for criminal libel after the publication of satirical attacks. The defense lawyers argued that according to English common law, the truth was a valid defense against libel. The jury acquitted Zenger, who became the iconic American hero for freedom of the press.
The result was an emerging tension between the media and the government. By the mids, there were 24 weekly newspapers in the 13 colonies, and the satirical attack on government became common features in American newspapers. John Stuart Mill in in his book On Liberty approached the problem of authority versus liberty from the viewpoint of a 19th-century utilitarian: The individual has the right of expressing himself so long as he does not harm other individuals.
The good society is one in which the greatest number of persons enjoy the greatest possible amount of happiness. Applying these general principles of liberty to freedom of expression, Mill states that if we silence an opinion, we may silence the truth. The individual freedom of expression is therefore essential to the well-being of society. Between September 4, and October 7, the kingdom of Denmark—Norway had the most unrestricted freedom of press of any country in Europe. This occurred during the regime of Johann Friedrich Struensee , whose second act was to abolish the old censorship laws.
However, due to the great amount of mostly anonymous pamphlets published that was critical and often slanderous towards Struensee's own regime, he reinstated some restrictions regarding the freedom of press a year later, October 7, After the Italian unification in , the Albertine Statute of was adopted as the constitution of the Kingdom of Italy.
The Statute granted the freedom of the press with some restrictions in case of abuses and in religious matters, as stated in Article The press shall be free, but the law may suppress abuses of this freedom. However, Bibles, catechisms, liturgical and prayer books shall not be printed without the prior permission of the Bishop.
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After the abolition of the monarchy in and the abrogation of the Statute in , the Constitution of the Republic of Italy guarantees the freedom of the press, as stated in Article 21, Paragraphs 2 and 3: The press may not be subjected to any authorisation or censorship. Seizure may be permitted only by judicial order stating the reason and only for offences expressly determined by the law on the press or in case of violation of the obligation to identify the persons responsible for such offences. The Constitution allows the warrantless confiscation of periodicals in cases of absolute urgency, when the Judiciary cannot timely intervene, on the condition that a judicial validation must be obtained within 24 hours.
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Article 21 also gives restrictions against those publications considered offensive by public morality , as stated in Paragraph Publications, performances, and other exhibits offensive to public morality shall be prohibited. Measures of preventive and repressive measure against such violations shall be established by law. Hitler largely suppressed freedom of the press through Joseph Goebbels ' Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda.
Anyone involved in the film industry—from directors to the lowliest assistant—had to sign an oath of loyalty to the Nazi Party , due to opinion-changing power Goebbels perceived movies to have. Goebbels himself maintained some personal control over every single film made in Nazi Europe. Journalists who crossed the Propaganda Ministry were routinely imprisoned. One of the world's first freedom of the press acts was introduced in Sweden in , mainly due to classical liberal member of parliament, Ostrobothnian priest, Anders Chydenius.
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances. Section 2 b of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms states that everyone has "the freedom of thought, belief, opinion and expression, including freedom of the press and other media of communication. The open court principle ensures the freedom of the press by requiring that court proceedings presumptively be open and accessible to the public and to the media.
Singapore's media environment is considered to be not controlled by the government. The Indian Constitution , while not mentioning the word "press", provides for "the right to freedom of speech and expression" Article 19 1 a. However this right is subject to restrictions under sub clause, whereby this freedom can be restricted for reasons of " sovereignty and integrity of India, the security of the State, friendly relations with foreign States, public order, preserving decency, preserving morality, in relation to contempt, court, defamation , or incitement to an offense".
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Under PoTA, person could be detained for up to six months for being in contact with a terrorist or terrorist group. For the first half-century of independence, media control by the state was the major constraint on press freedom. Indira Gandhi famously stated in that All India Radio is "a Government organ, it is going to remain a Government organ In , India's freedom of press ranking declined two placed to Bangladeshi media is reportedly following a self-censorship due to a controversial act named as Information and Communication Technology ICT Act.
Under this act, 25 journalists and several hundred bloggers and Facebook users are reportedly prosecuted in Bangladesh in The country's most popular online newspaper bdnews Another newspaper The Daily Star 's website was blocked for 22 hours on June 2, after it had published a report about a victim of an extrajudicial execution in the southeastern city of Cox's Bazar. During the road-safety protests in , Bangladeshi government switched off 3G and 4G mobile data and also arrested a photographer named Shahidul Alam under ICT act, after he had given an interview with Al Jazeera. As of , online content providers must be licensed and pay an annual fee to the government.
Many of the traditional means of delivering information are being slowly superseded by the increasing pace of modern technological advance. Almost every conventional mode of media and information dissemination has a modern counterpart that offers significant potential advantages to journalists seeking to maintain and enhance their freedom of speech. A few simple examples of such phenomena include:.
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Naturally, governments are responding to the challenges posed by new media technologies by deploying increasingly sophisticated technology of their own a notable example being China's attempts to impose control through a state-run internet service provider that controls access to the Internet but it seems that this will become an increasingly difficult task as journalists continue to find new ways to exploit technology and stay one step ahead of the generally slower-moving government institutions that attempt to censor them.
In May , U. President Barack Obama signed legislation intended to promote a free press around the world, a bipartisan measure inspired by the murder in Pakistan of Daniel Pearl , the Wall Street Journal reporter, shortly after the September 11 attacks in The legislation, called the Daniel Pearl Freedom of the Press Act , requires the United States Department of State to expand its scrutiny of news media restrictions and intimidation as part of its annual review of human rights in each country.
The surveillance caused widespread condemnation by First Amendment experts and free press advocates, and led 50 major media organizations to sign and send a letter of protest to American attorney general Eric Holder. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Freedom of the press disambiguation. This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. Media freedom in the European Union. Freedom of the press in the United States. Freedom of the press in China. Retrieved 7 August The Fourth Estate and the Constitution: Freedom of the Press in America.
University of California Press. Retrieved 12 May The Media Research Hub. Social Science Research Council. Archived from the original on 9 January Retrieved 23 September Freedom of the Press The Truman Years , pp. Archived from the original on Retrieved 19 November British press freedom is a model for the world, editor tells inquiry". Journal of the History of Ideas. The official website of the Presidency of the Italian Republic. The Swedish Tradition of Freedom of Press".
For information on further study and to find a course that interests you, see Masters degrees and search postgraduate courses.
The top jobs held by media studies graduates employed in the UK six months after graduation are arts officer, producer and director, marketing associate professional and photographer, audio-visual and broadcasting equipment operator. For a detailed breakdown of what media studies graduates are doing six months after graduation, see What Do Graduates Do?
Jobs and work experience Postgraduate study Careers advice Applying for university. Search graduate jobs Job profiles Work experience and internships Employer profiles What job would suit me? Job sectors Apprenticeships Working abroad Gap year Self-employment.
Search postgraduate courses Funding postgraduate study Universities and departments Study abroad Conversion courses Law qualifications. What can I do with my degree? Getting a job CVs and cover letters. Applying for jobs Interview tips Open days and events.
Choosing a course Getting into university Student loans and finance. University life Changing or leaving your course Alternatives to university. Jobs and work experience Search graduate jobs Job profiles Work experience and internships Employer profiles What job would suit me? Getting a job CVs and cover letters Applying for jobs Interview tips Open days and events Applying for university Choosing a course Getting into university Student loans and finance University life Changing or leaving your course Alternatives to university Post a job.
The skills gained on a media studies degree, combined with personal determination, will help you to succeed in the competitive creative industries Job options Jobs directly related to your degree include: Advertising account executive Broadcast journalist Editorial assistant Event manager Film director Information officer Magazine journalist Market researcher UX designer Writer Remember that many employers accept applications from graduates with any degree subject, so don't restrict your thinking to the jobs listed here. Work experience Media is a highly popular, and therefore competitive field, so experience is critical.
Typical employers Media studies graduates typically enter careers in the media, cultural and creative industries. Skills for your CV The mix of theory and practice in a media studies degree helps you to develop skills in the following areas: Further study You may choose further study because it's essential for your career path or highly desirable for entry into your chosen career.
What do media studies graduates do? Destination Percentage Employed Type of work Percentage Retail, catering and bar work Promote job vacancies, courses or events.