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Follows it straight, Lord Cobham must be he Did cause the same. I dare be sworn, good knight, He never dreamt of any such contention. His love of poetry as a thing apart from life is indicated by the fact that in old age, to forget the grief occasioned by the death of his wife, he gave the greater part of six years to a metrical translation of the Greek poet Homer.
A sun-parasol, not a huge Oriental file zip [natural skin action photoshop download] is held over the King's head iii. That would have been another man's way of doing it. Geoffrey of Monmouth was a Welshman, familiar from his youth with Celtic legends; also he was a monk who knew how to write Latin; and the combination was a fortunate one, as we shall see.
So an honest author "chuckles" when his subscribers have lost their copies because file zip [natural skin action photoshop download] will enhance the value of his book! I ask, Can anything be better proven than the vileness of a man file zip [natural skin action photoshop download] is ever suspecting and looking for vileness in his fellow-men. Again, the assertion that the Custom-house authorities in the United States had seized my copies is a Pall-Mallian fiction pure and simple, and the "Sexual Gazette" must have known this fact right well.
Thus, every crank or fanatic or rainbow-chaser is also an individualist, and most of them believe as strongly as Emerson in the Over-Soul. He says, the stone to which it adheres easily betrays itself by the color, being as if smeared with blood; and if rubbed, yields a smell like violets. The parish wakes are celebrated in November, the time of her translation. The living, before the dissolution, belonged to the abby of Basingwerk; and is a vicarage in the gift of Jesus College Oxford, which nominates; and John Davies esquire, of Llanerch, the lay-rector, presents.
ABOVE the church is a hill called Bryn y Castell, narrow, and very steep on the sides, projecting at the end over the little valley. On this might have stood the castle of Treffynnon, or St. Wenefrede, built by Randle III. There are not at present any vestiges left. Notwithstanding bishop Fleetwood 's opinion, I think the legend of St. Wenefrede was known previous to that survey; for the very name of Holywell is Saxon, probably bestowed on it before the Conquest, on account of the imputed sanctity of the well. THE spring is certainly one of the finest in these kingdoms; and, by the two different trials and calculations lately made for my information, is found to fling out about twenty-one tons of water in a minute.
It never freezes; or scarcely varies in the quantity of water, in droughts or after the greatest rains. After a violent fall of wet, it becomes discolored by a wheyey tinge. THE stream formed by this fountain runs with a rapid course to the sea, which it reaches in little more than a mile's distance. The flourishing mines, that for some time were discovered in the neighborhood, made a great change in the appearance, and introduced the effects of wealth.
The town, or rather township, contains somewhat more than two thousand souls. THE monks of Basingwerk obtained for it the grant of a fair and a market. The first has been dropt beyond the memory of man. The market was also lost, till it was renewed by letters patent, dated Jan. The patent also contains a grant of three fairs, viz. The market has been the most flourishing in North Wales; but the fairs never could be established.
THE situation of the town is pleasant and healthy. On the back is a lofty hill, at times extremely productive of lead ore. Towards the sea is a pretty valley, bounded by woods: MY next visit was to Flint. I took the lower road, by the shore, blackened with the smoke of smelting-houses; and, in the more flourishing times of the collieries, with vast stacks of coal. This last seems to have been the same with the Rod or Rad-knights, who, by the tenure of their lands, were bound to ride with or for their lord, as often as his affairs required.
I cannot assign any derivation of the word: I can find no other site for the chapel of Colsul, granted by David ap Llewelyn to the abby of Basingwerk. The present Flint probably went at this period under both names. There is no trace of any chapel in the neighborhood excepting this; nor any other place of consequence enough to tempt our princes to live at. It was called in the Doomsday book Coleselt; and was possessed by Robert of Rudland. Edwin held it from him, and as a free-man.
Here was one hide of land taxable. I shall hereafter give a conjecture of the probability of its having been a Roman station. THE public buildings within this precinct are the church, the town-hall, and the jail; not one of which is any ornament to this little capital. Flint, in that time, was probably comprehended under the name of Colsul.
THE castle stands on a low free-stone rock that juts into the sands, a little north-east of the town; and was once joined to it by a bridge which led to the outwork, called the Barbican; a square tower, with a gateway, now entirely demolished. Within was a court surrounded with a ditch faced with a wall, that joined by means of a drawbridge to the main fortress; whose entrance, for better security, was little more than a postern.
THE castle is a square building, with a large round tower at three of the corners, and a fourth a little disjoined from the other, and much larger than the rest. This is called the double tower. It has a circular gallery beneath, vaulted, with four arched openings into a central area, a little more than twenty-two feet in diameter. THE channel of the Dee at present is at some distance from the walls; but formerly flowed beneath. There are still in some parts rings, to which ships were moored. THE founder of this castle is uncertain.
Cambden attributes it to Henry II. After his escape at Euloe, it is possible that he might have begun a fortress here for security in future times; that he might have left it incomplete; and that it was finished by Edward I. The rolls of the last reign mention the place several times. IN , appears an order for the custody of the gate of the castle of Flint.
Perhaps this might have been the year in which it was first garrisoned. This is dated at Flint on the 8th of September: IN , the burgesses also received a grant from Edward, of timber out of the woods of Northop, Ledebroke the greater and lesser, Keldreston, Wolsynton, Weper, and Sutton, in order to smelt their lead ore; and at the same time a right of pasturage in the same woods. He caused the king to dine at Rudland, and conveyed him that night to Flint. IF Froissart may be credited, Richard did not experience the pang of ingratitude from man alone: And as the kynge and the erle of Derby talked togyder in the courte, the grayhounde, who was wont to leape upon the kynge, left the kynge and came to the erle of Derby, duke of Lancastre, and made to hym the same frendly countinaunce and chere as he was wonte to do to the kyng.
The duke, who knewe not the grayhounde, demaunded of the kynge what the grayhounde wolde do. Cosyn, quod the kynge, it is a great good token to you, and an evyll sygne to me.
A Brief DESCRIPTION of the Cities, Citadels, &c. in Scotland. With the Contemplative Angler.
Sir, howe knowe you that, quod the duke? I knowe it well, quod the kynge. The grayhounde maketh you chere this dave as kynge of Englande, as ye shalbe, and I shalbe deposed: The duke understoode well those wordes, and cherysshed the grayhounde, who wolde never after folowe kynge Richarde, but folowed the duke of Lancastre.
I MAY add, that after a long imprisonment in the castle of Conway, towards the conclusion of the war, his circumstances were so reduced, having spent sixty thousand pounds in the service of the crown, he was obliged to desert his family-seat, and live several years in an ordinary farm-house. FLINT fell afterwards into the hands of the loyalists; for, under the year , I find in the same historian, that the garrison seemed inclinable to come to a treaty.
ON the restoration, it was resumed by the crown, among its other rights, in which it still continues. These offices are at present filled by my friend Owen Brereton, esquire. The election is made by the inhabitants paying parochial taxes; and the return made by the two bailiffs of Flint, appointed by the mayor.
The borough land of this town extends over the whole parish, and also the township of Coleshill, in the parish of Holywell. THIS town, with the county, was an appendage to the earldom of Chester. The following schedule gives us their revenues, as they stood in the 50th year of Edward III. This probably was a place of note; for, at the Conquest, it gave name to a very considerable hundred, at that time considered as part of Cheshire.
Exestan was another, now given to Flintshire; which will be noticed in its place. But what is most remarkable, is the great quantities of scoria of lead, bits of lead ore, and fragments of melted lead, discovered in several spots here, and along the country, just above the shore, in the adjoining parish of Northop. In page 42 I mentioned my suspicion, that the precinct of Flint town once served to inclose a small Roman station: I am confirmed in my opinion, from the multitudes of Roman coins, Fibulae, and variety of antique instruments, lately discovered by the workmen in the old washes of this and the next parish; which prove that the Romans made this their port for exporting the metal, after it was fused from the ore of the adjacent mountains.
Here might be placed a small garrison to protect the antient smelters, or to collect the duties, or to receive the tribute of metal. He died in the year 25, before our country was scarcely known, except by the attempt of Caesar. But the trade, both in his days, and those of that great geographer, was carried on merely by exchange. IN a small time after the Romans had carried their arms through our island, they began to apply with vigor to the working of the mines. At first, the ore of lead was got with ease: Chance was the general detector of metallic riches in early times.
The great mine at Halkin was discovered by ditching: Many of the works that we suspect to have been Roman are very shallow; generally in form of trenches, through which they pursued the veins. They probably were discovered from slight causes. We descend into the very bowels of the earth; and seek riches even in the seat of departed spirits.
The want of gun-powder was a great impediment. Miners often discover the marks of fire in antient mines. Smedly of Bagilt Hall, discovered in working the deep fissures of Dalar Goch rock in the parish of Disert in this county. This little instrument affords a proof of its antiquity, by being almost entirely incrusted with lead ore.
Buckets of singular construction, and other things of uses unknown at present, have been found among the antient mines. IN many respects the antient methods of mining were similar to those in present use. The laborers worked by stems, relieving each other at stated times. They worked night and day, by the light of lamps. They drove levels, and sunk shafts, propping up the ground as they went on.
Jupiter, Venus, Sol, and Mercury, were also concerned in the time of the operation. Thus cut, it is laid by for use on a heap of wheat or barley; and from the rod of Moses, was also profanely called the Mosaical rod. This was to be held by the forks in both hands; and carried over the grounds suspected to contain the ore.
It went unaffected over all the barren spots; but no sooner did it impend over a vein, than it pressed strongly down, and seemed to feel the same attraction as is between iron and the magnet. He traces their origin from imposture. The magicians of Pharaoh made use of wands in their deception of the serpents: Let me now return to realities! THE miners, in the earlier times of the Romans in Britain, seem to have been the subdued natives. Tributes and mines, and all the dire penalties of slavery. Agricola himself verifies the prophetic spirit of our brave chieftain, by calling our mines the reward of victory.
It was found under ground, at the depth of four feet. On the upper surface is a rim; within that, in raised capitals, struck when the metal was hot, is this inscription: An ingenious Anonymous, in the Gentleman's Magazine of , conjectures it to have been a C, made by the superintendant of the mine, or furnace, to shew either that the pig had paid duty, or was of due weight, or of proper purity. This explanation will fling light on certain pieces of lead described by Cambden, to be taken notice of a few lines lower. THIS curious antiquity is in the cabinet of Mr. IN , two pigs of the same kind, and of the same length, were discovered on Hayshaw moor, in the manor of Dacre, in the west riding of Yorkshire, on the estate of Sir John Ingleby of Ripley.
One is preserved by the family: These have been supposed to commemorate a victory over the Cangi; but it is evident that they were nothing more than pigs of lead brought here for use, or for transportation: This gives reason to suspect, that these Cangi, during their long vacant time, might sometimes engage in mineral concerns; and then the ore, when smelted, might receive the mark of the people from whom it was received. The pig of lead in Mr. I cannot pretend to fix the period of the first establishment.
In later times, they discovered an ore that contained silver, tin, and lead; and these three metals were smelted from it. THE British name of lead is lost. The Romans made use of the word metallum to express ore, as well as the metal fused from it: I SHALL finish this account of the Roman state of the lead concerns, with observing, that they appeared to have been well versed in metallurgy, and to have had their smelting-houses.
The ruder Britons, before their conquest by the Romans, had a very simple process. These artless slag-hearths are very frequent in our county, discovered by the quantity of scoria mixed with charcoal. Some of our modern smelters have endeavoured to extract the remaining part of the metal from these slags, but in vain; the antient smelters having so effectually done their business, as not to have left behind sufficient to pay the expences of a second operation: The project was useless, This expedient of the Britons was temporary; the stakes did not require such a covering to preserve them; and the metal of lead was surely very improper to point them with.
The Saxons worked the British mines as well as the Romans, and made frequent use of the lead in all works of ecclesiastial magnificence. We are assured that there have been, at different times, smelting-works for a century or two past in the parishes of Flint and Hawarden; and at present there is one in use in each of them. I shall take this opportunity of mentioning incidentally the other minerals of Greet Britain, taken notice of by the antients, either as articles of trade or matters of curiosity.
The Romans, for a considerable space, could not discover the place from whence the former procured the precious, metal. The public immediately compensated his loss out of its treasury. IT is not to be imagined, that they could neglect a corner of our island, productive of a metal so useful in mechanics as tin, and which it yielded in such plenty, as to receive from that circumstance the name.
They were equally expert in working the mines, and preparing the ore, which lay in earthy veins within the rocky strata. STRABO says, that they imported works of brass; but it is as certain, that they afterwards did themselves fabricate that metal into instruments. The Celts, a British instrument, was made in this island. I cannot explain it, unless Nat. Our county abounds with it; but, till within these sixty years, we were so ignorant of its value, as to mend our roads with it. In Strabo 's days it was found in greater plenty; for he mentions it among the articles of exportation.
They are now worked over again, and are found to yield a more kindly metal than what is produced from the ore. In the reigns of James IV. In another place, a piece of thirty ounces weight was found. The search is now given over; but still bits are found accidentally. Lord Hopton, owner of the Lead Hills, is in possession of one that weighs an ounce and a half. It is probable that it was the Cornish gold which proved the lure to the Romans; for it was impossible they or the Phoenicians could be ignorant of it, who had such long commerce with the country, and who were acquainted with the manner of obtaining it in other places.
In the reigns of Edward I. All these are unlettered; a proof of their antiquity, and of their having been struck before their intercourse with the Romans. The first we know of, which is inscribed, is that of Cassrvelaunus, cotemporary with Caesar. They were not suffered to make any progress in the art; for as soon as their conquest was effected, their coin was suppressed. The Gauls alone had some pieces similar: It is composed elegantly with twisted wire, and studded with little globular bits of solid gold. This seems to have belonged to the bracelet or necklace it is uncertain which , whose fragment is represented at N o 2.
This is also composed of gold links, with round beads of a rich blue glass placed between every second link. With it was found a thick piece of sea-green glass, part of a vase. The glain nadroedd, or snake-gems, were at first obtained by way of exchange for the British exports. They were originally made by the Britons of stone. I have such a one in my cabinet. I have seen another in possession of the Reverend Mr. Hugh Davies, found in Anglesea. The traders soon learned to imitate what was prized so high in our island, in a more elegant material; and imported them as a most captivating article of commerce; in the same manner as circum navigators often mimic, in shewy brass, the utensils and weapons of Indian nations, in order to engage their friendship.
A learned friend also supposes these to be miniature likenesses, which friends presented to each other as memorials. The pen, if I may call it so, was usually of brass; one end pointed, in order to write; the other flatted, in order to efface what was wrong, by smoothing or closing the wax. Such are very frequently found: The front of this is enameled with deep blue.
This has also lost its fibulae; but the defect is very apparent. The other extremity of the longer is formed into a spoon, for the purpose of putting the frankincense into the censer. The rounded ends were the probes; the hollow end of the longer, the spoon by which the balm was poured into the wound. It is probable, that they had the art of tempering the metal so as to prevent the noxious effects.
I cannot help thinking, that the good nurses had another view, that of attracting in years of maturity the affections of the fair towards their little favorite. It possibly was designed for the cabinet of a Roman lady or some Bellus homo. The prospect improves the whole way; and from the heights expands to the north-east and south, into an almost boundless one.
The estuary of the Dee appears beneath, with the city of Chester at its extremity. The peninsula of Wiral, a naked contrast to our country, limits the eastern side of our sea; and the western of the Mersey, rich in the commerce of Leverpool; beyond which stretches the great county of Lancashire, varying with plains and hills. This took its rise in the present century, and was much increased by the concourse of miners, on the discovery of a rich vein in the adjacent fields. These tracts were before set on leases for a certain term of years. Some of them are confined to particular counties, others to the kingdom in general: THIS is not the first instance of the application of the tithe of ore to religious uses: I CANNOT find that the owner of the ground, in case the mine was discovered in private property, was permitted to have any share of the profit, till the fifth of Henry VI.
This allotment, though finall, is a proof of the justice and moderation that guided the actions of the protector of Henry 's infant years. These two were the great object; yet the grants do not preclude the royal clame to the baser kinds. Besides, they were to act under the guise of piety; for the adept. We hear no more of these impostures till the reigns of Elizabeth and James I.
The farm was now encreased; they were to pay the king an eighth neat profit, the lord of the soil the ninth, and the curate of the place the tenth. I read, that in , Henry VI.
The civil wars, which broke out immediately after, frustrated this wise measure. Elizabeth resumed it, being too quick-sighted not to see into the defects and wants of her kingdom. She not only adopted it, but improved on the plan. Our knowlege of minerals was almost extinguished, and of course the manufactures which depended on them. Our works of brass, and even our wire, excepting a small quantity which was worked by hand, were of foreign fabrick. The first governor was William earl of Pembroke: She likewise framed the same members into another corporation, which naturally depended on the former, viz.
These corporations were founded on May the 28th To each of these patentees an Englishman was joined. IT is worth observing, that the crown, in most of these grants, lays absolute clame to all mines whatsoever, under a notion that they are royal mines; yet the prerogative could only be entitled to such which yielded gold and silver. But until the happy period arrived when our constitution was established, and the royal and the private property justly distinguished, the subject was too weak to assert his rightful clame. The spirited Percies, in the person of Thomas earl of Northumberland, first withstood this invasion of his right.
BUT, as usual, the gentlemen of the long robe had two opinions respecting this point: SOME account of the ores and fossils of the mineral tract, which gave rise to this digression, will be given when I cross it again in the course of my journey. The church is dedicated to St. Mary; is a neat small edifice, lately re-built, partly by a brief, partly by subscription. At the Conquest, this tract bore the name of Alchene, from which the present name is taken. It continued in the family till the death of a descendant of his, Howel Gwynedd, who lost his life in the cause of Glendwr; when his forfeited estates were bestowed by Henry IV.
His posterity possessed them till the 17th of Henry VI. They afterwards became the property of a younger branch of the Stanleys, and remained in their possession in the last century. This post is called Moel y Gaer, or the hill of the fortress; a name common to several others of similar use.
This seems to have been an out post of the Ordovices, in order to defend their country against the Roman invaders. We shall, towards the end of the volume, have occasion to mention the chain of posts along the Clwydian hills, from that next to the sea, to remote and internal parts. Here they lodged their wives and children; to these places they drove their cattle out of the low country: IN later times, this spot proved fatal to a valiant partizan of Owen Glendwr.
It bears the addition of North, to distinguish it from the other.
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The British name is Llan Eurgain, from St. The body is long and embattled: Within are three effigiated tombs; one of a fat knight, whose name is lost, and figure much injured by time. The inscription is thus, Hic jacet Ith. I suspect him to have been a captain of Inglefield, mentioned in the pedigree of the Humphreyses of Bodlwyddan, and said to have been interred here.
The bard fainted at the sight, revived, and composed an elegy on her. The Chevalier retired from the world, and founded the abby of La Trappe, famous for its religious austerities. It is a small fortress, consisting of two parts: The towers are now finely over-grown with ivy, and command the view of three wooded glens, deep and darksome, forming a most gloomy solitude. They suffered the enemy to march along the streights of the country, till their forces were entangled in the depth of woods, and the steeps of the narrow vallies, so frequent in these parts.
The attack was sudden, fierce, and unexpected: This proved but a prelude to the English of a second defeat. His forces were again defeated; and Eustace Fitz John, a baron first in rank, wealth, and abilities among the English; and Robert de Courci, another great baron, with numbers of others, were slain. The route would have been general, if the king had not valiantly rallied his forces, and repulsed the Welsh: He afterwards attempted to cut off the retreat of Owen Gwynedd, by marching along the shore, and getting between him and the mountains; but the wise prince, penetrating into his views, retired to a plain near St.
This camp lies in the parish of St. George, on a lofty rock above the church, and is now called Pen y Parc. The antiquary adds, 'that he dwellith at Penrine in Flyntshire. At present it is in possession of John Davies esquire, of Llanerch. There are fourteen works, which make annually between three and four thousand pounds worth.
The ware is mostly exported to Ireland, and the towns on the Welsh coast; particularly to Swansey.
Great quantities of tiles for barn-floors, and for rooms, are also made here; and the annual sale of these two articles amounts to about twelve hundred pounds. THIS clay is of a deep ash color; is found in beds of a great thickness; and is dug up in hard lumps, resembling a shaley rock; after which it is left for a considerable time exposed to the air, in order to effect its dissolution.
The bricks made with it are set in the lead-furnaces with the unburnt clay, instead of mortar. I must not leave the parish of Northop without visiting the maritime parts, which stretch along the channel of the Dee. We find there the names of certain townships taken notice of in Doomsday book; Lead-brook, Normanized into Lathroc, from the Anglo-Saxon, Laed, and Broca either from the quantity of lead washed out of it, or from the smelting-works established on it.
This township, after the Conquest, was held by Robert of Rudland. It is twice mentioned in Doomsday book; and is said to have had on it a wood a league and a half long. In one place mention is made of two villeyns and two boors: I shall speak first of the manor and castle.
The last forms a most picturesque object, soaring above the woods. The other name is Saxon, as we find it written in Doomsday book, Haordine; at which time it was a lordship; had a church, two Carucae or ploughlands, half of one belonging to the latter; half an acre of meadow; a wood two leagues long and half a league broad. To the west of the church, in a field adjoining to the road, is a mount called Truman 's hill, within a piece of ground which appears to have been squared, and nicely sloped. It stood on the brow of the hill, and commanded a full view of the country. Another mount, called Conna's.
We shall find occasion to speak more of these in the course of our journey. This, before the Conquest, was a chief manor, and the capital one of the hundred of Atiscross. It was a cover to his Mercian dominions against the Britons, the natural and inveterate enemies of the Saxon race. But, with high respect to all the blood of all the Howards, it does not appear that their name was then known: The castle must soon have been rebuilt; for I find in it was styled Castrum Regis.
THAT year was distinguished by the general insurrection of the Welsh, under their prince Llewelyn and his brother David; the great effort of our gallant countrymen to preserve their liberties and antient mode of government. He was a prince of a most unamiable character, equally perfidious to his brother, his country, and to Edward, his benefactor and protector.
The last proved his greatest misfortune. He might have pleaded exemption from the English jurisdiction, and flung a strong odium on the tyranny of the conqueror, had he not accepted a barony, a seat among the English peers. He was in the same situation as the duke of Hamilton in later times; who denying the power of the court, was told that he was not tried as a Scotch peer, but as earl of Cambridge, a peerage bestowed on him by his unfortunate master.
Thomas earl of Salisbury, son to John, petitioned for annulling the former sentence: In this the advowson of the living is also given. Hawarden returned to Henry V. On this occasion John Hertcombe clamed Hawarden, as heir to the last survivor of the four feoffees: An inquisition was taken; his plea was found to be good; and restitution was made.
That monarch, in , honored the place with a visit, and made some residence here for the amusement of stag hunting: On the restoration, the Lords made an order, on the 17th of July , that the earl of Derby 's. The earl was then glad to compound with the serjeant for the property of this place, and granted it to him and his heirs; in whom it still remains. IT appears by these proceedings, as if the parlement was fearful of the consequences of even an act of justice; for, during the long troubles, there had been such vast change of property, effected by fuch variety of means, that it was apprehended, that the enquiry into the causes, and the dispossession of numbers who had quietly enjoyed such property from their fathers, might be attended with the most inflammatory consequences.
It is likewise probable, that many of the members might be interested in the event; therefore, were determined to stop at once any proceeding that might tend to affect the fortunes of themselves or friends. They were content to receive a trifle for the purchase, rather than lose the whole by violence; for there were very few who had not incurred a premunire under the ruling powers; which they were glad to get clear of by a seemingly voluntary sale.
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When they were thus disappointed in the hope of re-enjoyment of their fortunes, they laid the blame on the king, and invented the calumny of his rejecting this bill, after it had been passed unanimously by both houses. I omit the immediate answer to the summons, written in the religious strain affected by the party; which Marrow replies to like a true Cavalier. IT is not for to hear you preach that I am sent here; but in his majestie's name to demand the castle for his majestie's use: WE have cause to suspect your disaffection to preaching, in regard we find you thus employed.
If there be innocent souls here, God will require their blood of them that shed it. Captain Thomas Sandford, leader of the Firelocks, determined to fright them into submission by the terror of his name, or persuade them, to terms by the powers or his pen; and thus addresses the obstinate commandants:. I hear you have some of our late Irish army in your company: Be not unadvised; but think of your liberty; for I vow all hopes of relief are taken from you; and our intents are not to starve you, but to batter and storm you, and then hang you all, and follow the rest of that rebellious crew. I am no bread-and-cheese rogue, but, as ever, a loyalist, and will ever be, while I can write or name.
To the officer commanding in chief at Hawarden castle, and his concerts there. ALL this eloquence would have been flung away, had not more forces on the side of the king, and want of provisions on that of the garrison, co-operated with this valiant epistle. So, as Rushworth says, after a fortnight's siege, and much ink and little blood spilt, the castle being in want of provisions, was surrendered to Sir Michael Earnley, on condition to march out with half arms and two pair of colors, one flying, and the other furled; and to have a convoy to Wem or Nantwyche.
This alone is pretty entire. THE several parts of this fortress seem to have been built at different times. It is surrounded with deep fosses, now filled with trees. THE church is a plain but handsome building, kept in neat and decent repair. The parsonage-house is new, and suitable to the revenue.
The garden is very prettily layed out, upon a high and commanding ground. This sum is to be payed to the lord of the manor and other trustees; and is applicable to any uses which any five with the consent of the lord shall agree on. These are in his best manner. The attitudes are fine; and the lights and shadows most admirably disposed.
They are half lengths; a size that his great model excelled in. His education was after the best mode. He was, next to Pym, the most active manager against the earl of Strafford. The author of Hudibras seems to catch at this part of the character of these two great lawyers:. IN the case of Strafford, and in that of the impeachment of the twelve bishops, they acted on principle. This appears evident from the prosecution they afterwards underwent, for the noble stand they made against the ruin of the constitution, planned, and afterwards effected by the army.
In the next year, he was restored to his place in the house; appointed one of the ten. He, as well as the artful Whitelock, evaded all concern in trial of the king: Cromwel soon made him one of his council. He was grateful to his patron; for, being appointed of the committee to receive the protector's scruples about being made king, he urged the acceptance with the utmost zeal. Notwithstanding the usurper did not dare to assume the name, he mimicked the powers; and honored his advocate with calling him up by writ into his house of peers; that motley assembly of the year How flattering must this have been to the rightful prince, to find the antient mode acknowleged as most eligible even after the long abuse of it in his family by one of the ablest supporters of the protectorate?
Margaret 's church, Westminster. Levenot, a freeman, possessed it before. Robert also had a manor here, once held by a Saxon of the name of Ulmer. It is at present divided by a most excellent road, by whose side runs a small canal, cut by Sir John Glynne, for the conveyance of his coal into the Dee near the city. THE principal part of this common lies in Flintshire. The boundary is marked by a stone near the east end. It extends considerably on both sides. From the right flows the Leeches, a small brook, rising a little beyond Doddleston.
That place lies out of my rout; yet I mention it, as the place of interment of that honest chancellor Egerton lord Ellesmere, who preferred it out of affection to his mother, a native of this village. AT the extremity of Saltney, within a mile of Chester, the land rises suddenly. On the left-hand of the ascent are considerable hollows, with correspondent elevations: The road is continued along the small common of Over-leigh, and ends at Han-bridge, the suburbs of Chester, on this side of the river, belonging to the parish of St.
THE access to the city is over a very narrow and dangerous bridge, of seven irregular arches, rendered more inconvenient by the antient gateways at each end, formerly necessary enough, to prevent the inroads of my countrymen, who often carried fire and sword to these suburbs; which were so frequently burnt, as to be called by the Britons Tre-boeth, or the burnt town.
This legion came into Britain before the year 61; for it had share in the defeat of Boadicea by Suetonius. After this victory, the Roman forces were led towards the borders of North Wales, probably into this county. Afterwards, by reason of the relaxed state of discipline, a wing had been cut off by the Ordovices, just before the arrival of Agricola; but the quarters of these troops at this period are not exactly known. The walls, the precincts of the present city, mark the limits of the antient.
No part of the old walls exist; but they stood, like the modern, on the soft freestone rock, high above the circumjacent country, and escarpe on every front. THE structure of the four principal streets is without parallel. They run direct from east to west, and north to south; and were excavated out of the earth, and sunk many feet beneath the surface. THESE rows appear to me to have been the same with the antient vestibules; and to have been a form of building preserved from the time that the city was possessed by the Romans. Plautus, in the third act of his Mostella, describes both their situation and use:.
The streets were once considerably deeper, as is apparent from the shops, whose floors lie far below the present pavement. The lesser streets and allies, which run into the principal streets, sloped to the bottoms of the latter, as is particularly visible in were Bridge Street; but these are destiture of the galleries or rows. IT is difficult to assign a reason for these hollowed ways. Unless these hollowed streets were formed by the void left after the destruction of these great vaults, I can no more account for their formation, than for the place which those antient Souterrains occupied.
The only vaults now known, are of a middle age, and which belonged either to the hotels of the great men, or to the religious houses dispersed through the city. IT consisted of two arches, formed of vast stones, fronting the East-gate street and the Forest street: Wilkinson, of this city, will give a stronger idea of them than words can convey; as also of the figure of the Roman soldier, placed between the tops of the arches facing the Forest street.
THIS species of double gate was not unfrequent. THE gate in question faced the great Watling street road, and near the place where other military ways united. Through this was the greatest conflux of people; which rendered the use of the double portal more requisite. This is of a rectangular figure, supported by thirty-two pillars, two feet ten inches and a half high, and about eighteen inches distant from each other.
Such are continued over all the pillars. Above these are two layers; one of coarse mortar, mixed with small red gravel, about three inches thick; and the other of finer materials, between four and five inches thick: The pillars stand on a mortar-floor, spread over the rock. On the south side, between the middle pillars, is the vent for the smoke, about six inches square, which is at present open to the height of sixteen inches. Here is also an anti-chamber, exactly of the same extent with the Hypocaust, with an opening in the middle into it.
This is sunk near two feet below the level of the former, and is of the same rectangular figure; so that both together are an exact square. Such was the object of this Hypocaust; for there were others of different forms, for the purposes of heating the waters destined for the use of the bathers.
I MUST now descend towards the bridge, in search of the few further reliques of the antient colonists. After passing through the gate, on the right, near some skinners houses, is a small flight of steps, which lead to a large round arch, seemingly of Roman workmanship. This postern is called the Ship-gate, or Hole in the Wall. What reduces this to a certainty is, that the rock on the Hanbridge side is cut down, as if for the conveniency of travellers.
Tradition calls the spot the site of the palace of Edgar. His rapid fancy led him too frequently to paint things as he thought they ought to be, not what they really were. Dyson, and the soldier in the garden or Mr. Lawton, are the only pieces of detached antiquities now ramaining in this city.
On one of the narrower sides is a genius with a cornucopia; and on the other is a pot with a plant of the supposed acanthus, elegantly leaved. On the summit is a head included in a circular garland. I fogot to remark, that immediately over the inscription is a globe overtopped with palm-leaves. THIS was found in digging for a cellar near the East-gate, on the antient pavement, which consisted of great stones. THE other antiquities discovered here are now dispersed; which obliges me to have recourse to books, in order to place them in one point of view.
This appears to have been complimentary to the Britons, by adopting the epithet in their language, instead of that of Tonans. The inscription approved most by Mr. This might account for his preference of the word Tanaro, as highly flattering to the vanity of those he governed. THE next is a statue in possession of the late Reverend Mr. He is placed standing with a torch in his hands declining. The Phrygian bonnet marks him for a foreign deity. Gale, it being justly disputed whether it belonged to this place.
After this, the city fell under the government of the Britons, till their conquest was entirely effected by the new invaders the Saxons. These with their allies the Picts, were defeated near Mold, by the Christian Britons.
Vengeance of the Lump-Being: Chapter List
I mention this out of course, merely to shew, that the probable rest that Deva enjoyed for another century, was owing to this victory, which, obtained seemingly in a miraculous manner, discouraged for a long space any new attempts. IN a few years after it underwent a heavy calamity from the Danes. They seized on Legaceaster before the king could overtake them.
She was the undegenerate daughter of the great Alfred, and the wife of Ethelred earl of Mercia, under his brother-in-law Edward king of England. She kept on the best terms with her husband: AFTER the death of her husband, in , she assumed the government of the Mervan earldom, and the command of the army.
THE heroine appears well to have merited this eulogium. She took Brecenanmere, or Brecknock, and made its queen prisoner: Werburg, to do greater honor to his native city, makes the number of Reguli eight; and adds, that, in token of superiority, Edgar, one day entering his barge, assumed the helm, and made his eight tributaries row him from the palace, which stood in the field which still bears his name, up the Dee, to the church of St.
IN the following century, the invasions of the Danes were conducted with so much policy as to induce the factious and traiterous nobility of England to rise and favor their designs. This city is mentioned among those which suffered. ON the restoring of the Saxon line, it reverted, with the rest of the Mercian province, to its old masters. These earls were not created, but merely official.
After his second deprivation, he obtained again the province by dint of arms, assisted by Gryffyd and a Norwegian fleet. After the battle of Hastings, he sled, with his brother Morkar earl of Northumberland, to London, with a view of the crown, vacant by the death of Harold. The conqueror, in order at once to secure his new dominions, and to reward his followers, bestowed on them the lands of the noble Saxons. Cheshire fell to the share of Gherbod, a valiant Fleming. The Conqueror, in his place, appointed Hugh de Aurange, better known by the name of Hugh Lupus; the first Norman earl of Chester who ever possessed the county.
The sword by which he was invested with this dignity is still to be seen in the Museum, inscribed Hugo comes Cestriae. As soon as Lupus was firmly established, he began to exert his regal prerogatives. These were to assist the earl with their advice: Their knights and freeholders were to have corselets and habergeons, and were to defend their lands with their own bodies. They had besides power of life and death. THE earls had their chamberlain, which supplied the place of chancellor; an office continued to this day.
Here is a baron of the exchequer, and other officers conformable to those of the crown at Westminster: As his office and rank dropt with him, he is not reckoned among the barons. Probably the office was found unnecessary, and clashing with the priveleges of the high constable. The mayor seems to have been the substitute for the constable; an office which, during the period of the Norman earls, was, under them, supreme in all matters military and civil, in both city and county. IN the days of that potent earl, and probably long before he was possessed of this city, it enjoyed by prescription divers priveleges.
Such was the state in which the Normans found it; which the earls afterwards confirmed under their seals. Two overseers, selected out of the most respectable citizens, were appointed to maintain the rights of this guild. These officers were probably of the same nature as the deans of guild in Scotland.
It appears also from the Doomsday book, that here was a supreme officer, called the Prapesitus Regis, or provost, who had the care both of the civil and commercial interests. Chester was, admirably situated for supplying all these articles, excepting the last.
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The rich plains of Cheshire furnished horns and hides; and the Cambrian mines, lead and copper. Rich armour was another considerable article; for war and religion created in these ages the most important commerce of the state. The warriors and the sainted images were the beaux of the time; the crimes of the former were supposed to be readily expiated by prostration to the latter; and acceptance was announced by the priest in proportion to the value of the offering.
Martins skins are twice mentioned in the Doomsday book, among the imports of Chester. A sensible but uncouth poem, about the year , published in Hakluyt, i. It is certain that Chester had long been a celebrated port. THE state of this city, in the time of Edward the Confessor, and at the Conquest, must be collected from the famous survey the Doomsday book. IT is probable that the city soon emerged from its calamities, and felt a considerable increase under its new masters, a more polished race; for the Normans affected as much elegance in their dress and their buildings, as they did temperance in their meat and drink.
The example of a magnificent warrior, such as the new earl, was quickly copied. His court, and that of his successors, rendered it the most considerable place in these parts. He speaks of the ships coming from Gascoign, Spain, Ireland, and Germany, who, by GOD'S assistance, and by the labour and conduct of mariners, repair hither and supply them with all sorts of commodities; so that being comforted with the favour of GOD in all things, we drink wine plentifully; for those countries have abundance of vineyards.
As Giraldus was a great dealer in presages, it is wondrous he made no use of all these portents: THIS city seems to have been a constant rendezvous of troops, and place d'armes for every expedition on this side of the kingdom, from the times of the Normans to the conquest of Ireland by William III. In , Henry III. She appointed James lord Audley to command the Cheshire forces. Michael Drayton gives an animated description of the effects of civil discord on this occasion: Such marks of royal favor were not unfrequent.
THIS city had also its share in the calamitous distempers of the times. The remark, of this destroying-angel's respect to the female sex, was verified here; for only four perished. Heaven, in order to humble him, causes a deep sleep to fall on him in church: Robert awakes; runs to his palace; is disowned; seized as an impostor, and at last appointed fool of the hall to the new king; and,. Others again were the labors of Sir Henry Frances, another monk, as appears by the proclamation for the Whitson plays in this year, made by the clerk of the Pentice, setting forth, that in.
Our drama, as the very ingenious Mr. THESE plays were twenty-five in number. They do not appear to us in the words of the original deviser: Adam and Eve appeared literally naked, and were not ashamed, till after the fall, when they proposed, according to the stage-direction, to make themselves subligacula a foliis, quibus tegamus pudenda, and made their appearance with an apron of fig-leaves, sticking religiously to the account given in the third chapter of Genesis.
THE Water leaders and drawers of the Dee, took, with great propriety, the History of the Deluge; which being handled in a very diverting manner, I shall transcribe as a pattern of the rest. Their prologue tells them, that Noe shall goe into the arke, with all his femylye, his wyfe excepte.
THE Cappers and Linen-drapers took up the story of Balaam and his ass; and make the prophet accost his beast in terms too low and ludicrous to be repeated. This animal had far greater respect paid it in a neighboring kingdom; for feasts were held in honor of it. The Mercers, the Offerings of the three Kings. The Glovers tell of the death of Lazarus.
The Corvisors, of Jesus and the Lepers. The Bakers, of the last Supper. The Ironmongers, the Crucifixion. She is then welcomed by the devils; which closes the piece, and all I shall relate of those heaps of absurdities. Their houses were distinguished by having the fronts whitewashed, by having signs, not hung out, but painted against the walls.
Among the signs, I observe the singular one of the cardinal's hat. The women that frequented them were forbidden the rites of the church, as long as they exercised their profession, and were excluded from Christian burial, if they were not reconciled before their death. I have often been informed by the worthy Doctor William Cooper, that when Marsh was brought to Boughton, the place of execution, by the sheriffs Amory and Cooper, the last, an ancestor of the Doctor; favoring the religion of the sufferer, attempted his rescue; but being overpowered by his brother-officer, was obliged to fly till better times, when he returned, and discharged the office of mayor in Man; on which triumph was made two forts, and shipping on the water, besides many horsemen well armed and appointed.
The forts and shipping seem to have been pageants, to carry on some deeds of chivalry. The assailants battered it with nosegays; and the besieged discharged against them cannons filled with sweet powder, or odoriferous waters. IN this year the city was honored with the presence of James I. Edward Button, presented his majesty with a fair standing cup, with a cover double gilt, and in it a hundred jacobins or gold. He also delivered the city's sword to the king, who returning it, the mayor bore it before him on horseback.
His worship was offered the honor of knighthood, but declined it. The unfortunate earl of Essex, in , in his way to Ireland, was still more distinguished. At the beginning of the civil war, immediate attention was paid to this important city, by the royal party. The fortifications were put into the best repair, and outworks extended from the alcove on the north part of the walls, to the brink of the river near Boughton; and in consequence, numbers of houses were pulled down, to prevent them from giving shelter to the enemy. Colonel Jones and adjutant-general Lothian, who were employed in the reduction of Beeston castle, drew from before that place, in a secret manner, a large body of forces, and in the night stormed the outworks, and made themselves masters of every thing, even to the city walls.
His majesty, immediately after this misfortune, passed through Wales, and got into the city, in hopes of animating the garrison, and was lodged at Sir Francis Gamul 's, near the bridge. The king took the route of Den-high, attended to that town by the three respectable citizens, Sir Francis Gamul, alderman Cooper, and captain Thropp. The siege was continued with the utmost vigour by Sir William Brereton; notwithstanding which, the gallant garrison held out for twenty weeks, beyond the expectation of every body: The city was evacuated by the royalists; and received from the parlement, as governor, colonel Jones.
But the miseries of the citizens did not terminate with the siege: Grose, it was begun by the great restorer of the city, Ethelfieda, and after her death completed by her brother Edward. I find them often leased by the crown; Edward the black prince, in particular, in , grants them, the fishing, suit, court, and calsey, for three years, to Robert of Bredone, parson of St. Peter of Chester, and others, at the annual rent of l.