Unnützer Reichtum (German Edition)

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So kann man sich die USA in ihren verschiedenen Facetten anschauen.

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Sie verdienen euer Geld, eure Zeit, eure Energie und euer Wissen nicht. Der Vermittlungsversuch scheiterte jedoch. Die Kirche ihrerseits sah die Festigung der Reformation in Gefahr. Wer trotz der Repressalien an seiner Religion und seinen Prinzipien festhielt, wurde etwa als Sklave auf venezianische Galeeren gebracht, was einer Hinrichtung gleichkam. Jahrhundert aufgrund ihres Glaubens ihr Leben. Da macht es auch nichts, dass sich eine bayerische Blaskapelle in den Umzug zu Ehren Bernes verlaufen hat.

Auf jemanden, der heute in der Schweiz lebt, wirkt diese Welt fremd und kitschig. Nur vier Prozent davon leben in Europa. In den 14 Schweizer Gemeinden sind es lediglich 2 Mitglieder. Eine erstaunlich geringe Zahl, wenn man bedenkt, dass hier die Wurzeln der Mennoniten liegen. Die meisten Einwohner der Stadt sind direkte Nachfahren der Auswanderer aus dem Auf den Aussenstehenden macht die Szenerie einen stark befremdlichen Eindruck.

Anna Jazewitsch Necklace worn as a belt: Butterflysoulfire Dreamcatcher worn as earring: Vintage Photography and Artwork Johanna Ruebel, johanna-ruebel. Was uns das bringt? Sein Grossvater hatte Alzheimer. Er wollte wissen, was ihm die Zukunft bringt, welches seine vererbten Krankheitsrisiken sind. Deshalb entschloss er sich zu spucken. Eine Tabelle zeigt die Prozentangaben der zutreffenden Wahrscheinlichkeiten. Doch wer steht hinter diesem DNA-Business? Eine Untersuchung kostet derzeit 99 Dollar plus Lieferung, in die Schweiz sind es insgesamt etwa um die Franken. Aber was sagt so ein Test aus?

Doch was bringt ihm diese Zahl? Wenn man sich auf der Webseite von 23andMe registriert, kann man sich gegen Bezahlung sein Erbgut auf etwa genetisch bedingte Krank Der Patient wird mit seinen Ergebnissen alleine gelassen. Was tun, wenn man weiss, dass man mit prozentiger Wahrscheinlichkeit an Diabetes erkranken wird?

Die vorhersagende Medizin bringt etwas, so lange sie als konkretes Werkzeug verwendet wird, um eine Krankheit zu verhindern. Kann man die Genesung medizinisch jedoch nicht beeinflussen, ist diese Prophezeiungsmedizin meiner Meinung nach moralisch nicht vertretbar. Er ist verbannt in das Niemandsland zwischen Gesundheit und Krank-. Ein weiteres Thema bei 23andMe ist der Datenschutz. Oder eben gerade nicht. Sie werden an Pharma-Unternehmen und Forschungsinstitute weiterverkauft, welche damit wiederum ertragreiche Medikamente entwickeln.

Wie die Amerikaner sagen: Curiosity kills the cat. Nicht nur um in die eigene Zukunft zu schauen, werden Gentests eingesetzt. Meine Resultate sind recht gut. Ich hoffe einfach, niemand missbraucht ausgerechnet meine kinki report. Waren die Fernfahrer im Stress, so funkten sie Turi ihre Bestellung auch mal durch und liessen sich die Ware dann direkt durchs Autofenster reichen. Doch seit einem Jahr ist es ruhig geworden im Quartier: Naja, die USA gelten als freies Land. Oder er packt die letzten Sachen, die noch im alten Ladenlokal liegen geblieben sind, in Kartonschachteln.

Du warst noch nie in Amerika? Ich bin beim Reisen eher Italien-orientiert. Nein, eher, dass ich dem George W. Wir haben mit dem echt eine hundsmiserable Zeit durchlebt. In seiner Amtszeit gingen extrem viele Country Clubs und Vereine dieser Art unter, einer um den anderen. Turi, du siehst ja eigentlich aus wie ein richtiger Amerikaner.

Wurdest du erst durch deine Arbeit zum Ami-Fan, oder warst du das schon vorher? Das hat sich halt einfach irgendwie ergeben. Wir haben uns so sehr in diese Sache vertieft. Was meinten deine Verwandten zu deiner Verwandlung? Dort unten kennt man das halt weniger. Hatte ich alles auch schon. Auch wenn ich nicht sonderlich viel von Politik verstehe. Lass uns doch noch ein kleines Assoziationsspiel machen. Ein Song, zu dem man weinen, mitsingen oder tanzen kann. Ein richtiger Dancefloor-Track mit schwerem Bass und ganz viel Power!

Es geht um Feuer! Ja, ums innere Feuer sozusagen. Hier geht es eigentlich auch wieder um Reichtum.

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Irgendwie wollte niemand so recht glauben, dass eine derart soulige Stimme so hoch im Norden zu finden sei. Man denkt vielleicht, dadurch mehr Macht zu erlangen, doch eigentlich ist das einzige, was man daraus gewinnt, Frustration. Ein sommerlicher Song, sanft und mit einer leichten Brise. Ja, eine Art Trance. Genau das ist es auch, was im Video dazu thematisiert wird.

Endlich mal ein richtiger Lovesong von uns! Ja, genau, eine Grille haben wir mit aufgenommen. Eigentlich ein ziemlich simples Liebeslied. Aber sehr traurig, melancholisch und irgendwie niederschmetternd. Wieder ein ziemlicher DancefloorTrack! Sein Leben war alles andere als einfach.

Und noch eine entscheidende Sache wurde ihm beigebracht: Die Liebe zur Musik. Vater und Mutter sind beide Musiker und seit ihrer Kindheit blind. Ihr Leben findet deshalb fast ausschliesslich in einer akustischen Welt statt, in der die Musik alles dominiert. Diese tiefe Verbundenheit und musische Begabung wird auch in Williams Leben ein zentraler Bestandteil. Mein Ziel ist es dabei nicht, die Leute zu deprimieren. In diesem Zustand steckt auch sehr viel Reinheit. Sind die weniger inspirierend?

Was ist deiner Meinung nach besser: Das ist eine sehr interessante Frage. Dann muss es wieder etwas sehr Dunkles sein. Deine Eltern sind beide blind. Wie hat sich das auf dein Leben ausgewirkt? Melodien werden zu einer Sprache. Sie sind mehr als das Gedudel im Radio. Als ich die Augen.

Als ich klein war, habe ich immer die Bartpracht meines Vaters bestaunt und konnte es kaum erwarten, mal selbst so einen zu haben. Geld, Macht und Ruhm. Da ist es gut, eine kleine Schutzmauer zu haben. Ich weiss nicht, ich denke, beim Musikschreiben ist es einfach wichtig, dass du nur das sagst, von dem du denkst, dass es auch wirklich gesagt werden muss. Das wird dich wohl immer davor bewahren, richtig gross rauszukommen. Man sollte eine gesunde Balance zwischen Bekanntheit und Diskretion finden. Ich will, dass die Leute wegen meiner Musik zu meinen Konzerten kommen, nicht weil ich gerade in bin.

Dein Bart ist dein Markenzeichen. Wie kamst du auf die Idee, ihn dir wachsen zu lassen? Tja, das ist eine Art Familientradition. GusGus erfinden sich darauf nicht neu, doch das Mass an Perfektion ihres Sounds wird noch einmal nach oben geschraubt. Denn einen Monat vor dem eigentlichen Releasedatum wurde die Platte Mittlerweile ist der Miterfinder des Dub 75 Jahre alt geworden. Das hindert Perry aber noch lange nicht, so gut wie jedes Jahr eine neue Platte herauszubringen. Der Albumtitel verspricht also nicht zuviel.

Elf energetische Songs sind auf der Scheibe zu entdecken — produziert von einer weiteren Legende:. Nebenbei hat er auch noch Iggy Pop jahrelang abgemischt. Kalkbrenner schafft es in angenehm ruhiger Art und Weise, in den zehn Tracks seine bisherigen Auskopplungen musikalisch fast komplett abzudecken und sie in die rund 60 Minuten Spielzeit der Platte zu verdichten. Der Hype um seine Person, der auf den Film folgte, sprengte sicherlich alle Erwartungen.

Nie kommerziell und doch im-. Ob gut oder schlecht, keiner weiss es mehr. Mit einem dreifachen Rittberger ist er erneut in den Pool der Neuerscheinungen gesprungen und mit mehr als nur einer musikalischen Perle im Haar wieder daraus aufgetaucht! Eine unglaubliche Dichte und Direktheit sind das Ergebnis ihres ausgereiften Arrangements. Im Interview ziehen Sandro und Ben nun Bilanz. Wieso ist das eigentlich so? Sie machen es sich zu einfach hier. Uns war es wichtig, unseren Horizont zu erweitern. Denn wir wollen interessante und international relevante Musik machen. Wenn man immer zu Hause bleibt, muss man sich nicht wundern, wenn man sich irgendwann nicht mehr weiterentwickelt.

Viel Musik, die uns inspiriert, kommt im Moment aus New York. Das hat uns angezogen. Dass wir schliesslich selbst dort spielen konnten, verdanken wir verschiedenen Leuten. Einige Bands, die wir hier in der Schweiz supportet haben, haben uns schliesslich die entscheidenden Club-Tipps gegeben. Das hat uns schon viel gebracht und gibt uns immer wieder zu denken.

Zum Beispiel wenn wir sehen, wie gerne viele Bands in der Schweiz auf Tour sind. Selber dort zu spielen, war schon tough. Diese Erfahrung hat uns als Band sicher gut getan. Zuerst kam ein Typ aus. Warum macht ihr das? Und wir hatten ja auch sehr tolle Shows in New York! Ich verstehe Bands nicht, die nur von der Publikumsreaktion leben.

Uns ist auch das Drumherum wichtig, besonders die Begegnungen mit anderen Musikern. Welche Vorteile bietet Amerika in punkto Selbstverwirklichung? Warum lohnt es sich als Musiker, dorthin zu reisen? Du bist nie allein unter all den anderen Musikern. Es wird ein bisschen echter.

Es spielt keine Rolle, wie alt jemand ist oder was man sonst machen will. Musik zu machen, ist ein Lebensweg, der einfach akzeptiert wird. Das ist der Wahnsinn. Der Unterschied liegt wohl im kulturellen Hintergrund. Da spielen die Medien eine grosse Rolle. In der Schweiz gibt es eben viel weniger Leute. Gibt es eurer Meinung nach so etwas wie den American Dream?

Einen so intensiven Austausch wie in New York findest du hier nicht. Die Leute haben viel Verschiedenes am Laufen. Klar, die Schweiz ist schon nice und fine und safe und warm. Ich glaube, dass du Freiheit nur im Verzicht finden kannst. Das ist in Zufrieden zu sein mit Immateriellem. Mehr bei sich selbst zu sein. Momentan seid ihr wieder in Basel. Was habt ihr von New York mitgenommen? Das Wissen, dass es anders sein kann.

Um das zu realisieren, musste ich weg. Das, was ich mir zuvor nur vorgestellt habe, ist erlebbar geworden. Werdet ihr denn nun in Basel bleiben? Wir hatten einen guten Start hier, aber wir wollen weiter. Auch mit neuen Sachen. Inspirieren liess er sich dabei vor allem von seinem Vater. Das klappte eigentlich eher schlecht. Will von Yours Truly wagt mit uns einen Abstecher in seine Kindheit. Als Kind hatte ich wahnsinnige Angst vor Hexen. In der sechsten Klasse bekam ich Hausarrest an Halloween. Die Szene in Almost.

Ich hatte mir die Texte der Songs ausgedruckt und konnte darum alles mitsin-. Ich musste es einfach tun. Kaum zu glauben, dass die Hauptstadt der kanadischen Provinz Manitoba derart soulige Musik wie die von Imaginary Cities hervorbringt. Glaubt man John K. Nun ja, was soll ich dazu sagen. Ich glaube nicht, dass das so stimmt, Amerika hat sicher auch eine Menge zu bieten. Die Beziehung ist im Alltag nicht wirklich schwierig. Es macht Spass, die Amerikaner manchmal etwas aufzuziehen. Was ist so schlimm an dieser Stadt?

Hmm, schlimm ist eigentlich nichts, ausser dass es im Winter wirklich verdammt kalt wird. Aber ansonsten kann man hier gut leben.

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Was ist das Tolle an Winnipeg? Winnipeg ist ein grossartiger Ort. Die Leute kennen sich also untereinander, man trifft sich ja immer wieder an der Theke. Es entwickeln sich viele Kooperationen und spannende Projekte in diesem Umfeld. Und so haben auch Rusty und ich zusammengefunden. Wie seid ihr zur Musik gekommen? Dann trat ich aber vor ein paar Jahren dieser Motown-Coverband bei. Rusty hingegen hat ja schon immer Musik gemacht, bei den Weakerthans und The Waking Eyes, und auch vorher schon mit anderen Bands.

Nach dem Auftritt feilten wir noch ein bisschen am. Song und seither gibt es Imaginary Cities. Rustys Rockmusik und mein Motown-Soul. Wie seid ihr auf den Namen Imaginary Cities gekommen? Wow, Imaginary Cities, das ist es! Wow, das ist ja cool, da will ich hin! Gibt es einen Ort, der dieser Vorstellung nahe kommt? Vielleicht ohne die fliegenden Autos.

Winnipeg kommt dem eigentlich schon ziemlich nahe. Ich liebe alles an Winnipeg — ausser dem Wetter. Imaginary Cities spielen am Weitere Info findest du unter imaginarycities. Z in sc sse er us. Gute Sicht ist auf einem Roadtrip das A und O. Evian Mineralwasser schmeckt einfach am besten.

CHF 1 bis 1. Ihr Eis wird zu Prozent aus fair gehandelten Zutaten hergestellt. Es muss ja nicht immer Schoggi sein: Was wir von unseren Sommerferien mit nach Hause bringen? Manchmal leider auch in Form von Hautunreinheiten. CHF 3 m-way. Vor bald Jahren hat Keds den ersten Turnschuh mit weicher Gummisohle erfunden.

Eau de Toilette ab CHF Zegna Sport Canvas shirt: Uniforms for the dedicated Glasses: Man kann es drehen und wenden, wie man will: Amerika fasziniert auch heute noch. Anleihen bei sowjetischen Propagandapostern und der Pop Art sind offensichtlich. Linda McCartney verstarb an Brustkrebs.

Die vorliegende Retrospektive entstand in enger Zusammenarbeit mit ihrer Familie, was sich in der liebevollen Auswahl der Bilder bemerkbar macht. Erschienen bei Taschen, ca. So zeigen alle Bilder dieses charakteristische Moment einer eingefrorenen Bewegung oder eines Filmstills auf. Man sieht etwa das Wasser fliessen und den Wind wehen. Eines Nachts sieht er gar einen Mann im Morgenmantel durch sein Haus wandeln. Wild entschlossen, diesen Mann wiederzufinden, verliert sich Jacobo in seinen Wahnvorstellungen. Die szenische und technische Darstellung erinnert an diverse Klassiker der Filmgeschichte.

Gleichzeitig erschafft das Trio spannende Nahaufnahmen und wagt interessante Blickwinkel. Nebenbei steckt auch noch jede Menge Lebensweisheit in dem Streifen. Die Edition von Steidl wurde gedruckt und in Zusammenarbeit mit dem Fotografen mit neu angefertigten Scans erstellt. Das Setting auf dem unsterblichen Friedensplaneten Oa erinnert dabei an Avatar. Amerika haben unsere Rezensenten William S. Blake und Florence Ritter noch nie gemeinsam bereist. Wie durch ein Wunder erledigte sich seine Arbeit Bereits auf DVD erschienen.

Lars von Trier formuliert hier gewagte Thesen. Zum Beispiel dass Freiheit nicht nur gute Seiten und gesellschaftliche Normen nicht nur schlechte Seiten haben. Die Sklaverei und der Umgang damit werden auf vielschichtige Art kritisiert. Der Zuschauer muss dabei nicht nur einmal leer schlucken. A young girl singing among the hills, with the clouds drifting overhead. But solitary as one of the floating clouds, a poet had been listening to her song. The thoughts that it provoked in him are the Sarabande that follows the Rondeau.

His is a slow and lovely meditation on the beauty in spite of squalor and stupidity , the profound goodness in spite of all the evil , the oneness in spite of such bewildering diversity of the world. It is a beauty, a goodness, a unity that no intellectual research can discover, that analysis dispels, but of whose reality the spirit is from time to time suddenly and overwhelmingly convinced.

A girl singing to herself under the clouds suffices to create the certitude. Even a fine morning is enough. Is it illusion or the revelation of profoundest truth? Pongileoni blew, the fiddlers drew their rosined horsehair across the stretched intestines of lambs; through the long Sarabande the poet slowly meditated his lovely and consoling certitude.

Through its metaphorical content this interpretive description of orchestral music also provides a symbolic moment of reference for the developing plot structure. He creates a multidimensional spatial-temporal impression of the music which — after this initial detailed description — he takes up later in the novel and develops further in its spiritual and emotional impact. There is all the more reason to do so, since nonliterary verbalization of music is not only possible, but constitutes a substantial portion of the writings of music critics, musicologists, and historians of music.

It might be illuminating, therefore, to focus briefly on the various literary as well as nonliterary approaches to evocation of music and try to define the position of verbal music among these approaches.

As shown in the above sketch, evocations of music necessarily occupy a place between the two poles, music and literature. We may safely regard absolute music on the one hand and poetry and prose on the other as pure manifestations of music and literature, respectively. The remaining types, though each is related primarily to only one of the two arts, exhibit features which link them to a greater or lesser extent to the other art as well.

Both program music and vocal music employ music as their primary medium, and thus are connected with literature only in a limited sense: Evocations of music, on the other hand, can be either literary or nonliterary in nature. Although both types resort to language as their medium of expression, program notes employ nonliterary language and should therefore be distinguished from word music, musical structures and devices in literary works, and verbal music. Thus only literary evocations of music can be said to belong to literature and to merit recognition as artistic achievements.

A comparative consideration of source, primary technique of realization, and aim may also cast some light on the distinction between the various types of verbalization of music. He generally offers an analytical transcription of his source in the conventional jargon of musicology, often having recourse to a vague brand of metaphorical prose as well. While the composer aims at creation of a musical work of art and the musician at direct communication of the music to an audience, the music critic merely provides indirect communication of the music through verbal approximation.

Both the composer and the musician employ musical sound material, while the music critic uses nonliterary language. To create literary works of art, the poet in this designation I include the writer of poetry as well as of prose projects his imagination to his readers by means of conventional or innovative literary structures and techniques. In all literary evocations of music the poet supplements his ordinary source i. The poet who chooses to imitate musical structures and devices achieves his goal through attempting the superimposition of musical structures on a literary work or through experimenting with musical devices in a literary medium Rather than capturing a poetic semblance of musical sound or imitating musical form, verbal music aims primarily at poetic rendering of the intellectual and emotional implications and suggested symbolic content of music.

Two basic types of verbal music can be distinguished. Poetic imagination alone, inspired by music in general, serves as the source of the second type of verhal music; and it involves direct presentation of fictitious music in words: For a thorough and up-to-date consideration, see Horst Petri, op. Less common knowledge, however, is that he also planned to complete a similar treatise on the relations between literature and music It is not inconceivable that he might have included considerations of musicoliterary phenomena such as verbal music.

Form in the plastic arts, according to Lessing, is necessarily spatial because the visible aspect of objects can best be presented juxtaposed in an instant of time. Literature, on the other hand, makes use of language, composed of a succession of words proceeding through time; and it follows that literary form, to harmonize 14 New York, , 15 Instances of verbal music in poetry are much more limited in potential suggestiveness. For a comprehensive treatment of related problems in poetry, see Calvin S. Brown, Tones into Words Athens, Ga. Two of these were music and poetry, and he analysed them in a way familiar to us from the published Laokoon.

Georg Witkowski Leipzig, , IV, Music unfolds in virtual time created by sound, a dynamic flow given directly and, as a rule, purely to the ear. This virtual time, which is an image not of clocktime, but of lived time, is the primary illusion of music. In it melodies move and harmonies grow and rhythms prevail, with the logic of an organic living structure. Virtual time is to music what virtual space is to plastic art: Painting, sculpture, architecture, music, and literature, generally considered the major fine arts, may be classified into two types: The visual arts painting, sculpture, and architecture are static and primarily exist in space.

Though essentially spatial in nature, they also strive to be comprehended in time, i. The auditory arts music and literature are dynamic and primarily exist in time. Though essentially temporal in nature, they also strive to be comprehended in space, i. Langer, Problems of Art New York, , Thus each of the two types of art attempts to overcome the ontological restrictions of its own mode and tends toward the aesthetic conditions of the other type.

However unrealizable the reciprocal tendencies of the various arts may be, their realization can at least be attempted or approximated by one type of art in the medium of the other. In this sense we may speak of an essential affinity between the visual and the auditory arts as reflected in the numerous mixed categories and interrelations possible between the arts such as painting in literature, music as painting, painting in music, literature in painting, etc Both literature and music are temporal art forms and thus share an intrinsic aesthetic impulse to be comprehended in space.

With these assumptions in mind, tentative conclusions may be drawn, I think, concerning the phenomenon of reciprocal evocability in the sister arts. See also Zuckerkandl, op. What concrete aesthetic implications for verbal music can be inferred from the preceding speculations? As demonstrable in the Huxley passage quoted above, instances of verbal music are most effective if they are able to conjure up unique combinations of spatial and temporal relations while firmly anchored in the narrative context. Successful authors of verbal music achieve an ingenious intermingling of the basic principles of spatial and temporal perception to a degree of simultaneity which ultimately creates a verbal semblance of a pictorial three-dimensional artistic medium beyond the limitations of aesthetic perception characteristic of any one art form.

A definite retarding effect on the narrative movement in a given work emerges as a characteristic feature of prose passages of verbal music. In context the result of such retardation consists in the creation of a literally static moment which tends to arrest and suspend the narrative flow for the duration of the verbal evocation. This moment effects a temporary rest in the progressing, horizontal sequence of the narrated events. This music description toward the end of the novel is strategically situated to convey symbolic significance in structure as well as in theme.

Structurally, it con24 25 Scher, op. Are retardation, spatiality, verticality, and a generally static quality characteristic only of passages of verbal music? Nature descriptions, evocations of specific paintings, detailed portrayals of objects, essayistic digressions, philosophical speculations and the like also seem to accomplish a similar illusion within the narrative sequence of fiction.

In successful verbal evocations of music, however, the chief distinguishing trait might be that the created feeling of spatiality mingles simultaneously with a definite impression of progressive movement. By force of a virtually unlimited potentiality for symbolic reference, instances of verbal music possess a greater synthesizing power.

Authors can utilize this potentiality in order to integrate retrospective as well as anticipatory allusions and other correspondences present in narrative structures. Thus poetry today needs a new poetics, a technique of analysis which cannot be arrived at by simple transfer or adaptation of terms from the fine arts.

I believe that systematic comparisons between the arts can indeed be fruitful and can contribute toward a better understanding of the basic aesthetic principles applicable to more than just one art form. But it must be conceded that a sceptical attitude toward interart parallels is to some extent justifiable.

I see the major reason for such scepticism in the lack of a clearly defined critical terminology and in the predilection of some critics for a set of terms based on little more than metaphorical impressionism. Particularly in discussions of possible correspondences between literature and music, critics often seem to abandon all restraint in matters of appropriate linguistic usage and succumb to the Dionysian, demonic power of music. The result is terminological chaos, usually in the form of inexact, undiscriminating and often highly idiosyncratic borrowings from a vocabulary which properly belongs to musical analysis; and appellations such as melody, harmony, counterpoint, cadence, orchestration, syncopation, and modulation abound.

I should like to illustrate the inconsistent use of these terms, sketch the critical response to the problem and suggest some corrective measures which might lead to a more practicable terminology. Here is a confusing passage from Gretchen L. The following statement by K. Wilson exemplifies the unqualified over-emphasis on the allegedly musical quality of poetry: We know that Ezra Pound, both as poet and critic, has devoted serious attention to the complex relationship of poetry and music.

An excerpt from F. Classical and Modern, , pp. Clearly, all this effusiveness in the spirit of Walter Pater has little to do with the art of music or with profitable literary criticism. Luigi Ronga, professor of the history of music in Rome, must surely be aware of terminological difficulties. Yet, when he writes about musicality in poetry, he, too, cannot avoid adding to the confusion: The basic factor of all great poetry, by common agreement, is a typical and individual musicalness, and it is scarcely possible to point to a genuine poet devoid of individual melodic gift.

Harsh, awkward, contorted verse disappears from memory by its sheer weight; it lacks that mysterious rhythmic and melic pulsation which even the closest analysis cannot capture. All great poets, therefore, are musical. The Meeting of Poetry and Music, pp. Examples for such usage in German romantic literature and criticism are familiar enough; and the English romantics are no exception.

The delight in richness and sweetness of sound, even to a faulty excess [ The man that has not music in his soul can indeed never be a genuine poet [ Ich sage musikalischen, um hier an die doppelte Verwandtschaft der Poesie mit der Tonkunst und mit der bildenden Kunst zu erinnern. In view of such an array of examples, there are many questions that should be raised. Or should the term be discarded altogether?

What other term or set of terms might be proposed to clear up the confusion? One would expect that such questions requiring rigorous semantic discrimination would generate much clarifying effort on the part of scholars interested in literary theory and methodology. Yet only a few critics — and only in recent decades — have contributed significantly to the discussion.

Muschg and Staiger, , pp. Merker and Stammler, II [], pp. There seems to be general agreement that the terminological inexactitude as reflected in traditional usages should not be tolerated. But so far only the ground has been broken and most of the work has been descriptive rather than innovative. Also, most of the critics address themselves to the meaning of music in poetry, with only occasional remarks on musicality in prose.

Anatomy of Criticism, , pp. Ignoring those instances when the term is employed in such a muddled way that in the end it signifies nothing, we may distinguish three possibilities of implicated meaning: Even though both music and poetry consist of organized sound, I believe that the overall acoustic effect of poetry is very different from that of music. And while certain similar emotions or moods may be evoked both by a piece of literature and by a musical composition, this resemblance does not entitle us to describe the evocation contained in the literary work in musical terms.

In the case of the acoustic and evocative responses, therefore, no direct connection between the two arts can be substantiated, and any association with the art of music is illusory. In short, I can see no appreciable gain in critical insight from such analogies. Only in the case of the third type of response — alluding to structural phenomena, to artistic arrangement in musiclike sequence — are we dealing with literary techniques which can be proven on occasion to be more or less analogous to certain techniques in actual music.

Like Frye, I would eliminate what he calls the sentimental, i. By euphonious I would mean the poetic use of smooth, mellifluous sound patterns; and the adjective cacophonous would characterize the poetic use of non-euphonious sound effects, from the strident through the sibilant to the muted.

I prefer these terms to others like harmonious and melodious or dissonant and discordant because they primarily signify a more general sound quality. But I admit that they also carry a musical connotation, however remote. Yet only recently, in summing up the present state of research, Reinhold Grimm was prompted to write: That this unique, though at first glance unassuming little work has been all but neglected2 is surprising since critics have examined in considerable detail virtually everything Brecht wrote for the 1 Cf.

Even the most up-to-date and comprehensive bibliography lists only a handful of brief treatments. Framed by a prologue and an epilogue, it is essentially a Stationendrama in miniature, consisting of a series of seven scenes each ostensibly depicting one of the seven deadly sins: Brecht chose a well-known subject to accommodate the complex theatrical design he had in mind involving no less than three basic artistic media: For inspiration he must have particularly welcomed the loosely connected scenic portrayals of the sins in the paintings and drawings of Bosch and Breughel5 which are so akin in spirit 3 Die Bibel was first published in the Augsburg student paper Die ErnIe in January, Hereafter references to this edition for quotations from the ballet will be given in the text in parentheses, e.

No doubt aware of the long and illustrious history of the concept in theology, art, and literature, and thus relying on the traces of the religious and allegorical representations surviving in the universal consciousness6, the poet could proceed to construct his own, modern version on the theme. During a period of seven years in seven major American cities, under the strict guidance of Anna I, Anna II confronts and successfully withstands the seven deadly sins of bourgeois society.

With the help of Karl Korsch, his Marxist philosopher friend and expert teacher, the poet was thoroughly indoctrinated by More significant than the straightforward, unambiguous moral, however, is the subtly equivocal conceptual framework Brecht devises to get his message across. But Brecht does not stop at this initial stage of alienation. By adding antithetical explicatory phrases to the individual sins, he further twists the original connotations toward his didactic aim.

Anna II reveals herself as only too human in being susceptible to sloth. Wanting to be lazy in committing injustice, Anna II is in fact being virtuous. In a similar manner, Brecht alters the conventional meaning of one sin after another so that a dialectic pattern of connotations emerges: The original version is particularly skeletal and wooden compared to the text the poet prepared for Weill to set to music9.

The fact that both Annas are simultaneously and continuously visible, however, is unique. By transplanting contemporary social problems into a geographically distant milieu, the poet intends to alienate them and thereby bring about fresh awareness. The religious allusion of the title signals at the outset that this social satire is meant as a serious attack on the hypocrisy of the bourgeois moral code; from beneath the 8 As a Marxist, Brecht seems to be implying here that taking from the rich should be considered a virtue and that only indiscriminate greed is a sin.

This section of the text is unconvincing in its logic. Anna II dances through one gate after the other, ripping through the paper. On one side of the stage the members of the family are seated on a small platform; and as the action proceeds the walls of the house gradually rise around them. Anna I stands across from the family on the other side of the stage The Introduction and Finaletto, corresponding to the prologue and epilogue sections in the text, exhibit a certain thematic similarity and thus round off the cycle of movements.

Climactic musical passages usually occur in the form of orchestral interludes which serve as accompaniment of major portions of the ballet action. A bipartite musical structure within the individual movements is suggested by means of contrasted instrument groups, e. Weill uses the strings especially in soft, slow passages in order to create a nostalgic, bittersweet, sentimental mood. From time to time there are reminiscences of earlier Weill sound-combinations like the blend of banjo, piano, and percussion familiar from Die Dreigroschenoper.

Recurring in leitmotivic fashion, the double bass or the bassoon signifies the domineering mother while woodwind figurations refer to the rest of the family. Consistently incorporated jazz elements and contemporary dance rhythms are easily recognizable throughout. A male quartet represent10 Cf. Gottfried von Einem and Siegfried Melchinger, eds. The family members — the mother in the role of the choryphaeus equipped with a deep buffo bass voice!

The major vocal role of Anna I is particularly colorful and varied, combining narrative and commentary in straightforward songs and recitative-like passages reminiscent of the evangelist in oratorios. Brecht wrote the text in the spring of , presumably in Paris where he spent a few months before settling down in Danish exile GW 7, Anmerkungen, p. Bernard Taper, Balanchine New York, , p. He reports the occasion in a diary entry to 17 June The English performances in London later in the same year also remained without appreciable critical echo Put on once more before the Second World War in Copenhagen in , the ballet precipitated a scandal: It was not until in New York that the work was revived again, this time successfully18; and the first German performance in Frankfurt in also won over reviewers and audiences alike A Study of Music in Decline London, , p.

The book was first published in Lotte Lenya sings the role of Anna I on this recording.

Unnützer Reichtum by Georges Ohnet (2011, Paperback)

Peter Bauland, The Hooded Eagle. Bauland is inaccurate on several details. Since the work has become part of the standard repertory of several East German theaters20; and lately there have also been sporadic revivals in the United States and in the rest of Europe. The work appeared for the first time in in French translation The first English version has been lost, while the second English rendering used in the New York production was printed only in The fact that the German text was not printed while Brecht was alive suggests that he considered the work artistically inferior and perhaps wanted to suppress it altogether Yet it is reasonable to assume, I believe, that in both Brecht and Weill — already well known as co-authors of Die Dreigro- 20 Cf.

Most accessible in GW 7, Peter Bauland Hooded Eagle, p. Such a view is myopic, I believe. It is only partially attributable to the persisting confusion concerning origins and publishing history. Most likely it stems from the practice in Brecht studies of concentrating exclusively on works written either before or after , thus disregarding his first year of exile.

The ballet not only incorporates innovations in dramatic form evolved 26 The judgment of John Willett, otherwise a circumspect and reliable Brecht commentator, shall suffice here to suggest the general tenor of critical assessment: He never cared to print the songs which he wrote for it, and it seems a plain attempt to earn money in exile by recapturing the spirit of his greatest success.

It it customary to distinguish three components in an emblem: Studien zur Literatur und Kunst seit der Jahrhundertwende, eds. Handbuch zur Sinnbildkunst des XVI. The following sketch will help to visualize the two distinct, but integrated patterns which emerge: The smaller pattern comprising the seven deadly sins in individual emblematic tableaux II is embedded in the larger pattern. In both patterns the title designations of the entire work as well as of the individual scenes correspond to the inscriptiones; during performances the scene titles are usually displayed conspicuously in large letters.

Pictura I encompasses the stage action for the whole ballet including permanent components e. It represents pictorially the dramatic events which are pantomimically executed to musical accompaniment and take the place of conventional dialogue in a scenic framework. The seven scenarios picturae II perform the same function with respect to the individual scenes. Providing a continuous moral commentary on the episodically unfolding dramatic action, the ten songs six sung by Anna I and four by the family quartet assume the emblematic function of the subscriptio.

Die Orgel wird illuminiert. An einer Stange kommen von oben drei Lampen herunter, und auf den Tafeln steht: Similarly, in connecrion with Mutter Courage cf. The answer lies in the unique dual role of Anna. Central in every respect, present on the stage from beginning to end, and performing in the multiple role of singer, actor, and narrator, Anna I is the perfect authorial instrument to connect emblematic and epic structure. Singing her songs subscriptiones she is part of both the larger and smaller emblematic patterns; and through her acting as manager to Anna II, she also participates in the ballet picturae.

The role of narrator-commentator, controlling the episodic series of events on stage while also informing the spectators directly about them, once again links her both to the individual scenes picturae II and to interpreting their moral and social meaning subscriptiones II. The representational and interpretive aspects of the split personality also reflect the emblematic relation between Anna II pictura and Anna I subscriptio Die Struktur seines Werkes, 5th ed. Recognizing in Der kaukasische Kreidekreis the most accomplished form of epic theater, Wirth concludes: Nowhere else do we encounter a dominating narrator figure that is so consistently delineated: Anna I presents, represents, controls, reports, and interprets the dramatic action while also participating in it herself.

For a general treatment see Walter H. First published in Sinn und Form, 2. Sonderheft Bertolt Brecht Berlin, , But instead of arriving on the scene while the prologue is already in progress, as the singer does; she is positioned onstage from the outset. According to the initial stage directions: Anna I begins her singing narration by introducing herself and her other self, Anna II , giving place and time of the commencing action, and orienting the audience about the circumstances of the moneymaking venture and her own attitude toward the imminent journey.

GW 7, Repeated verbatim in the epilogue, this type of direct address fulfills a multiple alienating function. First, it identifies Anna I as both narrator and active participant in the action, thereby suspending the theatrical illusion. Second, since both prologue and epilogue employ the present tense, it sets off the narrative framework from the individual episodes which are narrated in the past tense.

And finally, by referring specifically to the ensuing songs, it lays bare the epic-emblematic structure of the work: Having established direct contact with her audience at the outset, Anna I proceeds to demonstrate the alienating mechanics of her split personality. At the end of each stanza in her prologue she turns to Anna II — who, after all, stands next to her on the stage — for confirmation of the narrated details. But what now ensues dispels any trace of dramatic illusion. Since Anna I herself answers the questions she pretends to pose to Anna II, the expected scenic dialogue becomes narrated dialogue as part of the sustained scenic monologue, e.

Wir sind eigentlich nicht zwei Personen Sondern nur eine einzige. Und sie gab mir recht und sagte: Instead of describing the dramatic events as presented by Anna II and the rest of the dancers, Anna I enters them as active participant: Simultaneously, however, through her reflective generalizations about the action she communicates the humane and appealing character of Anna II who is more than susceptible to the many temptations she encounters.

After briefly recapitulating the morals learned in the foregoing episodes, she devotes the rest of her song to an elaboration of the overall ideological message, ostensibly for the benefit of Anna II: Here the two aspects of the split personality seem to be reconciled and fused: Anna II has, however, not become identical with Anna I; the ambiguity of the split personality is maintained to the very end. In the epilogue the two sisters appear arm in arm about to embark on the return trip to their family and their newly built house in Louisiana. Compared to the interplay between the singer narrator and chorus leader and his musicians chorus in Der kaukasische Kreidekreis38, the narrative apparatus of the ballet seems at first glance less consistently integrated.

The primary authorial instrument for scenic narration, Anna I, is physically separated from the male quartet representing her family back home. Also, her dual role as narrator and participant is dynamic, while the chorus remains static throughout. The members of the family, physically restricted to their platform on one side of the stage, cannot become participating actors. They have their own chorus leader in the person of the mother and function as a separate body offering their commentary from a distance. In these episodes Anna I withdraws into the pantomimic ballet action and allows the chorus to provide the moralizing subscriptiones II.

Leitmotivically recurring epigrammatic choral passages of various length40 can also be subsumed under the subscriptio-network of the larger emblematic pattern, Invariably counteracting the meaning expressed in the individual picturae, these ironic choral statements are strategically distributed throughout the work to bring about an overall structural and thematic coherence. Within the smaller emblematic pattern, too, a similar use of the chorus to augment the impact of the subscriptio may be observed. At one point the family even manages to speed up the action by eliciting a direct response from Anna I.

In her next song she reacts to the indignant warning by using the same phrase: Was die da schicken Das sind keine Summen, mit denen man ein Haus baut! Jetzt sind wir schon in Los Angeles. GW 7, , Anna I seems to have overheard the chorus, even though this is, of course, impossible. Ironically enough, in stage reality her reaction is physically possible.

Such comic incongruity readily suspends the theatrical illusion. Choral use of a deictic formula provides another instance of alienating mediation The family addresses Anna directly, as if to bridge over the physical distance: Denk an unser Haus in Louisiana! GW 7, Here the irony of the situation stems from the fact that both Annas, sharing the stage with the chorus, can look on as the house gradually rises in the background.

Schaut oder Seht hier. Brecht regarded the Wagnerian operatic model as a dangerous narcotic and strove to achieve the opposite effect himself. He wanted to activate rather than stupefy: Yet, in his practice interplay becomes counterplay. I have already discussed the mechanics of interplay or counterplay between Anna I, the chorus, and the pantomimic ballet action. Among the various autonomous constituents, Brecht regarded music — especially in its capacity as counterpoint to the text — as the most important contribution to the concerted effort that was to produce the finished work.

Weill, himself a theoretician of the new musical theater, agreed: Internationaler Kongress, Hamburg , ed. Ernst Thomas Hamburg, , p. To give at least one example of the last mentioned device: Weill exposes the sanctimoniousness of the avaricious family by composing its leitmotivically recurring refrains as parodistic male chorales in majestic, pseudo-religious cantata style. At best, my essay breaks some critical ground, while many aspects of interpretation and explication remain undiscussed.

I especially regret having had to forego analysis of the all-pervasive humor. Musikalische Arbeiten Berlin, remains to date a serious desideratum in Brecht research. Reihe, 8 , , deals with the partnership up to around And finally, incorporating various artistic media, the ballet is a conscious and successful attempt to create a moralisticdidactic anti-Gesamtkunstwerk in parodistic attire. Allenfalls lassen sich heute die Wurzeln, Dimensionen und Schattierungen der bisherigen Realismusauffassung in der Musik skizzieren. Beginnen wir mit einem frappanten Beispiel: Die ebenso frappante Antwort liefert ein Bericht aus der Zeitschrift Time: Cannons roar, bells chime, whistles and trumpets pierce the muffled drumbeat.

Seeking superrealism in his interpretation, Atlanta Symphony Conductor Robert Shaw installed 16 electronically controlled explosive devices to simulate cannons in the pit. That triggered a smoke-sensitive automatic fire alarm. In minutes, 25 eager firemen charged into the auditorium, axes and hoses at the ready.

While a dazed audience watched helplessly, the firemen made for the smoke-filled pit and came within a split second of dousing both crowd and orchestra. Shaw admitted to confusion. Moses und Aron Haben wir es hier etwa mit musikalischem Naturalismus zu tun? Oder handelt es sich einfach um Programmusik? Wo sind terminologisch die Grenzen zu ziehen? So lautet der Titel eines Essays von Michel Butor, geschrieben Butor bleibt uns eine plausible Antwort schuldig. Jahr- 2 Michel Butor, Musik, eine realistische Kunst.

Music and Letters, 36 ,; Paul L. Frank, Realism and Naturalism in Music. JAAC, 11 , Studia Musicologica, 5 , ; Sinn und Form. Auf den ersten Blick scheint dieser Terminus eine contradictio in adjecto zu sein. Doch diese Fragen lassen sich auch anders beantworten. Das mag folgende Zitatauswahl belegen: Aber Musik ist nicht Sprache. Adorno 11 I consider that music is, by its very nature, powerless to express anything at all Vielleicht helfen uns an dieser Stelle einige praktische Beispiele weiter. Welchen Sinngehalt besitzt etwa die Schlittenfahrt von Leopold Mozart? An Autobiography New York, , Der Ursprung musikalischer Realismusauffassungen ist in der heute noch weithin angenommenen magischen Kraft der Musik zu suchen.

Schon in uralten Mythen wird Musik als etwas Magisches und Heilendes empfunden. Die Auffassung von Musik als Magie hat in gewissem Sinne schon einen ethischen und anthropozentrischen Inhalt. Hier wird die Musik erstmals abstrahiert, verabsolutiert, vergeistigt. Jahrhundert eine Akzentverschiebung im ethischemotionalen Gehalt erkennbar. Es entstand so ein Gemeingut von Formeln, das beim Komponieren sogar praktische Hilfe leisten sollte. Das Grundprinzip bleibt weiterhin die Naturnachahmung. Wackenroder, Werke und Briefe, Hrsg.

Auf diesem Wege schreiten dann Friedrich H. Sie hat auch keinen Inhalt, wie man sonst meinte, und was man ihr auch andichten wollte. Das ist keineswegs der Fall. Bely aus dem Jahre Shdanow, Fragen der sowjetischen Musikkultur. It begins with the Largo of the masses working underground, and accelerando corresponds to the subway system; the Allegro in its turn symbolizes gigantic factory machinery and its victory over nature.

The Adagio represents the synthesis of Soviet culture, science, and art. The Scherzo reflects the athletic life of the happy inhabitants of the Union. As for the Finale, it is the image of the gratitude and the enthusiasm of the masses. Aus solchen Werken wird aber zugleich evident, wie gleitend das Wesen dieser bestimmten Unbestimmtheit ist: Strawinskis antimelodisch eingestellte, stark rhythmisch und 37 Th.

Die Geschichte einzelner realistischer Elemente ist eines, und die Normen des Realismus ein anderes; und selbst der tiefere Blick in die Vergangenheit vermag die Notwendigkeit einer systematischen Beschreibung nicht aus der Welt zu schaffen, schrieb Peter Demetz in einem Beitrag zur Definition des literarischen 39 Realismus. Im musikalischen Bereich sollte es auch nicht anders sein. Realism has aquired a special meaning in the nomenclature of Soviet music, usually appearing in the dual formula of socialist realism whose function it is to give a realistic reflection of contemporary life from the standpoint of Socialist society.

It is the inner content of music, not the exterior coating. Realism is therefore the opposite of naturalism, wherein musical form is denied for the sake of a surface imitation; and of pictorialism, wherein a chance verbal connection relates essentially unlike qualities. Yearbook of Comparative and General Literature, 19 , S. Eine Bibliographie , Berlin und Weimar , 2 Bde. Das Wagner-Erlebnis Thomas Manns, in: Germanic Review, 5 , S. Gregor ; Werner Vortriede: Euphorion, 52 , S. The Last Wagnerite, in: Germanic Review, 35 , S.

Eine Polemik um Thomas Manns Wagnerbild, in: Thomas Mann und Richard Wagner, in: Schweizer Monatshefte, 45 , S. JDSG, 11 , S. Kultur und Staatswissenschaftliche Schriften, H. Vom Decadent zum Proto-Hitler. Wagner-Bilder Thomas Manns, in: Thomas Mann und die Tradition, hg. Ein Bericht, in dem er jedoch an anderer Stelle seine Musikkenntnisse offen als unzureichend bezeichnet: Der Fall Wagner, in: Thomas Mann an Ernst Bertram, Thomas Mann an Ernst Bertram. Briefe aus den Jahren , hg.

Mann an Bertram , S. Die Deutschen sollte man vor die Entscheidung stellen: Beides zusammen geht nicht. Oder doch vielleicht nicht? Theorie und Praxis der epischen Ironie, in: Denn dies beides sind ja wir, — Goethe und Wagner, beides ist Deutschland. Werk und Entwicklung, Berlin ; Gregor, op. Opera as Drama, New York , S. Orbis litterarum, 14 , S. Diese Jugendliebe Manns [d. In seiner erschienenen Gesamtdeutung Thomas Mann: The Uses of Tradition gelingt es T. The Uses of Tradition, Oxford , S. Die Stelle von lautet: X, Im Vergleich dazu Adrian: Die ganze Lebensstimmung der Kunst [ Viel melancholische Ambition wird von ihr abfallen und eine neue Unschuld, ja Harmlosigkeit ihr Teil sein.

Briefe und Nachlese, hg. Wir sind berechtigt, wie ich meine, wenn auch nur dieses eine Mal, ihn beim Wort zu nehmen und ihm zu trauen, wenn er in einem Brief an Agnes Meyer behauptet: This page intentionally left blank Temporality and Mediation W. Hoffmann as Literary Historicists of Music Among the ingenious inventions of Romanticism, none transformed more radically the predominant modes of speculative thinking and had more lasting consequences for the modern human condition than the idea of history.

It need hardly be rehearsed that the nineteenth century witnessed the rise and rule of historical consciousness in the writing of history proper as well as in philosophy, literature, and the arts. Until today we have not ceased to groan under the heavy burden of what classic theorists of widely diverging persuasions like Herder, Ranke, Hegel, Nietzsche, Meinecke, and Troeltsch have said about it all. Although it is difficult to resist the temptation to continue in this melancholy vein and reassess the relevant statements and attitudes, as has been customary in the scholarship dealing with historicism, I shall not succumb.

Not that we cannot confirm the existence of a body of texts, however slim, which constitutes musical historiography. About the beginnings of music as an artistic product of the imagination we are still very much in the dark; and even the earliest reliably documented musical compositions and events in music history do not emerge until relatively late in Western civilization. Music that is two or three hundred years old, say Bach or Palestrina, still today we regard without hesitation as old; and it is really hard for us to conceive of the acoustic or iconic representations of anything much older than plainsong.

The rest remains subject to speculative prehistory or, literally, silence. If the music-historical horizon is this limited today, it is not surprising that it was even more limited throughout the nineteenth century. As late as a competent musicologist like Eduard Hanslick could confess in all earnestness: Can we have a meaningful discussion of historicism in music comparable to historicism in literature and in the visual arts? I believe we can. To be sure, while its early stages may be traced back to around and before, a broader awareness of music as history is a more recent development and does not come to full bloom until after Wagner and Nietzsche.

Musical compositions since attesting to such an awareness readily come to mind: But renewed attempts to ascertain specific points of tangency between romanticism and historicism have drawn attention at last also to the pre-Wagnerian period. As far as I can see, only during the last decade or so has modern musicological research begun to explore systematically the origins of historicism in music. Jahrhundert Regensburg, and Walter Wiora, ed.

Preoccupation with the historical method of inquiry is here effectively translated into musical practice. A Study of General Histories of Music first published in and reissued in , I came across the following overstatement: Even if it is only partially 6 Cf. Two distinct lines of development may be discerned during this period. First, under the formidable shadow of the two monumental narrative histories of music by Burney and Hawkins both published in London beginning in and promptly translated into German , reliable positivists like E. Koch resorted to compiling useful lexica and dictionaries of a biographical and bibliographical nature.

The culmination of this trend came, as M. Abrams, The Mirror and the Lamp: Far from being merely ephemeral, time-bound modes of aesthetic perception, the types of historical consciousness inherent in Romantic attitudes toward music proved paradigmatic for theorists and historians of music throughout the nineteenth century.

Two prominent Romanticists occupy key positions in our context: Hoffmann; I find the interplay of historicism and musical aesthetics as reflected in their views particularly illuminating. The choice of these two authors is appropriate, I believe, since both possessed a high degree of competence in musical matters, unlike Tieck, Novalis, Schelling, and the Schlegels, who nevertheless did not hesitate on occasion to include music in their aesthetic theorizing.

Though not concurrently, both Wackenroder and Hoffmann studied with Johann Friedrich Reichardt, a leading musical personality of the period and a storehouse of historical information, albeit superficial. Wackenroder and Ludwig Tieck, Herzensergiessungen eines kunstliebenden Klosterbruders Oxford, , esp. Hoffmann, Schriften zur Musik. Friedrich Schnapp Munich, What are some of the views they share? First of all, they believe with Novalis that the world must be romanticized in order to regain the original sense of harmony.

Thus, like most Romantic thinkers, Wackenroder and Hoffmann firmly endorse a larger scheme of history, consisting of three periods: What follows is 2 a process of depoetization which they experience in their desolate present as a loss of ideal values, an inescapably time-bound state of being.

The final period, then, is utopian and transcendental: He cannot endure the sight of people going about their business nearby, gathering herbs or felling wood. Friedrich von der Leyen Jena, I, pp. The quotes from his tale in the subsequent paragraph are taken from these pages. First, we have the situation of the herb gatherers and wood cutters for whom the experience of time is totally unproblematic.


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As they are independent of time-consciousness, their human condition can be described as an unmeditated and therefore un-self-conscious state of being-in-time. Unaware of their own historicity, they exist in a state of blissful timelessness, as it were, which assures for them an illusion of freedom. The second mode is represented by the naked saint for whom time becomes a problematic, inescapable notion to such an overpowering extent that his self-consciousness becomes confined to his time-consciousness: A captive of time, he is totally paralyzed by the sense of his own historicity.

No- 17 For recent critical literature or this tale see esp. Elmar Hertrich, Joseph Berglinger. But music to Wackenroder always means absolute music; that is, symphonic, instrumental music. Although in his discourses on the visual arts he often names his favorite Italian and German masters and their achievements, in his musical reveries he never mentions specific composers or works.

Precisely because he conceives of music in the abstract temporal sense and virtually equates it with religion, this highest of all arts is for him not only sacrosanct, but also beyond the need of mundane comparisons. Along with Herder, Reichardt, Tieck, and E. Hoffmann, in his own enthusiastic manner Wackenroder clearly belongs to those intellectuals who prepared the aesthetic climate for the early nineteenth-century Palestrina renaissance.

He himself hailed Mozart as the Shake19 Wackenroder I, p. Ample evidence of his preoccupation with the historical process can be found throughout his musical writings; and there is never any doubt that Hoffmann speaks in the capacity of the experienced, practicing musician who is firmly grounded in theory as well as in compositional and performance techniques.

Because he invariably commences his reviews with short historical sketches combined with critical reflections on the respective musical genres, he not only places the analyzed works in a historical framework, but also paves the way for their future reception. It is less well known that Hoffmann also had a considerable share in breaking ground for the Palestrina and Bach revivals. His influential pronouncements, admittedly based more on a healthy critical instinct than on an extensive knowledge of the actual works by these past masters, must be seen in the proper context of contemporary intellectual currents.

This simple example may serve to illustrate the powerful role that transmutation and assimilation of intellectual property, involving a genuine interpenetration of the various arts, assumed in shaping historical consciousness. Hoffmann offers here nothing less than a severely critical mini-history of church music as a genre, a panoramic view of its evolution interspersed with individual portraits of its most meritorious representatives, past and contemporary. Predictably, Hoffmann finds his hero in Palestrina, followed at a considerable distance by lesser though still positively evaluated Italian composers like Allegri, Alessandro Scarlatti, Benedetto Marcello, and Leonardo Leo; and Handel and Bach are still included as the last great figures of the Golden Age of Church music.

Georg Kaiser Berlin and Leipzig, , p. But it is especially fascinating to observe how skillfully Hoffmann manipulates this scheme to fit his own ideology of history, according to which the history of church music is a history of gradual decline. For the future of the genre Hoffmann sees little hope; and it is here that he assumes the role of mediator between the old and the new styles. Tacitly, however, he comes to an important realization.

The only way Hoffmann can reconcile these convictions is to advocate regeneration rather than mere restoration in the form of a progressive synthesis of old and new approaches. Accordingly, I suggest that we term Wackenroder a visionary historicist of temporality and Hoffmann a critical historicist of mediation. Suddenly he lapses back into a Wackenroder-like rhetoric of temporality that sounds an unexpectedly hesitant note: There are few if any artists of stature who achieved real distinction and lasting fame in both media of expression.

One may think of the formidable figure of Richard Wagner, followed perhaps, at some distance, by E. But no more convincing examples of this rare combination of outstanding musical and literary talent come to mind. And not even Wagner or Hoffmann qualify without reservations: Qualitatively, Hoffmann the author and pioneering music critic no doubt overshadows the composer Hoffmann: Carl Maria von Weber , on the other hand, is remembered today as one of the great nineteenthcentury composers. Only a few initiates are aware of the fact that Weber the musician and music critic was also a writer of considerable literary merit.

His fate as a prominent composer who also wrote is thus conversely similar to that of Hoffmann. Brown, the pioneering authority in this complex field. As if being gifted in composition and writing were not enough, both artists were also talented in painting, drawing, conducting, and in all aspects of the theater. As it happens, the accumulated fragments were never arranged by the author himself in any meaningful novelistic sequence but were left in disarray.

In addition to the outlines to which Weber ultimately paid little attention, the conglomerate contains several more or less polished and completed chapters, some of them in various versions chapters 1, 3, 4, 5, 6 , open-ended snippets of chapters 2 and 8, as well as marginal notes, diverse ideas, and aphoristic comments which were eventually to be incorporated into the novel4. Hell recognized that a chronological arrangement of the scattered fragments would be futile and opted instead felicitously for the principle of structural coherence. Hinterlassene Schriften von C.

Dresden and Leipzig, In a concentrated effort of a lifetime devoted to speculative philosophizing and criticism he evolved a theory in which he proclaimed the hegemony of fragmentariness as the guiding principle of intellectual creativity: Such a theory was for Schlegel — the master aphorist who abandoned most of his projects unfinished — surely in large measure self-justification: Viele Werke der Neuern sind es gleich bei der Entstehung.

Himself by no means a literary theorist but surely an informed reader of contemporary literature, Weber must have been aware of the generic connotations inherent in the term. The following insight, for example, appended to the fragment, applies equally to the creative process in music and in literature: As the hero reviews his life story at the end of the work, these notes would build up to a chorale. Moreover, the same notes were to form a Zirkelkanon within the novel, sounding the same backwards and forwards.

Naturally, if viewed according to criteria normally applied to the conventional non-romantic novel, the impression is less favorable. His relationship to his friend Diehl, his abortive love affair with Emilie, and his brief sojourn at the court of the Prince are sketched much too sparsely. Dario, the only figure with a potential for narrative portrayal, appears but for a fleeting moment in chapter 6.

His promising character traits are only suggested in the synopsis of Chapter Wie die Klapperschlange, zieht er selbst Felix an sich, der ihn gegen Diehl, welcher ihn durchaus nicht leiden kann, immer verteidigt. The interspersed autobiographical details are so scant and general that their overall impact on the novel fragment proves to be peripheral.