An Analysis Of I Corinthians 15

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Paul definitely developed the creed. Another important consideration in determining the date of the creed is the location where Paul received it. As mentioned above, there are three locations that scholars promote for the possible location of origin: Antioch, Damascus and Jerusalem. Theoretically, Paul could have received this creed almost anywhere. However, the locations put forward here seem the most likely.

An Analysis of the Pre-Pauline Creed in 1 Corinthians 15:1-11

A number of scholars argue that Damascus is the location where Paul received the creed. First, this is the location where Paul converted to Christianity. As Cullmann argues, Paul probably was acquainted with apostolic traditions in Damascus. Second, due to the importance of this creed, Paul probably received it quite early. Damascus certainly has that influence. Antioch is another location where scholars believe Paul could have received the creed. First, Paul spent time in Antioch preaching the gospel.

Second, Antioch had a large Greek influence. Since the creed has a large Greek influence, it is quite possible that Paul received the material there. This indicates that Antioch was definitely a key center for early Christian activity. However, the only reference to Antioch in undisputed, authentic, Pauline epistles is found in Galatians 2: This reference does not indicate much regarding why Paul would have received the creed.

Antioch seems to be only a possibility. Few scholars would exclusively argue for it. The most likely location where Paul received the creed is Jerusalem. In Galatians 2, Paul mentions a possible second trip to Jerusalem. This time it is for the purpose of verifying the gospel message. Second, the creed itself mentions two proper names: Cephas and James, which Paul mentions regarding his trip s to Jerusalem in Galatians 1 and 2.

Third, some scholars argue that the Semitisms in the creed point to a Jerusalem origin. After surveying the various positions regarding the location of the creed, Jerusalem seems to be the best hypothesis due to the connection with the apostles in Galatians If Paul received it in Jerusalem, one would date the creed to approximately As mentioned earlier, C. Craigs argues that the creed has its basis in Jerusalem, but it was the developed, Hellenized form that Paul received in Damascus. Therefore, one should date the creed to approximately C.

First, there is a great possibility that Paul received this creed from the eyewitnesses to the appearances of Christ. If he received the creed while going to Jerusalem in Galatians 1, he spoke with the apostles. This is not to say that we have definitively proven that the creed has its basis in eyewitness testimony, but there is a possibility that it has such a connection. Second, this creed clearly demonstrates that the early Christians right from the beginning believed in the resurrection of Jesus. It did not take a long time for the belief to emerge.

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What is its sitz im leben? Clearly, Paul wants to support his authority as an apostle. First, Paul definitely wants to argue for the historicity of the resurrection of Christ.

His reference that the five hundred brethren are still alive clearly indicates that they were alive for questioning. This definitely supports his contention that his gospel was valid. He received this valid gospel from an authentic source that the Corinthians would definitely respect since they had familiarity with them.

We analyzed four key questions relating to the material in verses The first question we asked was, What is the length of the creed? We answered that the creed at least extends through verse 5. Verse 6 may be an addition by Paul with an apologetical purpose, but verse 7 likely has a traditional basis, with the reference to the apostles and James.

The second question we pursued was, What is the linguistic origin of the creed? There were two positions regarding scholars, such as Jeremias who posited an Aramaic origin for the creed and those such as Conzelmann and Kloppenborg who argued for a Greek origin for the creed.

I argued that the creed definitely was developed in a Greek speaking environment, though it is possible that the creed has a Semitic base. However, the arguments put forward by Jeremias did not seem conclusive. The third question we analyzed was a possible location where Paul received this creed. Scholars have promoted three locations: Damascus, Antioch and Jerusalem.

1 Corinthians 15 Commentary - Matthew Henry Commentary on the Whole Bible (Complete)

I argue that the creed probably emerged in Jerusalem or Damascus due to their early dates. Paul mentions both of these names in possible creedal material. The fourth question we analyzed was regarding the date of the creed. I noted that most scholars who give an exact date, state that Paul received the creed in the mid-thirties. A later date would indicate that Paul did not know his gospel for quite a while. Finally, I analyzed how Paul used this creed in his argument to support his apostleship. For Paul, his message was valid because he had seen the risen Christ, just like the names in the creed.

He would use this argument to make himself the most influential Christian evangelist ever. Introduction The earliest available Christian texts are the letters of the apostle Paul. Presuppositions Before we begin our study, we must understand a number of presuppositions that scholars use when analyzing the creed in 1 Corinthians What is the Length of the Creed? Arguments for a Verse 5 Ending The scholars who promote a verse 5 ending of the creed produce several arguments to support their position.

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What is the Origin of the Creed? First, the structure is a synthetic parallelismus membrorum: Damascus A number of scholars argue that Damascus is the location where Paul received the creed. Antioch Antioch is another location where scholars believe Paul could have received the creed. Jerusalem The most likely location where Paul received the creed is Jerusalem.

What is the Date of the Creed? What are Some Implications of the Creed? Conclusion We analyzed four key questions relating to the material in verses Harper and Brothers, , Baultmann lists a number of creedal and formulaic statements in the New Testament including Romans Harper and Row, , Martin Hengel, The Atonement: The Origins of the Doctrine in the New Testament , trans.

Fortress, , Barrett and Hengel are just a few who date the composition of the epistle to that time frame. Orr and James A. Doubleday, , World Bible Publishers, For the purposes of this paper, I define a creed as a formulaic statement of belief. Macmillan, , SCM Press, , Orr and Walther, An Historical Examination and Explanation , trans.

Commentary on 1 Corinthians 15:1-11

John Knox Press, , 7. Accessed 6 December, However, his arguments fail for a number of reasons. First, he assumes that it is an interpolation when he has no manuscript support. Second, 1 Corinthians There are many Pauline phrases in the text such as in verse 6. It clearly seems that Paul has adapted the creedal material in his argument.

Third, the mention of the apostles fits well with the context of the 1 Corinthians letter. Finally, there is no contradiction between Galatians 1 and 1 Corinthians Galatians describes that Paul did not receive his gospel from man, but contextually Paul verifies his message with the Jerusalem council of Peter and James see context of Galatians 1 and 2.

This reference seems to indicate far more people than the original twelve. The final section, verses 9 , is a splendid combination of personal confession and assertion of Paul as an apostle, with his short comings and the gift of his apostleship. He confesses he was late to his work -- "one untimely born" verse 8 -- and actually "unfit to be called an apostle" verse 9.

He states clearly that he is undeserving of what he is doing for one simple reason: The phrasing is interesting here because he ascribes the church to God, a will that laid its foundations prior to Jesus' appearance. Paul continues to show what undergirds his work including his boast that "I worked harder than any of them" verse 10b.

In verse 10 he mentions "the grace of God" -- twice. God's grace is what supports Paul in terms of his self-understanding "I am what I am" verse 10 as well as his work. In both personality and deeds, Paul senses God's presence and grace. Paul concludes this introduction by admitting that it doesn't make any difference --really -- from whom the Corinthians heard the gospel. The most important thing is "you have come to believe. This is a generous statement in view of the jealousy Church leader's exhibit over taking credit for their deeds!

This epistle text is well worth an Easter morning sermon! Through Paul's discussion of all the ramifications of the gospel in his own life, he lends credibility and support to the gospel's core message: Jesus died for sinners.


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While this text is removed from the obvious immediacy of the empty tomb scene of the gospels, it definitely lends itself to the contemporary question: A sermon on this text can focus on biographical witness to the resurrection. This is demonstrated by how Paul recounts the way the gospel personally intersected his life and radically changed it.

His changed life is proof of the gospel's power. At Vinje Lutheran Church in Willmar, Minnesota, wooden panels containing names of historical witnesses to the gospel encircle the church. The last two panels are blank. Former pastor Paul A. Hanson used to tell confirmands: This text might also dwell on what it means to share the gospel; its contents, its power and its personal encounters with God. Serving the Gospel can be strenuous. People may feel they do not have the right or the qualifications to do so. Paul's words speak to the contrary. The gospel and its proclamation is for all!


  1. 1 Corinthians 15 Bible Commentary - Matthew Henry (concise).
  2. An Analysis of the Pre-Pauline Creed in 1 Corinthians | irideryjawex.tk.
  3. Elizabeth: The Biography of Elizabeth Taylor.
  4. Presuppositions!
  5. Levoluzione del vuoto - 2a parte (Urania) (Italian Edition).
  6. Commentary on 1 Corinthians