Geronimos Story of His Life (Annotated)

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I read about him first because a columnist in a Toronto paper, in passing, referred to him as a 'futile intifadist' who was implacable in refusing to accomo I wrote a short piece on Geronimo on my Blog The Evitable, http: I read about him first because a columnist in a Toronto paper, in passing, referred to him as a 'futile intifadist' who was implacable in refusing to accomodate himself to the legitimate government of the day--which begs a huge number of questions, not least how an occupying power became simply by self-assertion the legitimate government of his day, over territory that had been Apache.

Geronimo's first encounter with the whites as he calls them to distinguish them from the Mexicans, with whom the Apaches had an ongoing war, raiding back and forth was a friendly one. His tribe at that time the chief was Mangus-Colorado treated and traded with them before they moved west--from the sound of it I'd say they were surveyors. It baffles me how his defensive wars thereafter can be described as implacable opposition, or why he should have trusted an army which had offered to treat, in succession, with Cochise and Mangus Colorado, in order to get them in position to be easily captured and killed along with their retinues.

How you accomodate a legitimate government as treacherous as that is anybody's guess, but even at that Geronimo live on terms of peace with at least one commander, General Howard, for the simple reason that he didn't break his word. Everyone else he dealt with, right up to his final surrender and ignominious imprisonment, did. Nov 09, Greg rated it really liked it. I didn't know much about Geronimo going into this, and I found it to be a very fascinating record of an era gone by.

Throughout the book there are moments of commentary and notes from the US captors and facilitators of the project. It is really unlike any other book I've read, and while there is certainly an autobiographical element to it I see it more as a bearing witness of an age and time that will never exist again. We need more literature like this.

While I know Geronimo wasn't perfect, it I didn't know much about Geronimo going into this, and I found it to be a very fascinating record of an era gone by. While I know Geronimo wasn't perfect, it was wonderful to get a sense of his upbringing, culture, and life before and after the coming of the white man. His heart wrenching tale is a great example of the stories we might hear if we take the time and energy to seek them out and give them space. I recommend this book not because it stands as a glorious literary accomplishment, but because it opens a window of a people and perspective that is so often left neglected and untold.

Never mind the continual violence for a large portion of this book, the first two and last two chapters of this book were most interesting and, at times, infuriating -- I'm looking at you World's Fair section. Highly readable and still relevant to the treatment of Native persons today. The life of Geronimo told by himself.

Told in a very matter of fact fashion and very interesting, not dry, but very alive.

Geronimo: My Life

And he became a Christian in old age. I would expect the translator to make this less choppy and easier to understand while preserving the original meaning and intent. This translation falls short. Well Written Account of the Life and Adventures of a Famous Apache Leader Portions of this story were apparently edited by the person to whom they were told, and other portions are labeled as being his own unedited version, particularly parts that were highly critical of high ranking military personnel. But I expect that this is mostly so that the person recording Geronimo's story would not get in trouble for the criticisms Geronimo made of officers who made treaties with the Apaches that were no Well Written Account of the Life and Adventures of a Famous Apache Leader Portions of this story were apparently edited by the person to whom they were told, and other portions are labeled as being his own unedited version, particularly parts that were highly critical of high ranking military personnel.

But I expect that this is mostly so that the person recording Geronimo's story would not get in trouble for the criticisms Geronimo made of officers who made treaties with the Apaches that were not completely kept in most cases by the people who were responsible for protecting and supplying the Apache people who agreed to the treaties, and in a few cases the outright treachery where leaders who surrendered were killed and occasionally whole groups that surrendered were slaughtered.

Very believable account overall of escalating violence as interaction between first Apache and Mexicans increased, while originally there was little contact with "whites" North of the Mexican border. Later the same pattern repeated north of the Mexican border. Finally Geronimo tried to arrange a treaty with General Miles that he believed would be kept well enough that his people could live adequately protected under it and that the United States would do at least most of what they had promised.

This treaty was not fully kept in Geronimo's opinion, but his own people fared better under it than many other Native Americans, so to that extent it was successful. President Theodore Roosevelt had to order that Geronimo was allowed to tell his story in his own words and his white friend was allowed to write it down and publish it, and even then certain bits critical of the United States were apparently edited out, and other parts that are critical of the United States are identified as being Geronimo's personal opinion and not necessarily accurate.

Still, we are very lucky to have this much information of these events from this point of view. Recommend this book to anyone interested in American History, and to many readers who just like a good story. Jun 19, Dayla rated it liked it Shelves: Geronimo's story was written by a man who is incredibly brave and drastically ill informed. Having read most recently the wars between Henry II and Louis VII during the 11th century, the Apache Wars indicate an agreement among warriors that the enemy must be killed.

However, Geronimo can break your heart when he describes an encounter with an Army Sergeant, who has already lied to him once--pointing this out to the sergeant. Geronimo initially fought soldiers from Mexico, most especially, after Geronimo's story was written by a man who is incredibly brave and drastically ill informed.

Geronimo initially fought soldiers from Mexico, most especially, after he found his mother, wife and his three children killed by them. After the Mexican-American war, the US started taking large tracts of territory that used to belong to the Apaches living in Mexico. Geronimo's father-in-law, Cochise, could see where the future was headed, and in an act that greatly disappointed his son-in-law, the revered chief called a halt to his decade-long war with the Americans and agreed to the establishment of a reservation for his people on a prized piece of Apache property.

A few years later, Cochise died, and the federal government reneged on its agreement. Finally, in the summer of , he surrendered to the authorities, the last Apache to do so. In Geronimo published his autobiography, and that same year he received a private audience with President Theodore Roosevelt, unsuccessfully pressing the American leader to let his people return to Arizona. While riding home in February , he was thrown from his horse, and the next day, Geronimo's health rapidly deteriorated. He passed away six days later. Fascinating view into two eras simultaneously I was surprised to realize that Geronimo's 'wars' were primarily with Mexican towns and troops and that most of the problems his group had with US Federal troops happened during the same time as the US civil war!

Amazing how one remembers things skimmed or told to one as a child. Anyway, I was fascinated also by the man acting as his 'ghostwriter', S M Barrett. His goals and footnotes were Fascinating view into two eras simultaneously His goals and footnotes were also fascinating. Last, but by no means least, were the anecdotes about Apache women who had fought off bears and mountain lions and lived to tell the tale Louis World's Fair in ! It was interesting and thought-provoking throughout. I have been on a bit of a biography kick lately, and I did enjoy reading Geronimo's story.

There were times when I felt bad for the Apaches and the entire indigenous way of life being curtailed by two foreign powers. There were other times where I couldn't defend the degree of violence and, in my view, excessive taking of life Geronimo's tribe prescribed upon their enemies in times other than defense. To those other readers and reviewers that say the book is dry, I say you didn't get to near the I have been on a bit of a biography kick lately, and I did enjoy reading Geronimo's story.

To those other readers and reviewers that say the book is dry, I say you didn't get to near the end of the account where Theodore Roosevelt invites Geronimo to the Chicago World's Fair. I would pay money now to go back in time and witness the interaction between this man, with his history and what he represents, and coming to terms, to some degree, with the wonders of modern life.

That's a touchstone moment in history in my opinion. I enjoyed this book. For some unknown reason I have always been interested in Indians and their heritage since meeting a real Indian on a family trip to the Wisconsin Dells when I was 7 or 8 years old. I have felt for years that Indians in this country have been unfairly treated by our government and its representatives both military and elected officials.

Given that foundation I still do not accept everything described by Geronimo. His views, descriptions and perspectives, like every human be I enjoyed this book. Geronimo experienced every facet of life on this planet during a wild and tough time. If you are interested in a famous Indians' perspective I consider this an excellent book.

A good read Disappointing book. If these are Geronimo's words, he is using language of a much more educated person. Facts are consistent with historical records, but lack detail. The is no mention of the trepidations caused by his band. Likewise, facts about the deeds of Mexicans and the U S Cavalry are glossed over. The actions of all participants are barely touched upon making this book a dreary story.

There are some insights, but few. Nothing much was offered by this telling. Jul 18, Tiffany rated it liked it. I think the biggest hindrance in the audiobook version is that the narrator read it in a very stereotypical cadence of the stilted "Indian". I've obviously heard of Geronimo my whole life and had visited the jail in Lawton where he was held but didn't know much about him. Now I know a little bit more. Great insight into the life of the Indian from their viewpoint Very well presented account of life from the viewpoint of on old chief who lived it. We probably have a more accurate telling of history from this than the one sided stories in our history books that slant toward our government.

An excellent opportunity to see another side of our history. Jun 21, James Biser rated it it was amazing Shelves: Geronimo dedicated his book to Roosevelt with the plea that he and his people be allowed to return to their ancestral land in Arizona. I want to spend my last days there, and be buried among those mountains. If this could be I might die in peace.

Introduction by Sue Anderson. The Apaches, Part 1. The Apaches, Part 2. The Mexicans, Part 1. The Mexicans, Part 2. I will fight in the front of the battle — I only ask you to follow me to avenge this wrong done by these Mexicans — will you come? It is well — you will all come. If any of these young men are killed I want no blame from their kinsmen, for they themselves have chosen to go. If I am killed no one need mourn for me. My people have all been killed in that country, and I, too, will die if need be. I addressed them as I had addressed the Chokonen tribe, and they also promised to help us.

It was in the summer of , almost a year i'rom the date of the massacre of Kas- kiyeh, that these three tribes were assembled on the Mexican border to go upon the war- path. Their faces were painted, the war bands 2 fastened upon their brows, their long scalp-locks 3 ready for the hand and knife of the warrior who could overcome them. Their families had been hidden away in a mountain rendezvous near the Mexican border. With these families a guard was posted, and a number of places of rendez- vous designated in case the camp should be disturbed. When all were ready the chieftains gave 2 Strips of buckskin about two inches wide fastened around the head.

None of us were mounted and each warrior wore moccasins and also a cloth wrapped about his loins. This cloth could be spread over him when he slept, and when on the march would be ample protection as clothing. In battle, if the fight was hard, we did not wish much cloth- ing. Each warrior carried three days' ra- tions, but as we often killed game while on the march, we seldom were without food. We traveled in three divisions: We usually marched about fourteen hours per day, making three stops for meals, and traveling forty to forty-five miles a day. I acted as guide into Mexico, and we fol- lowed the river courses and mountain ranges because we could better thereby keep our movements concealed.

When we were almost at Arispe we camped, and eight men rode out from the city to parley with us. These we captured, killed, and scalped. This was to draw the troops from the city, and the next day they came. The skirmishing lasted all day with- out a general engagement, but just at night we captured their supply train, so we had plenty of provisions and some more guns. That night we posted sentinels and did not move our camp, but rested quietly all night, for we expected heavy work the next day.

Early the next morning the warriors were assembled to pray — not for help, but that they might have health and avoid am- bush or deceptions by the enemy. As we had anticipated, about ten o'clock in the morning the whole Mexican force came out. There were two companies of cavalry and two of infantry. This I told to the chieftains, and they said that I might direct the battle.

I was no chief and never had been, but because I had been more deeply wronged than others, this honor was conferred upon me, and I resolved to prove worthy of the trust. I arranged the Indians in a hollow circle near the river, and the Mexicans drew their infantry up in two lines, with the cav- alry in reserve. We were in the timber, and they advanced until within about four hun- dred yards, when they halted and opened fire. Soon I led a charge against them, at the same time sending some braves to attack their rear.

In all the battle I thought of my murdered mother, wife, and babies — of my father's grave and my vow of vengeance, and I fought with fury. Many fell by my hand, and constantly I led the advance. Many braves were killed. The battle lasted about two hours. Our arrows were all gone, our spears broken off in the bodies of dead ene- mies. We had only our hands and knives with which to fight, but all who had stood against us were dead.

Then two armed sol- diers came upon us from another part of the field. They shot down two of our men and we, the remaining two, fled toward our own warriors. My companion was struck down by a saber, but I reached our warriors, seized a spear, and turned. The one who pursued me missed his aim and fell by my spear.

With his saber I met the trooper who had killed my companion and we grappled and fell. I killed him with my knife and quickly rose over his body, brandishing his saber, seeking for other troopers to kill. But the Apaches had seen. Over the bloody field, covered with the bodies of Mexicans, rang the fierce Apache war-whoop. Still covered with the blood of my en- 53 u GERONIMO emies, still holding my conquering weapon, still hot with the joy of battle, victory, and vengeance, I was surrounded by the Apache braves and made war chief of all the Apaches.

Then I gave orders for scalping the slain. The Apaches had avenged the massacre of " Kas-ki-yeh. The manner of camping, cooking, etc. Every object appertaining to war is called by its sacred name; as if, for instance, in English, one should say not horse, but war-horse or charger; not arrow, but missile of death. Geronimo's Indian name was Go khla yeh, but the Mexicans at this battle called him Geronimo, a name he has borne ever since both among the Indians and white men.

For several months we were busy with the chase and other peaceful pursuits. Finally I suc- ceeded in persuading two others warriors, Ah-koch-ne and Ko-deh-ne, to go with me to invade the Mexican country. We left our 1 families with the tribe and went on the warpath. We were on foot and carried three days' rations. We entered Mexico on the north line of Sonora and fol- lowed the Sierra de Antunez Mountains to the south end of the range. Here we de- cided to attack a small village. I do not know the name of this village. At day- light we approached from the mountains. We ad- vanced cautiously, but just before we reached the horses the Mexicans opened fire from the houses.

My two companions were killed. Mexicans swarmed on every side; some were mounted ; some were on foot, and all seemed to be armed. Three times that day I was surrounded, but I kept fighting, dodging, and hiding. Several times during the day while in concealment I had a chance to take deliberate aim at some Mexican, who, gun in hand, was looking for me. I do not think I missed my aim either time. With the gathering darkness I found more time to retreat toward Arizona. But the Mex- icans did not quit the chase. Several times the next day mounted Mexicans tried to head me off; many times they fired on me, but I had no more arrows; so I depended upon running and hiding, although I was very tired.

I had not eaten since the chase began, nor had I dared to stop for rest. I came into our camp without booty, without my companions, ex- hausted, but not discouraged. The wives and children of my two dead companions were cared for by their people. Some of the Apaches blamed me for the evil result of the expedition, but I said nothing.

Having failed, it was only proper that I should remain silent. But my feelings to- ward the Mexicans did not change — I still hated them and longed for revenge. I never ceased to plan for their punishment, but it was hard to get the other warriors to listen to my proposed raids. In a few months after this last adventure I persuaded two other warriors to join me in raiding the Mexican frontier. On our for- mer raid we had gone through the Nedni Apaches' range into Sonora. This time we went through the country of the Cho- kon-en and entered the Sierra Madre Mountains.

We had selected a village near the mountains which we intended to attack at daylight. While asleep that night Mexican scouts discovered our camp and fired on us, killing one warrior. In the morning we ob- served a company of Mexican troops com- ing from the south. They were mounted and carried supplies for a long journey. We followed their trail until we were sure that they were headed for our range in Ari- zona; then we hurried past them and in three days reached our own settlement.

We arrived at noon, and that afternoon, about three o'clock, these Mexican troops attacked our settlement. Their first volley killed three small boys. Many of the war- riors of our tribe were away from home, but the few of us who were in camp were able to drive the troops out of the mountains be- fore night. We killed eight Mexicans and lost five — two warriors and three boys. The Mexicans rode due south in full retreat. We were quite sure they would not return soon. Soon after this in the summer of I was again able to take the warpath against the Mexicans, this time with twenty-five warriors.

We followed the trail of the Mexican troops last mentioned and entered the Sierra de Sahuaripa Mountains. The second day in these mountains our scouts discovered mounted Mexican troops. There was only one company of cavalry in this command, and I thought that by properly surprising them we could defeat them. We ambushed the trail over which they were to come. This was at a place where the whole company must pass through a mountain de- file.

We reserved fire until all of the troops had passed through; then the signal was given. The Mexican troopers, seemingly without a word of command, dismounted, 59 GERONIMO and placing their horses on the outside of the company, for breastworks, made a good fight against us. I saw that we could not dislodge them without using all our ammuni- tion, so I led a charge. The warriors sud- denly pressed in from all sides and we fought hand to hand. During this encoun- ter I raised my spear to kill a Mexican sol- dier just as he leveled his gun at me; I was advancing rapidly, and my foot slipping in a pool of blood, I fell under the Mexican trooper.

He struck me over the head with the butt of his gun, knocking me senseless. Just at that instant a warrior who followed in my footsteps killed the Mexican with a spear. In a few minutes not a Mexican soldier was left alive. When the Apache war-cry had died away, and their enemies had been scalped, they began to care for their dead and wounded.

I was found lying unconscious where I had fallen. They bathed my head in cold water and restored me to consciousness. I did not fully re- cover for months, and I still wear the scar given me by that musketeer. In this fight we had lost so heavily that there really was no glory in our victory, and we returned to Arizona. No one seemed to want to go on the warpath again that year.

In the summer with twelve war- riors I again went into Mexico. We entered Chihuahua and followed south on the east side of the Sierra Madre Mountains four days' journey ; then crossed over to the Sierra de Sahuaripa range, not far east of Casa Grande. Here we rested one day, and sent out scouts to reconnoiter. They reported pack trains camped five miles west of us.

The next morning just at daybreak, as these drivers were starting with their mule pack train, we attacked them. They rode away for their lives, leaving us the booty. Two mules were loaded with side-meat or bacon; 2 this we threw away. We started to take these pack trains home, going northward through So- nora, but when near Casita, Mexican troops overtook us. It was at daybreak and we were just finishing our breakfast. We had no idea that we had been pursued or that our enemies were near until they opened fire.

At the first volley a bullet struck me a glanc- ing lick just at the lower corner of the left eye and I fell unconscious. All the other Indians fled to cover. The Mexicans, think- ing me dead, started in pursuit of the fleeing Indians. In a few moments I regained con- sciousness and had started at full speed for the woods when another company coming up opened fire on me.

Then the soldiers who had been chasing the other Indians 2 They had never eaten bacon and did not learn to do so for a long time. Even now they will not eat bacon or pork if they can get other meat. Geronimo positively re- fuses to eat bacon or pork. Bullets whistled in every direction and at close range to me. One inflicted a slight flesh wound on my side, but I kept running, dodging, and fighting, until I got clear of my pur- suers. I climbed up a steep canon, where the cavalry could not follow. The troopers saw me, but did not dismount and try to follow.

I think they were wise not to come on. It had been understood that in case of sur- prise with this booty, our place of rendez- vous should be the Santa Bita Mountains in Arizona. We did not reassemble in Mexico, but traveled separately and in three days we were encamped in our place of rendezvous.

From this place we returned home empty- handed. We had not even a partial victory to report. I again returned wounded, but I was not yet discouraged. Again I was blamed by our people, and again I had no reply. I remained at home try- ing to get my wounds healed. One morning just at daybreak, when the squaws were lighting the camp fires to prepare breakfast, three companies of Mexican troops who had surrounded our settlement in the night opened fire. There was no time for fighting. Men, women, and children fled for their lives. Many women and children and a few warriors were killed, and four women were captured.

My left eye was still swollen shut, but with the other I saw well enough to hit one of the officers with an arrow, and then make good my escape among the rocks. The troopers burned our tepees and took our arms, provisions, ponies, and blankets. Winter was at hand. There were not more than twenty warriors in camp at this time, and only a few of us had secured weapons during the excitement of the attack. It was a long, long time before we were again able to go on the warpath against the Mexicans. The four women who were captured at this time by the Mexicans were taken into Sonora, Mexico, where they were compelled to work for the Mexicans.

After some years they escaped to the mountains and started to find our tribe. They had knives which they had stolen from the Mexicans, but they had no other weapons. They had no blankets ; so at night they would make a little tepee by cutting brush with their knives, and setting them up for the walls. The top was covered over with brush. In this temporary tepee they would all sleep. One night when their camp fire was low they heard growling just outside the tepee. Francisco, the youngest woman of the party about seventeen years of age , started to build up the fire, when a moun- 65 GERONIMO tain lion crashed through the tepee and at- tacked her.

The suddenness of the attack made her drop her knife, but she fought as best she could with her hand. She was no match for the lion, however; her left shoul- der was crushed and partly torn away. The lion kept trying to catch her by the throat; this she prevented with her hands for a long time. He dragged her for about yards, then she found her strength was failing her from loss of blood, and she called to the other women for help. The lion had been dragging her by one foot, and she had been catching hold of his legs, and of the rocks and underbrush, to delay him.

Finally he stopped and stood over her.

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She again called her companions and they attacked him with their knives and killed him. Then they dressed her wounds and nursed her in the mountains for about a month. When she was again able to walk they resumed their journey and reached our tribe in safety. Her face was always disfigured with those scars and she never regained perfect use of her hands.

The three older women died be- fore we became prisoners of war. Many women and children were carried away at different times by Mexicans. Not many of them ever returned, and those who did underwent many hardships in order to be again united with their people. Those who did not escape were slaves to the Mex- icans, or perhaps even more degraded. When warriors were captured by the Mexicans they were kept in chains. Four warriors who were captured once at a place north of Casa Grande, called by the Indians "Honas," were kept in chains for a year and a half, when they were exchanged for Mexicans whom we had captured.

We never chained prisoners or kept them in confinement, but they seldom got away. Mexican women and children 3 were treated as our own people. One of Geronimo's wives and her child were killed at this time, and thenceforth until he became a prisoner of war he had two wives. He might have had as many wives as he wished, but he says that he was so busy fighting Mexicans that he could not support more than two. We went south on the west side of the Sierra Madre Mountains for five days ; then in the night crossed over to the southern part of the Sierra de Sahuaripa range.

Here we again camped to watch for pack trains. About ten o'clock next morning four driv- ers, mounted, came past our camp with a pack-mule train. As soon as they saw us they rode for their lives, leaving us the booty. This was a long train, and packed with blankets, calico, saddles, tinware, and loaf sugar. We hurried home as fast as we could with these provisions, and on our re- turn while passing through a canon in the Santa Catilina range of mountains in Ari- zona, met a white man driving a mule pack 69 f GERONIMO train.

When we first saw him he had al- ready seen us, and was riding at full tilt up the canon. We examined his train and found that his mules were all loaded with cheese. We put them in with the other train and resumed our journey. We did not at- tempt to trail the driver and I am sure he did not try to follow us. In two days we arrived at home. Then Mangus-Colorado, our chief, assembled the tribe. We gave a feast, divided the spoils, and danced all night.

Some of the pack mules were killed and eaten. This time after our return we kept out scouts so that we would know if Mexican troops should attempt to follow us. On the third day our scouts came into camp and reported Mexican cavalry dismounted and approaching our settlement. All our warriors were in camp. Mangus-Colorado took command of one division and I of the other.

This we were unable to do, for they, too, had scouts. However, within four hours after we started we had killed ten troopers with the loss of only one man, and the Mexican cavalry was in full retreat, followed by thirty armed Apaches, who gave them no rest until they were far inside the Mexi- can country. No more troops came that winter. For a long time we had plenty of provi- sions, plenty of blankets, and plenty of clothing. We also had plenty of cheese and sugar. Another summer I selected three warriors and went on a raid into Mexico.

We went south into Sonora, camping in the Sierra de Sahuaripa Mountains. About forty miles west of Casa Grande is a small village in the mountains, called by the In- dians " Crassanas.

Geronimo: My Life by Geronimo

The next day we stole into the town at noon. We had no guns, but were armed with spears and bows and arrows. When the war-whoop was given to open the attack the Mexicans fled in every direction; not one of them made any attempt to fight us. We shot some arrows at the retreating Mexicans, but killed only one. Soon all was silent in the town and no Mexicans could be seen. When we discovered that all the Mexicans were gone we looked through their houses and saw many curious things.

These Mex- icans kept many more kinds of property than the Apaches did. Many of the things we saw in the houses we could not under- stand, but in the stores we saw much that we wanted ; so we drove in a herd of horses and mules, and packed as much provisions and supplies as we could on them. The Mexicans did not even trail us.

When we arrived in camp we called the tribe together and feasted all day. We gave presents to everyone. That night the dance began, and it did not cease until noon the next day. This was perhaps the most successful raid ever made by us into Mexican territory. I do not know the value of the booty, but it was very great, for we had supplies enough to last our whole tribe for a year or more. In the fall of twenty warriors were V willing to go with me on another raid into Mexico.

These were all chosen men, well -armed and equipped for battle. As usual we provided for the safety of our families before starting on this raid. Our whole tribe scattered and then reassembled at a camp about forty miles from the former place. In this way it would be hard for the Mexicans to trail them and we would know where to find our families when we returned. Moreover, 73 GERONIMO if any hostile Indians should see this large number of warriors leaving our range they might attack our camp, but if they found no one at the usual place their raid would fail.

We went south through the Chokonen Apaches' range, entered Sonora, Mexico, at a point directly south of Tombstone, Ari- zona, and went into hiding in the Sierra de Antunez Mountains. We attacked several settlements in the neighborhood and secured plenty of provi- sions and supplies. After about three days we attacked and captured a mule pack train at a place called by the Indians " Pontoco.

There were three drivers with this train. One was killed and two escaped. The train was loaded with mescal, 2 which was con- i Forty-five miles. As soon as we made camp the Indians began to get drunk and fight each other. I, too, drank enough mescal to feel the effect of it, but I was not drunk. I ordered the fight- ing stopped, but the order was disobeyed. Soon almost a general fight was in progress. I tried to place a guard out around our camp, but all were drunk and refused to serve. I expected an attack from Mexican troops at any moment, and really it was a serious matter for me, for being in command I would be held responsible for any ill luck attending the expedition.

Finally the camp became comparatively still, for the In- dians were too drunk to walk or even to fight. While they were in this stupor I poured out all the mescal, then I put out all the fires and moved the pack mules to a con- siderable distance from camp. After this I returned to camp to try to do something for the wounded.

I found that only two M r ere dangerously wounded. When all the wounds had been cared for, I myself kept guard till morning. The next day we loaded our wounded on the pack mules and started for Arizona. The next day we captured come cattle from a herd and drove them home with us. But it was a very difficult matter to drive cattle when we were on foot. Caring for the wounded and keeping the cattle from escaping made our journey tedious.

But we were not trailed, and arrived safely at home with all the booty. We then gave a feast and dance, and di- vided the spoils. After the dance we killed all the cattle and dried the meat. We dressed the hides and then the dried meat was packed in between these hides and stored away. All that winter we had plenty of meat. These were the first cattle we ever had. As usual we killed and ate some of the mules. In the summer of , with four war- riors, I went again into Mexico. Hereto- fore we had gone on foot; we were accus- tomed to fight on foot; besides, we could more easily conceal ourselves when dis- mounted.

But this time we wanted more cattle, and it was hard to drive them when we were on foot. We entered Sonora at a point southwest from Tombstone, Arizona, and followed the Sierra de Antunez Moun- tains to the southern limit, then crossed the country as far south as the mouth of Yaqui River. Here we saw a great lake 3 extend- ing beyond the limit of sight. Then we turned north, attacked several settlements, and secured plenty of supplies. When we had come back northwest of Arispe we se- cured about sixty head of cattle, and drove them to our homes in Arizona. We did not go directly home, but camped in different s Gulf of California.

We were not trailed. When we arrived at our camp the tribe was again assembled for feasting and dancing. Presents were given to everybody; then the cattle were killed and the meat dried and packed. We attacked several settlements south of Casa Grande, and collected many horses and mules. We made our way northward with these animals through the mountains. When near Arispe we made camp one evening, and thinking that we were not heing trailed, turned loose the whole herd, even those we had been riding. They were in a valley sur- rounded by steep mountains, and we were camped at the mouth of this valley so that the animals could not leave without coming through our camp.

Just as we had begun to eat our supper our scouts came in and an- nounced Mexican troops coming toward our camp. We scat- tered in all directions, and the troops re- covered all our booty. In three days we reassembled at our appointed place of ren- dezvous in the Sierra Madre Mountains in northern Sonora. Mexican troops did not follow us, and we returned to Arizona with- out any more fighting and with no booty.

Again I had nothing to say, but I was anx- ious for another raid. Early the next summer I took thirty mounted warriors and invaded Mex- ican territory. We went south through Chihuahua as far as Santa Cruz, Sonora, then crossed over the Sierra Madre Moun- tains, following the river course at the south end of the range. We kept on westward from the Sierra Madre Mountains to the Sierra de Sahuripa Mountains, and fol- lowed that range northward. We collected all the horses, mules, and cattle we wanted, and drove them northward through Sonora into Arizona.

When we arrived at our homes we gave presents to all, and the tribe feasted and danced. During this raid we had killed about fifty Mexicans.

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Next year Mangus-Colorado led eight warriors on a raid into Mexico. I went as a warrior, for I was always glad to fight the Mexicans. We rode south from near Tombstone, Arizona, into Sonora, Mexico. We attacked some cowboys, and after a fight with them, in which two of their number were killed, we drove all their cattle northward.

The second day we were driving the cattle, but had no scouts out. When we were not far from Arispe, Mexican troops rode upon us. They were well armed and well mounted, and when we first saw them they were not half a mile away from us. We left the cattle and rode as hard as we could toward the mountains, but they gained on us rapidly. Soon they opened 81 GERONIMO fire, but were so far away from us that we were unable to reach them with our arrows ; finally we reached some timber, and, leaving our ponies, fought from cover.

Then the Mexicans halted, collected our ponies, and rode away across the plains toward Arispe, driving the cattle with them. We stood and watched them until they disappeared in the distance, and then took up our march for home. We arrived home in five days with no vic- tory to report, no spoils to divide, and not even the ponies which we had ridden into Mexico.

This expedition was considered disgraceful. The warriors who had been with Mangus- Colorado on this last expedition wanted to return to Mexico. They were not satisfied, besides they felt keenly the taunts of the other warriors. There were only six of us, but we raided several settlements at night , captured many horses and mules, and loaded them with provisions, saddles and blankets.

Then we returned to Arizona, traveling only at night. When we arrived at our camp we sent out scouts to prevent any surprise by Mexicans, assembled the tribe, feasted, danced, and divided the spoils. Mangus-Colorado would not receive any of this booty, but we did not care. No Mex- ican troops followed us to Arizona. About a year after this Mexican troops rounded up all the horses and mules of the tribe not far from our settlement. No raids had been made into Mexico that year, and we were not expecting any at- tacks. We were all in camp, having just returned from hunting.

About two o'clock in the afternoon two Mexican scouts were seen near our settle- ment. It was use- less to try to overtake them on foot, and our tribe had not a horse left. I took twenty warriors and trailed them. We found the stock at a cattle ranch in Sonora, not far from Nacozari, and attacked the cowboys who had them in charge.

We killed two men and lost none. After the fight we drove off our own stock and all of theirs. We were trailed by nine cowboys. I sent the stock on ahead and with three war- riors stayed in the rear to intercept any at- tacking parties. One night when near the Arizona line we discovered these cowboys on our trail and watched them camp for the night and picket their horses. About mid- night we stole into their camp and silently led away all their horses, leaving the cow- boys asleep.

Then we rode hard and over- took our companions, who always traveled at night instead of in the daytime. What these nine cowboys did next morning I do not know, and I have never heard the Mexicans say anything about it; I know they did not follow us, for we were not molested. When we arrived in camp at home there was great rejoicing in the tribe. It was considered a good trick to get the Mexicans' horses and leave them asleep in the mountains.

It was a long time before we again went into Mexico or were disturbed by the Mex- icans. In order, therefore, that those who are unacquainted with the conditions as they were in southern Arizona during the eighties, may understand the en- vironment of the Apaches, this chapter is given. Raid by White Men In a company of six Mexican tra- ders, who were known as " smugglers " be- cause they evaded duties on goods which they brought into United States and sold in Arizona, were camped in Skeleton Canon, ten miles north of the north line of Old Mexico. They were known to carry large sums of money, but as they were always armed and ready to defend their possessions they were not often molested.

However, on this occasion, just as they were rising in the morning to prepare their breakfast, five white men opened fire on them from ambush and all save one of the Mexicans were killed. This one, though wounded, finally made his escape. Two years later, at the same place, a cow- boy found a leather bag containing seventy- two Mexican dollars, which small amount of money had been overlooked by the robbers. The men who did this killing lived in Arizona for many years afterwards, and although it was known that they had com- mitted the depredation, no arrests followed, and no attempt was made by any of the Mexicans to recover the property of their fellow citizens.

Meancan Raid In a cattleman and four cowboys from his ranch started to drive some fat cattle to market at Tombstone, Arizona. The route they took led partly through Old Mexico and partly through Arizona.

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One night they camped in a canon just south of the Mexican border. The cat- tleman and one of the cowboys were severely wounded at the first volley and took shelter behind the camp wagon, from which posi- tion they fired as long as their ammunition lasted. The other three were only slightly wounded and reached cover, but only one escaped with his life. He remained in hid- ing for two days before his comrades found him.

He saw the Mexicans rob the bodies of the dead and lead away their saddle horses, after having cooked breakfast for themselves in the deserted camp. He was severely wounded and all his ammunition was gone, hence he could only wait. On the second day after this raid some of the cattle strayed back to the old ranch, thereby giving notice to the cowboys that there had been foul play.

They found their wounded companions lying delirious near the decaying bodies of their comrades. The two instances above narrated will serve to show the reader what kind of an example was set for the Apaches by at least a portion of the inhabitants of the two Christian na- tions with whom they came in contact. Apache Raids It is thought well to give in this chapter some of the depredations of the Apaches, not told by Geronimo.

They are given as told by our own citizens and from the white man's point of view.