Euphorbia Helioscopia and Other Dark Fantasy

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The potential for the introduced beetles to use alternate hosts for feeding and development in North America is slight; however, it is possible. Species at highest risk are native Inventory and analysis of leafy spurge Euphorbia esula sites: Leafy spurge Euphorbia esula L. The most widespread and heaviest areas of infestation are in the northern and central Great Plains. However, quantitative information and compatible Demonstration of the economic feasibility of plant tissue culture for jojoba Simmondsia chinensis and Euphorbia spp.

The economic feasibility of plant tissue culture was demonstrated as applied to two plants: The gopher weed Euphorbia lathyris was selected as the species of Euphorbia to research due to the interest in this plant as a potential source of hydrocarbon-like compounds. High yield female selections of jojoba were chosen from native stands and were researched to determine the economic feasibility of mass producing these plants via a tissue culture micropropagation program.

The female jojoba selection was successfully mass produced through tissue culture. Since prior attempts at transfer of tissue cultured plantlets were unsuccessful, transfer research was a major part of the project and has resulted in a system for transfer of rooted jojoba plantlets to soil. Euphorbia lathyris was successfully cultured using shoot tip cultures. Media and procedures were established for culture initiation, multiplication of shoots, callus induction and growth, and root initiation. Well-developed root systems were not attained and root initiation percentages should be increased if the system is to become commercially feasible.

Short-term disruption of a leafy spurge Euphorbia esula biocontrol program following herbicide application. Integrated pest management IPM for invasive plant species is being advocated by researchers and implemented by land managers, but few studies have evaluated the success of IPM programs in natural areas. Effects of herbicides on leafy spurge abundance and on dynamics of flea beetles Aphthona spp. We monitored leafy spurge-infested plots with established flea beetle populations that had received picloram plus 2,4-D in September or , imazapic in September , versus those with no chemical treatment.

Mature stem counts did not differ significantly between treated and untreated plots in , suggesting that leafy spurge stands had recovered from herbicide treatment. Flea beetles were less abundant on plots with a history of herbicide treatment. Structural equation models indicated that in negative correlations between relative abundances of the two flea beetle species were greater on plots that had received herbicide treatments than on those that had not, but by no differences were apparent between treated and untreated plots. These results suggest that the most effective component of IPM for leafy spurge at this site is biological control.

All herbicide effects we observed were short-lived, but the increased negative correlation between flea beetle relative abundances during implies that herbicide application may have temporarily disrupted an effective biological control program at this site. These days, the desire for naturally occurring antioxidants has significantly increased, especially for use in foodstuffs, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products, to replace synthetic antioxidants that are regularly constrained due to their carcinogenicity. The study in hand aimed to appraise the antioxidant effect of two Euphorbia dendroides extracts using reducing power, anti-peroxidation, and DPPH 1,1 Diphenyl 2 Pycril Hydrazil scavenging essays, in addition to the anticancer activity against two tumor cell lines, namely C6 rat brain tumor cells, and Hela human uterus carcinoma cell lines.

The results indicated that the ethyl acetate extract exhibited antiradical activity of The ethyl acetate extract exhibits better reducing capacity and lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity compared to n -butanol extract but less than all tested standards. The two extracts exhibited moderate anticancer abilities and behaved somewhat as average antioxidant agents. Based on the total phenolics and flavonoids contents, as well as HPLC results, it could be concluded that antiproliferative and antioxidant activities depend upon the content of different phenolics and flavonoids.

The efficacy of Euphorbia prostrata in early grades of symptomatic hemorrhoids--a pilot study. The medical treatment for hemorrhoids has undergone significant changes on introduction of new pharmaceutical agents in the last decade. Euphorbia Prostrata is a new molecule used for grade I and II hemorrhoids. Beneficial effects of the Euphorbia prostrata in hemorrhoids have multiple mechanisms that are due to its active constituents flavonoids, tannins and phenolic acid.

This pilot study was performed to assess the effectiveness of this molecule in early grades of symptomatic hemorrhoids. In the present retrospective study, the effect of Euphorbia prostrata on patients with hemorrhoids was observed over a follow up period of 12 weeks. In all, patients were studied. This included 63 males and 57 females. Patients with grade 1 and 2 were prescribed with one tablet of Euphorbia prostrata Tab Sitcom, Panacea Biotec, India to be consumed on empty stomach every morning for two weeks.

Follow-up was carried out at 2, 4 and 12 weeks after commencement of treatment. The primary end point of the study was control of bleeding and secondary end points were regression of hemorrhoid mass, pruritus and discomfort in the anus. None of the patient had reported any adversity with consumption of the drug. At the follow-up after 3 months of treatment, no patient reported with symptomatic recurrence. This pilot study shows that Euphorbia prostrata can be used as an effective and well-tolerated pharmaceutical agent in the treatment of early grades of hemorrhoids.

Long-term follow-up and randomized control trials by comparing with other established formulations is necessary to justify reliance on this. The 13C 12C isotope ratios and the leaf anatomy of 18 species and varieties of Euphorbia native to the Hawaian Islands indicated that all possess C4 photosynthesis. These species range from small prostrate coastal strand shrubs to shrubs and trees in rainforest and bog habitats. The results show that C4 photosynthesis occurs in plants from a much wider range of habitats and life-forms than has been previously reported.

Antioxidant and selective anticancer activities of two Euphorbia species in human acute myeloid leukemia. In this study, two Euphorbia species i. Cytotoxicity of plant methanol and chloroform fractions was examined towards human acute myeloid leukemia THP1 and human colon epithelial Caco2 cancer cell lines, as well as CD 14 and IEC-6 normal cells by targeting various modulators of apoptosis or inflammation. Both Euphorbia species appeared to be rich in phenolic compounds and terpenoids, Moreover, E. The results indicate that the three fractions induce apoptosis in THP1 cell line after 6h of exposure.

Furthermore, apoptosis caused by apolar fraction was related to a caspase-dependent process, whereas other death pathways seemed to be involved with the polar fractions. An enhanced production of reactive oxygen species was detected upon cell treatment with plant extracts. Euphorbia terracina and E. Moreover, these fractions displayed a very high ferric reducing power. These findings confirm the strong antioxidant capacity of Euphorbia plants and suggest a targeted anti-cancer effect with a potent anti-proliferative property of E.

Euphorbia hainanensis is an endangered species endemic to the tropical Hainan Island in southern China and of historical importance for Chinese medicine. It is currently the only unplaced species of the genus Euphorbia Euphorbiaceae due to its isolated island distribution and debated placement by a previous molecular phylogenetic study.

All gene regions highly supported that E. Crossadenia subgenus Chamaesyce from Brazil with an estimated divergence time of 9. In addition, our karyological results suggested a close affinity between E.

Based on its isolated biogeographical, karyological, and phenotypical position, we propose a new section E. Laticifers are specialized plant cells capable of indefinite elongation that ramify extensively and are responsible for latex biosynthesis and accumulation. However, the mechanisms underlying laticifer cell differentiation, growth and production of latex remain largely unknown.

The recessive lol2 mutant carries increased biosynthesis of the plant hormone jasmonoyl-isoleucine JA-Ile and therefore establishes a genetic link between jasmonic acid JA signaling and latex production in laticifers. Instead, heightened production of latex in lol5 plants obeys to enhanced proliferation of laticifer cells. Phylogenetic analysis of laticifer-expressed genes in E. Moreover, we identified that the hormone JA functions not as a morphogen for laticifer differentiation but as a trigger for the fill out of laticifers with latex and the associated triterpenoids.

The identification of LOL loci represents a further step towards the understanding of mechanisms controlling latex production in laticifer cells. Temporal dynamics of leafy spurge Euphorbia esula and two species of flea beetle Aphthona spp. Aphthona lacertosa and Aphthona nigriscutis have been released at more than points in the 18,ha South Unit of the park beginning in ; most releases have occurred since We established permanent vegetation plots throughout the infested area of the park and determined stem counts and biomass of leafy spurge and abundance of the two flea beetle species at these plots each year from to Both biomass and stem counts declined over the 3 years of the study.

Both species of flea beetle are well established within the park and have expanded into areas where they were not released. Using structural equation models, only A. Previous year's stem counts had the greatest influence on change in stem counts over each 2-year time step examined with structural equation models.

Temporal dynamics of leafy spurge Euphorbia esula and two species of flea beetles Aphthona spp. The goal of this study was to evaluate the biological control program of leafy spurge Euphorbia esula in a large natural area, Theodore Roosevelt National Park, western North Dakota, USA. Genetic characterization of a red color morph of Euphorbia esula subsp. A magnetically recoverable catalyst for one-pot reductive amination of aldehydes at room temperature. We describe a method for supporting palladium nanoparticles on magnetic nanoparticles using Euphorbia stracheyi Boiss root extract as the natural source of reducing and stabilizing agent.

The progress of the reaction was monitored using UV-visible spectroscopy. The nanocatalyst was applied as an efficient, magnetically recoverable, highly reusable and heterogeneous catalyst for one-pot reductive amination of aldehydes at room temperature. The nanocatalyst was easily recovered by applying an external magnet and reused several times without considerable loss of activity. Anthocyanin inhibits propidium iodide DNA fluorescence in Euphorbia pulcherrima: By it was recognized that secondary metabolites may affect DNA staining, thereby causing inaccuracy. Here experiments are reported with poinsettia Euphorbia pulcherrima with green leaves and red bracts rich in phenolics.

Tissue was chopped, or two tissues co-chopped, in Galbraith buffer alone or with six concentrations of cyanidinrutinoside a cyanidinrhamnoglucoside contributing to red coloration in poinsettia. These largely disappeared when pea leaflets were co-chopped with poinsettia tissue as an internal standard. Chopping pea or poinsettia tissue in buffer with microm cyanidinrutinoside showed that the effects of natural inhibitors in red bracts of poinsettia on PI staining were largely reproduced in a dose-dependent way by this anthocyanin.

Given their near-ubiquitous distribution, many suspected roles and known affects on DNA staining, anthocyanins are a potent, potential cause of significant error variation in genome size estimations for many plant tissues and taxa. This has important implications of wide practical and theoretical significance. When choosing genome size calibration standards it seems prudent to select materials producing little or no anthocyanin. Reviewing the literature identifies clear examples in which claims of intraspecific variation in genome size are probably artefacts caused by natural variation in anthocyanin levels or correlated with environmental factors known to induce.

The herbaceous perennial weed Euphorbia esula Euphorbiaceae reproduces by vegetative and sexual means; characteristics that are key to its persistence and survival. In this study, we examined environmental effects on dormancy and flowering under controlled conditions to further validate field obse Lipid metabolites with free-radical scavenging activity from Euphorbia helioscopia L.

The methanolic extract of the plant Euphorbia helioscopia L. From the aerial parts of Euphorbia helioscopia L. Euphorbiaceae , a complex mixture of seven cerebrosides together with glucoclionasterol, a digalactosyldiacylglycerol and a diacylmonogalactosylglycerol were identified. The structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic data and chemical reactions. Comparative ecomorphology of the cyathial nectaries in eight European Euphorbia species. The morphology and histology of the cyathial nectary were studied in 8 European leafy spurge Euphorbia species, revealing that certain histological traits of the glands are in close correlation to each species' habitat, underlining the importance of morphological evidences in determining relevant ecological tolerance spectra of plants.

The structure of the cyathial glands was studied in longitudinal sections with light microscopy, and histological parameters were measured and statistically analyzed by appropriate softwares. The nectaries consist of a cuticle-covered epidermis, formed by palisade cells, under which the glandular tissue and parenchyma are composed of isodiametric and anisodiametric cells in all species. Thickness of cuticle, position of nectary stomata and number of rows comprising the glandular tissue vary to a great extent in plants living in xeric, humid or mesic habitats.

Although all the studied anatomical features of the nectaries were expected to be in correspondence with the characteristics of habitat types, we have only found the number of glandular cell rows to be in strong correlation with the Ellenberg's ecological indicator values on soil moisture, which varied with species.

The recorded anatomical differences among the studied Euphorbia taxa emphasize the ecological significance of glandular tissue in plant adaptation, which can also be relevant for systematic purposes. Structure and immunocytochemical localization of photosynthetic enzymes in the lamina joint and sheath pulvinus of the C4 grass Arundinella hirta. The C 4 grass Arundinella hirta exhibits a unique C 4 anatomy, with isolated Kranz cells distinctive cells and C 4 -type expression of photosynthetic enzymes in the leaf sheath and stem as well as in the leaf blade.

The border zones between these organs are pale green. Those between the leaf blade and sheath and between the sheath and stem are called the lamina joint and sheath pulvinus, respectively, and are involved in gravity sensing. We investigated the structure and localization of C 3 and C 4 photosynthetic enzymes in these tissues.

In both zones the epidermis lacked stomata. The inner tissue was composed of parenchyma cells and vascular bundles. The parenchyma cells were densely packed with small intercellular spaces and contained granal chloroplasts with large starch grains. No C 4 -type cellular differentiation was recognized. Immunogold electron microscopy revealed PEPC in the cytosol and both PPDK and rubisco in the chloroplasts of parenchyma cells, suggesting the occurrence of C 3 and C 4 enzymes within a single type of chlorenchyma cell.

These data indicate that the lamina joint and pulvinus have unique expression patterns of C 3 and C 4 enzymes, unlike those in C 4 -type anatomy. Heavy metal interaction for Andropogon scoparius and Rudbeckia hirta grown on soil from urban and rural sites with heavy metals additions. Little bluestem Andropogon scoparius and black-eyed Susan Rudbeckia hirta were grown in two soils with all combinations of Cd, Zn, Pb, and Cu at two levels each for 12 weeks. Germination and establishment were completely retarded by the addition of Neither Cd nor Cu additions affected germination.

A slight decrease in germination was noted for Pb additions of Cadmium at and Metal additions to the urban site soil did not reduce yields to the extent they did on the rural site soil. However, yields on the urban site soil control treatment were lower compared to those for the rural site control treatment.

DTPA extraction levels of heavy metals were not well correlated to plant concentrations for comparisons between the two soils. It was concluded that DTPA soil extraction may not be acceptable for metal availability comparisons among soils of differing pH. Circumstantial evidence was found for both synergistic and antagonistic effects among the heavy metals. These were of a low level and no consistent response could be determined over species or soils. Testing for tumor promoters in Euphorbia lathyris: Analysis of possible health hazards.

A sensitive test system for the detection of unknown tumor promoters is reported. A description is given of the use of the system in detecting promoter activity in Euphorbia lathyris extracts before and after treatment with organic solvents in the preparation of synthetic fuels. Using both normal and ts-virus infected cells, tumor promoter-like activities were detected and identified as ingenol esters in the active fraction of the latex of E.

These activities were shown to be inactive after extraction of potential sources of fuel. Results indicate that there should be no toxicological dangers after mechanical harvesting and drying. Biocrude crop production in arid lands. Published and unpublished estimates of land and water requirements and energy yield were used to prepare energy budgets for 4 potential biocrude liquid fuel crops in the SW USA: The cheapest energy was produced by C.

Allelopathy of small everlasting Antennaria microphylla: Phytotoxicity to leafy spurge Euphorbia esula in tissue culture. Media and media extracts from callus cultures of small everlasting Antennaria microphylla inhibited leafy spurge Euphorbia esula L. Hydroquinone, a phytotoxic compound previously isolated from small everlasting, was also biosynthesized by callus and suspension cultures of this species.

Exogenously supplied hydroquinone 0. This report confirms the chronic involvement of hydroquinone in the allelopathic interaction between small everlasting and leafy spurge. Aerobic and anaerobic glucose metabolism of Phytomonas sp. Metabolic studies on Phytomonas sp. In stationary phase cells glucose consumption was dramatically reduced. The rate of glucose consumption slightly increased under anaerobic conditions indicating that Phytomonas lacks a 'reverse Pasteur' effect contrary to the situation encountered in Leishmania major.

Major end-products of glucose catabolism under aerobic conditions, detected by enzymatic and NMR measurements, were acetate, ethanol and carbon dioxide and under anaerobic conditions ethanol, glycerol and carbon dioxide. Smaller amounts of pyruvate, succinate, L-malate, L-lactate, phosphoenolpyruvate, alanine and aspartate were also detected. Study on the diuretic activity of Euphorbia fusiformis Buch. The present study was undertaken to evaluate diuretic activity of Euphorbia fusiformis root powder in Wistar strain albino rats.

Randomly selected animals were divided into three groups of six animals each. The diuretic activity was evaluated by determination of urine volume and urinary electrolyte concentrations. Test drug showed significant increase in urine volume and urinary electrolyte excretion in a dose-dependant manner.

Thus, from this study, it can be concluded that roots of E. Multidrug resistant bacteria are sensitive to Euphorbia prostrata and six others Cameroonian medicinal plants extracts. Multidrug resistant MDR bacteria are responsible for therapeutic failure and there is an urgent need for novels compounds efficient on them. Eleven methanol extracts from seven Cameroonian medicinal plants were tested for their antibacterial activity using broth micro-dilution method against 36 MDR bacterial strains including Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Providencia stuartii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus.

Euphorbia prostrata extract was found active against all the 36 tested bacteria including Gram-negative phenotypes over-expressing efflux pumps such as P. Other plants extract displayed selective antibacterial activity. Results obtained in this study highlight the antibacterial potential of the tested plants and the possible use of E. Preparation of activated carbon from a renewable bio-plant of Euphorbia rigida by H 2SO 4 activation and its adsorption behavior in aqueous solutions.

The use of activated carbon obtained from Euphorbia rigida for the removal of a basic textile dye, which is methylene blue, from aqueous solutions at various contact times, pHs and temperatures was investigated. The plant material was chemically modified with H 2SO 4. The surface area of chemically modified activated carbon was The surface characterization of both plant- and activated carbon was undertaken using FTIR spectroscopic technique.

The adsorption process attains equilibrium within 60 min. The experimental data indicated that the adsorption isotherms are well described by the Langmuir equilibrium isotherm equation and the calculated adsorption capacity of activated carbon was The adsorption kinetics of methylene blue obeys the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and also followed by the intraparticle diffusion model up to 60 min. The activation energy of the system was calculated as According to these results, prepared activated carbon could be used as a low-cost adsorbent to compare with the commercial activated carbon for the removal textile dyes from textile wastewater processes.

Toxicity and physiological effect of quercetin on generalist herbivore, Spodoptera litura Fab.

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A novel flavonoid, quercetin, was isolated from Euphorbia hirta L. Thin-layer chromatography, Column chromatography, Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Toxicity to larval of Spodoptera litura analyze pupal weight, survival rate, fec Nectar regulation in Euphorbia tithymaloides L.

Floral sexual phases can differ in nectar production and might be under selective pressure by pollinators. We studied Euphorbia tithymaloides, which has inflorescences that are initially female and then hermaphroditic. Volume and concentration of nectar were measured in both stages. Nectar production and the effect of extractions were determined using sets of bagged inflorescences; inflorescences in the hermaphroditic phase had higher values of nectar concentration, volume and sugar mass than inflorescences in the female phase.

Nectar resorption was detected in senescent inflorescences. To test for homeostatic nectar regulation, artificial nectar was added and the response assessed after 24 h. The experiments showed that concentration and sugar mass are regulated within a narrow range, and the homeostatic points differ between the two sexual phases. These differences in nectar can be detected by hummingbirds, which prefer the female stage.

Resorption and secretion seem to be part of a homeostatic mechanism by which nectar attributes are maintained to optimise sugar recovery. Effect of drying on yield and calorific values of extractables from leafy spurge Euphorbia esula. The effect of dehydration on yield and calorific values has been investigated for oils, hydrocarbons, and poly-phenols extracted from leaves of Euphorbia esula leafy spurge. Methods of dehydration employed were with a warm oven 50 degrees C , a hot oven degrees C , at room temperature 25 degrees C , and with freeze drying.

Generally, dehydration resulted in a loss of yield for all extractives. Noteworthy exceptions were oil yields from the warm-oven or air-dried biomass which did not differ significantly from fresh tissue. NMR spectroscopy of the oil fraction suggested that dehydration did not grossly alter the composition of oils, despite differences in yield and calorific values. Evaluation of hydrocarbon plants suitable for cultivation in Florida. Most of the hydrocarbon plants reported in the literature are not suitable for cultivation under Florida conditions.

Preliminary results of field and greenhouse trials have indicated two species; Euphorbia tirucalli, which is suitable only for south Florida and Asclepias curassavica which has shown promise for the entire state. The hydrocarbon content of E.

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A comparison between the results of field trials with A. Because of environmental conditions in Florida, E. It is suggested that future research on hydrocarbon plants should concentrate on selection of individuals or species with vigorous, upright growth habits, low fertilizer-irrigation requirements and high hydrocarbon contents.

The effect of dehydration on yield and calorific values has been investigated for oils, hydrocarbons, and polyphenols extracted from leaves of Euphorbia esula leafy spurge. Noteworthy exceptions were oil yields from the warm-oven- or air-dried biomass which did not differ significantly from fresh tissue. Oils from wild, micropropagated plants, calli, and suspended cells of Euphorbia characias L. Micropropagated Euphorbia characias plants gave higher yields of crude oil than did wild ones. Leaves of either wild and micropropagated plants contained more oil than did stems.

Triterpenols, hydrocarbons, and free and esterified fatty acids are components of the crude oil produced by stems, young and mature leaves of wild and micropropagated E. With the exception of the free fatty acids fraction, all crude oil fractions were higher in micropropagated plants than in the wild ones. However the triterpenols yields were higher in stems than in leaves, both in wild and micropropagated plants.

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The composition of the triterpenol fraction of the crude oil obtained from calli and suspended cells is quite different from that produced by any in vivo parent plant organ studied. Free fatty acids constitute the main fraction of the crude oil obtained from calli and suspended cells. New cycloartane-type ester triterpenes from Euphorbia pterococca and biological evaluation. From acetonic extract of the whole plant Euphorbia pterococca Brot.

Euphorbiaceae , four new cycloartane-type ester triterpenes named cycloartenyl-2'E,4'E-decadienoate 1 , cycloartenyl-2'E,4'Z-decadienoate 2 , methylenecycloartanyl-2'E,4'Z-tetradecadienoate 3 , and oxonorcycloartanyl-2'E,4'Z-hexadecadienoate 4 were obtained along with nine known tetracyclic triterpenes In addition, the new compounds have been tested for cytotoxicity, trypanocidal effects and on enzymes involved in endocannabinoid degradation.

Comparison of supercritical fluid and Soxhlet extractions for the quantification of hydrocarbons from Euphorbia macroclada. This study compares conventional Soxhlet extraction and analytical scale supercritical fluid extraction SFE for their yields in extracting of hydrocarbons from arid-land plant Euphorbia macroclada. The validated SFE was then compared to the extraction yield of E. All of extracts were fractionated with silica-gel in a glass column to get better hydrocarbon yields.

Thus, the highest hydrocarbons yield from E. Gas chromatography GC analysis was performed to determine the quantitative hydrocarbons from plant material. The greatest quantitative hydrocarbon recovery from GC was obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide extract 0.

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Euphorbia rosescens is a recently described plant that is narrowly endemic to the Lake Wales Ridge. Little is known of the ecology or life history of this diminutive, deeply rooted polygamodioecious perennial. We studied 13 subpopulations of this species from โ€” from five habitats, sampling monthly during its growing season. Stem densities did not vary among subpopulations, habitats, or by subpopulation gender. Annual plant dormancy was common and decreased subsequent survival.

Belowground biomass averaged almost 50 times higher than aboveground biomass. Subpopulations either consisted of entirely female individuals or a mixture of male and functionally andromonoecious individuals and these subpopulation genders remained stable across years. Overall, flowering has been dominated by female plants. Plants produced modest numbers of inflorescences cyathia , and fruit production was very low. Although most plants survived fire by resprouting, fire decreased survival and had a short-term positive effect on floral production. Lack of fecundity and recruitment are concerns for this state-endangered species, but more information is needed on its breeding system and clonality to make specific management recommendations.

Microscopic processes ruling the bioavailability of Zn to roots of Euphorbia pithyusa L. To unravel the microscopic processes at the interface, thin slices of E. Roots and rhizosphere materials were examined by X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Zn K-edge, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy.

Results indicate some features common to all the investigated samples. We interpreted that roots of E.

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Concomitantly, the plant uses Si and Al extracted by soil minerals to build a biomineralization rim, which can capture Zn. This Zn silicate biomineralization has relevant implications for phytoremediation techniques and for further biotechnology development, which can be better designed and developed after specific knowledge of molecular processes ruling mineral evolution and biomineralization processes has been gained. Anti-inflammatory Ingenane Diterpenoids from the Roots of Euphorbia kansui. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethanolic extract of the roots of Euphorbia kansui led to the isolation of two new ingenane diterpenoids, euphorkans A 1: Their structures were determined by combined spectral and chemical methods.

All the isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in RAW The preliminary mechanistic study revealed that 1: Review on botany, ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and biological activities. The present review is intended to provide information on botany, ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of various parts of Euphorbia neriifolia E.

The latex of E. Leaves are brittle, heating, carminative, and good for improving the appetite and treatment of tumours, pains, inflammations, abdominal swellings and bronchial infections. Roots are used as symptomatic treatment of snake bite, scorpion sting and antispasmodic. Various plant parts or whole E. It is reported to have chemical constituents like, neriifolin-S, neriifolin, neriifoliene, euphol, neriifolione, cycloartenol, nerifoliol, lectin, euphonerins A-G, 3-O-acetylO-tigloylingol, taraxerol, antiquorin, etc.

Identified chemical constituents are still required to be explored for their advanced isolation techniques and biological activities. Production and hosting by Elsevier B. Allelopathic effects of aconitic acid on wild poinsettia Euphorbia heterophylla and morningglory Ipomoea grandifolia. High infestations of alexandergrass Brachiaria plantaginea in experimental area have reduced seedbank of some weed species in soil at a greater degree compared to those obtained with the use of an efficient herbicide. Aconitic acid AA has been identified in those plants in high concentration. Thus, two experiments were carried out in the laboratory to determine the effects of pure AA on weed seed germination and on endophytic fungi in wild poinsettia Euphorbia heterophylla and morningglory Ipomoea grandifolia weed species.

Doses of AA 0, 0. Four replications of fifty seeds of each species by treatment were sown in plastic boxes with cover and maintained in germination chamber for 12 days. Reduction in germination rate, root and stem growth were observed in both species, as well as reduction in root number in morningglory were also observed at 2. An increase in number of seeds with presence of endophytic fungi was also observed in both species, independently of seed sterilization, mainly of a green type fungi coloration in wild poinsettia.

Aconitic acid presents allelopathic activity and can stimulate endophytic fungi species growth in weed seeds. Mitochondrial lineage sorting in action โ€” historical biogeography of the Hyles euphorbiae complex Sphingidae, Lepidoptera in Italy. The Hyles euphorbiae complex HEC comprises six distinct mitochondrial lineages in the Mediterranean region, of which one exhibits a cryptic disjunct distribution.

The predominant mitochondrial lineage in most of Europe, euphorbiae , is also present on Malta; however, it is nowadays strangely absent from Southern Italy and Sicily, where it is replaced by 'italica'. A separate biological entity in Italy is further corroborated by larval colour patterns with a congruent, confined suture zone along the Northern Apennines. Your recently viewed items and featured recommendations. View or edit your browsing history. Get to Know Us. English Choose a language for shopping.

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