Neuroscience Review: Higher Intellectual Functions (Quick Review Notes)

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In the inner rectangle variables modulating the influence of musical training on cognitive development are listed see main text, in particular section Variables Modulating Brain Plasticity via Musical Training. Near transfer skills are marked in solid rectangles and far transfer skills are marked in dashed rectangles described in detail in section Effects on Cognitive Functions. Terms in italic indicate results inconclusive in the present state of the literature. Correlational and interventional studies of children undergoing music training consistently show that they perform better in the areas closely associated with music: There is also strong evidence for near-transfer effects of these abilities to phoneme discrimination, as well as far-transfer effects to vocabulary, and non-verbal reasoning subsets of general intelligence tests.

While near-transfer effects transfer to tasks within the same domain are often observed with various training programs, such as computerized executive function training attention, working memory and task-switching Diamond and Lee, ; Jolles and Crone, , far-transfer is notoriously difficult to induce and has been observed only after demanding multi-skills training such as action video games Bavelier et al. The reports we review in this section show that musical training also brings about promising far-transfer effects in domains such as verbal intelligence and executive functions, and may even lead to better general academic performance.

Neural development is complex and various neural processes affect plasticity. Such processes include synaptic proliferation, pruning, myelination at neurofilament and neurotransmitter levels, each of which has its own developmental trajectory e. Observing brain plasticity as years of musical training go by elucidates the way practice becomes engraved in the brain and how memory finds its reflection in brain structure.

In general, studies of music learning are consistent with the animal literature indicating greater plastic changes in the brain for behaviorally relevant e. However, the picture is not complete until we take into account the maturational dynamics that shape the brain simultaneously with musical training. The next section introduces the concept of critical and sensitive periods in brain development which, although not exhaustively, adds to the understanding of musical training-induced neuroplasticity.

It is known that plasticity is affected by how much a person actively engages in music training relatively early in their life Knudsen, During this time, the basic architecture of the neural circuits is laid out and all learning and plasticity that occurs after the sensitive period will cause alterations only within the connectivity patterns constraint by this framework Knudsen, The regulation of sensitive period onset and duration is not simply by age, but by experience, and thus the presence of enriched environments may prolong sensitive periods Hensch, For example, second language proficiency is better in individuals who have been exposed to it by the age of 11—13, marking puberty as the end of a sensitive period for language learning Weber-Fox and Neville, In other words, the sensitive period is to some extent use-dependent Hensch, In contrast, critical periods, are strict time windows during which experience provides information that is essential for normal development and permanently alters performance.

For instance, critical period for auditory cortex plasticity ends by the age of 3—4 years in humans, as demonstrated in studies of cochlear implantation in congenitally deaf children: Not all brain regions develop with the same time course and there are unique timing and duration of critical periods across various neural systems. Sensory and motor regions enter the sensitive period earlier than temporal-parietal and frontal areas Sowell et al.

Kral and Eggermont proposed that this extended period of developmental plasticity in the auditory cortex serves for language acquisition, wherein sensory bottom-up processing is trained by feedback from top-down cognitive processes.

During this time, between ages 1 and 5, experience-dependent plasticity of the consistency of the auditory brainstem response is maximized Skoe and Kraus, Maturation of fiber tracts in the left frontal, temporo-occipital and anterior corpus callosum connecting the frontal lobes coincides with the development of working memory capacity, while reading ability is related to fractional anisotropy values in the left temporal lobe, as observed in children between ages of 8 and 18 Nagy et al. Similarly, the maturation of corticospinal fibers parallels the development of fine finger movements Paus et al.

The cross-sectional area of the corpus callosum grows at least until early adulthood Keshavan et al. This sub-section emphasized that any intense training, including musical instrumental training in childhood, may have a different impact on brain plasticity and cognitive development depending on the age of commencement. However, many scholars of sensitive periods in brain development note that the role of motivation and attention is profound in all learning and should not be underestimated, especially during sensitive periods Hensch, And as the example of language learning in infants shows Kuhl et al.

Plastic changes in the cortical and subcortical structures of the auditory system Gregersen et al. Instrumental training may accelerate the gradual development of neurofilament in upper cortical layers that occurs between ages 6 and 12, underlying fast, synchronized firing of neurons Moore and Guan, ; Hannon and Trainor, Two longitudinal studies tracked the influence of musical training on behavioral and brain activity in children between the ages of five and nine. At baseline, there were no pre-existing cognitive, music, motor, or structural brain differences between the instrumental and control groups as tested by functional MR scans Norton et al.

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Tests performed after 14 months of musical training revealed significantly greater change scores in the instrumental group compared to the control group in fine motor skills and auditory discrimination. However, no significant changes in gray or white matter volume nor transfer effects in domains such as verbal, visual—spatial, and math were found, but the instrumental group showed a trend in the anticipated direction. A study by Hyde et al. Applying deformation-based morphometry to assess the differences between groups throughout the whole brain before and after the musical training revealed that children with piano lessons showed areas of greater relative voxel size in motor brain areas, such as the right precentral gyrus motor hand area , and the midbody of the corpus callosum, as well as in the right primary auditory region, consistent with the plastic changes observed in professional musicians.

Furthermore, structural brain differences in various frontal areas were observed which, however, did not correlate with improvement in behavioral performance. This evidence demonstrates that regular musical training during the sensitive period can induce structural changes in the brain and they are unlikely only due to pre-existing morphological differences. Yet, 14 months may not be long enough to engrave statistically significant growth in white and gray matter volume Schlaug et al. A further interesting question we explore in this section is the generalization of musical training-induced learning to other functional domains.

Is musical training a good choice? Although many longitudinal developmental studies of music education include a well-matched control group, such as another arts program, there is only limited research contrasting instrumental training in childhood with dance or sports, which could offer interesting avenues in plasticity research and aid the parents in making an informed decision. Thus, although all arts and sports programs do have beneficial effects on cognitive development Green and Bavelier, , instrumental musical training appears unique in the wide array of observed long-term effects, although there may be other factors mediating this effect Young et al.

When comparing musically trained with untrained children, it is not surprising that differences in the performance of listening tasks and auditory processing are found. For example, it has been shown that children who benefit from musical lessons are more sensitive to the key and harmonics of Western music than untrained children Corrigall and Trainor, More specifically, concerning pitch processing, children as young as 8, who have undergone a 6-month long music training, demonstrated increased accuracy in minor pitch differences discrimination and its electroencephalographic signature—increased amplitude of the N Besson et al.

No such differences were observed in the control group who has undergone an equal period of painting classes. Another recent well-controlled longitudinal study showed that children aged between 8 and 10 who benefitted from a month music lesson program were better in discriminating syllabic duration and voice onset time in comparison to children who followed painting classes during the same period Chobert et al. These results suggest thus that musical training can improve the temporal fine-tuning of auditory perception.

Moreover, musicians are better at recognizing speech in noise, an ability developed through consistent practice and enhanced if music training began early in life Parbery-Clark et al. Taken together, these results suggest that musical training increases listening skills, including sound discrimination, an ability also involved in speech segmentation Francois et al. In line with our proposed role of rhythmic entrainment see section Rhythm and Entrainment below , Besson et al. Musical sounds and all other sounds share most of the processing stages throughout the auditory system and although speech is different from music production in several dimensions Hannon and Trainor, , musical training has been shown to transfer to language related skills.

For example, auditory brainstem responses to stop consonants in musically trained children as young as 3 years is more distinct, indicating enhanced neural differentiation of similar sounds that characterizes adult musicians and later translates into better ability to distinguish sounds in speech Strait et al. While the cross-links between language and musical training have been reviewed elsewhere e. The fact that music and language share common auditory substrates may indicate that exercising the responsible brain mechanisms with sounds from one domain could enhance the ability of these mechanisms to acquire sound categories in the other domain Patel and Iversen, ; Patel, Patel argues in his OPERA hypothesis that the benefits of musicians in speech encoding are due to five mechanisms Patel, , He suggests that there is an overlap of common brain networks between speech and music, which are especially trained because music production demands high precision.

Furthermore, musical activities have high emotional reinforcement potential, which stimulates these brain networks repeatedly and requires a certain attentional focus. Patel claims that these processes are responsible for the good performance of musicians in speech processing. This benefit of musical training can not only be found in tasks of auditory perception for example tested with the Gordon's Intermediate Measures of Music Audiation, Schlaug et al.

Moreover, musical training has also been associated with enhanced verbal memory Chan et al. Research in adults clearly showed that musical ability could predict linguistic skills in the second language learning. Slevc and Miyake tested 50 Japanese adult learners of English, and found a relationship between musical ability and second language skills in receptive and productive phonology, showing that musical expertise can be a benefit for learning a second language. And in young children, a study by Milovanov et al. Empirical research on children and adults suggests that musical abilities predict phonological skills in language, such as reading.

For example, Butzlaff found a significant association between music training and reading skills. In another study Anvari et al. Learning to read English requires mapping visual symbols onto phonemic contrasts, and thus taps into linguistic sound categorization skills.

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In this study, both musical pitch and rhythm discrimination were tested. For the group of 5-year-olds, performance on musical pitch, but not rhythm tasks predicted reading abilities. Such a finding is consistent with the idea of shared learning processes for linguistic and musical sound categories. However, despite this negative finding in 5-year old participants, there seems to be a link between abilities of rhythm production and reading, as we elaborate in section Rhythm and Entrainment below.

For example, a recent study Tierney and Kraus showed that in adolescents the ability to tap to the beat is related to better reading abilities, as well as with performance in temporal attention demanding tasks, such as backward masking Tierney and Kraus, This difference in rhythm processing might be due to the way how rhythm perception and production was studied by Anvari and colleagues, which required short term memory abilities, whereas the task of tapping to the beat solicits rather sensorimotor synchronization, and more importantly temporal orienting of attention—an ability required also in reading.

A meta-analysis of 15 experimental studies by Hetland showed that music instruction enhances performance on certain spatial tasks such as the Object Assembly subtest of the WISC but not on Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices, which is a test of non-verbal reasoning with some visual-spatial elements. The results of correlational studies testing the association between music training and spatial outcomes show no clear-cut association, with five out of 13 studies reporting a positive correlation between music training and spatial outcomes and eight a negative, null, or mixed results.

Another study Costa-Giomi, found that children receiving piano lessons improved more than controls in visual-spatial skills but only during the first 2 years of instruction, with no differences between the groups by the end of the third year. A study with adults showed that musicians did not perform better than non-musicians in a spatial working memory task Hansen et al. It appears, therefore, that instrumental music training may aid the acquisition of spatial abilities in children rather than bring about a permanent advantage in musicians.

Finally, Schlaug et al. A meta-analysis of the studies investigating the influence of musical training on math performance did not show convincing evidence in favor of a transfer effect Vaughn, Also in more recent studies no positive relation between musical training and performance in a mathematical skills tests Forgeard et al. The notion of executive function refers to the cognitive processes orchestrated by the prefrontal cortex that allow us to stay focused on means and goals, and to willfully with conscious control alter our behaviors in response to changes in the environment Banich, They include cognitive control attention and inhibition , working memory and cognitive flexibility task switching.

How musical training affects cognitive development: rhythm, reward and other modulating variables

Hannon and Trainor proposed that musical training invokes domain-specific processes that affect salience of musical input and the amount of cortical tissue devoted to its processing, as well as processes of attention and executive functioning. In fact, the attentional and memory demands, as well as the coordination and ability to switch between different tasks, which are involved in learning to play an instrument, are very large. This learning depends on the integration of top-down and bottom up processes and it may well be that it is the training of this integration that underlies the enhanced attentional and memory processes observed in the musically trained Trainor et al.

Executive functions seem thus highly solicited when learning to play an instrument Bialystok and Depape, In fact, Moreno et al. Similarly, in terms of working memory capacity, a recent longitudinal study showed that children that had been included in months long instrumental music program outperformed the children in the control group that followed a natural science program during the same period Roden et al.

Extensive amount of research on how music can increase intelligence and make the listener smarter has been carried out Rauscher et al. The outcome of this research shows that not music listening but active engagement with music in the form of music lessons sometimes confers a positive impact on intelligence and cognitive functions although such results are not always replicated.

A major discussion in this area is whether musical training increases specific skills or leads to a global un-specific increase in cognitive abilities, measured by a general IQ score. For children, music lessons act as additional schooling—requiring focused attention, memorization, and the progressive mastery of a technical skill. It is therefore likely that transfer skills of executive function, self-control and sustained focused attention translate into better results in other subjects, and eventually in higher scores of general IQ.

General IQ is typically tested with Raven's Progressive Matrices Raven, , although various types of intelligence can also be tested on specific tests. These tests require different kinds of cognitive performance, such as providing definitions of words or visualizing three-dimensional objects from two-dimensional diagrams, and are regarded as a good indicator of mental arithmetic skills and non-verbal reasoning.

For example, Forgeard et al. Measuring intelligence implies the sensitive discussion on genetic predisposition and environmental influence, and experience-acquired abilities. Schellenberg points out that children with higher cognitive abilities are more likely to take music lessons and that this fact can bias studies in which participants are not randomly assigned to music or control conditions Schellenberg, a. Similarly, also the socioeconomic context is known to influence the probability that children get access to musical education Southgate and Roscigno, ; Young et al.

Controlling for this potentially confounding factor, Schellenberg reported a positive correlation between music lessons and IQ in 6—11 year olds, and showed that taking music lessons in childhood predicts both academic performance and IQ in young adulthood holding constant family income and parents' education.

In another study, two groups of 6 year-olds were tested, one of which received keyboard or singing lessons in small groups for 36 weeks Schellenberg, , and the other children received drama lessons. The latter did not show related increases in full-scale IQ and standardized educational achievement, but notably, the most pronounced results were in the group of children who received singing rather than piano lessons. Modest but consistent gains were made across all four indexes of the IQ, including verbal comprehension, perceptual organization, and freedom from distractibility and processing speed, suggesting that music training has widespread domain-general effects.

Intelligence measurements are often used to predict academic achievement. One question in this domain of research is therefore how musical activities influence academic achievement in children and adolescents. Despite initial claims that this effect may be primarily due to differences in socioeconomic status and family background, intervention studies as well as tests of general intelligence seem to show a positive association between music education and academic achievement.

For example in a study by Southgate and Roscigno longitudinal data bases which include information on music participation, academic achievement and family background were analyzed. Their results show that indeed music involvement in- and outside of school can act as a mediator of academic achievement tested as math and reading skills. However, their results show also that there is a systematic relation between music participation and family background. Nonetheless, a recent study found that academic achievement can be predicted independently of socioeconomic status only when the child has access to a musical instrument Young et al.

Interestingly, this finding emphasizes that musical activities with an instrument differ from other arts activities in this respect. Furthermore, it has been suggested that executive functions act as a mediator in the impact of music lessons on enhanced cognitive functions and intelligence.

Schellenberg a had the goal to investigate in detail this hypothesis of the mediating effect of the executive functions. He designed a study with 9—year old musically trained and un-trained children and tested their IQ and executive functions. Schellenberg's results suggest that there is no impact of executive functions on the relation between music training and intelligence.

However, other studies have reported such an influence. For example there has been evidence that musical training improves executive function through training bimanual coordination, sustained attention and working memory Diamond and Lee, ; Moreno et al. These authors did find a positive influence of musical training on executive functions and argued that this difference of results is due to the fact that in Schellenberg's study no direct measure of selective attention was included, which supposedly plays a crucial role in music.

Apart from the concept of general IQ, Schellenberg b studied the influence of musical training in children on emotional intelligence but did not find any relation between them. Moreover, another study with 7—8 year-old children found a positive correlation between musical training and emotion comprehension which disappeared, however, when the individual level of intelligence was controlled Schellenberg and Mankarious, Also other studies with adults did not find any correlation between musical training and emotional intelligence Trimmer and Cuddy, One study by Petrides and colleagues with musicians did find a positive correlation between length of musical training and scores of emotional intelligence Petrides et al.

There seems to be thus a still contradictory picture concerning the association between emotional intelligence and musical education. This result is interesting insofar as it could be thought that musical training could also increase social competences, given that active musical activities have shown to enhance communicative and social development in infants Gerry et al. Moreover, a study by Kirschner and Tomasello found that in children at the age of 4 musical activities produced behaviors of spontaneous cooperation.

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  5. Another way to test social skills is to investigate the sensitivity to emotional prosody, which is a precious capacity in social communication. Studies have shown that musical training enhances the perception and recognition of emotions expressed by human voices Strait et al. Thus, like with regards to emotional competence, the literature linking musical education and the recognition of emotional prosody is equivocal. The impact of musical education on social skills might therefore have to be investigated more in depth, comparing aspects such as music teaching methods in groups vs.

    Musical activities can have a beneficial impact on brain plasticity and cognitive and physical abilities also later in adult life after the critical and sensitive periods in childhood Wan and Schlaug, For example, Herdender and colleagues showed that musical ear training in students can evoke functional changes in activation of the hippocampus in response to acoustic novelty detection Herdener et al.

    In general, at an advanced age, a decline of cognitive functions and brain plasticity can be observed. However, physical as well as cognitive activities can have a positive impact on the preservation of these abilities in old age Pitkala et al. In this sense, musical training has been proposed as a viable means to mitigate age-related changes in auditory cognition for a review see Alain et al. It is often reported that with age fluid intelligence decreases and that this can be related to a diminishment of hippocampal volume Reuben et al.

    In turn, a recent study by Oechslin et al. In another study by Hanna-Pladdy and Mackay , significant differences between elderly musicians and non-musicians 60—83 years were found in non-verbal memory, verbal fluency, and executive functions. This shows as well that musical activity can prevent to some degree the decline of cognitive functions in ageing.

    However, these differences could be due to predisposition differences. Nonetheless, Bugos et al. They found that persons over 60 who only began to learn to play the piano and continued during 6 months showed improved results in working memory tests as well as tests of motor skills and perceptual speed, in comparison to a control group without treatment. Dalcroze Eurhythmics, which is a pedagogic method based on learning music through movements and rhythm as basic elements has also been administered to seniors.

    One study showed that a treatment with this method during 6 months positively influences the equilibrium and regularity of gait in elderly Trombetti et al. Given that falls in this population are a major risk, it is especially important to engage in training of these physical abilities at this age, which seems to be more efficient in combination with musical aspects of rhythmical movement synchronization and adaptation within a group.

    Although there are promising results suggesting that older musicians compared to matched controls show benefits not only in near-transfer but also some far-transfer tasks such as visuospatial span, control over competing responses and distraction Amer et al. Apart from the study of Bugos et al. One challenge in assessing developmental changes in the brain due to long-term learning such as musical training is that many studies demonstrating structural brain differences are retrospective and look at mature musicians, which does not rule out the possibility that people with certain structural atypicalities are more predisposed to become musicians.

    If this is the case, then the distinction between innate and developed differences is rather difficult. In fact, the biggest goal for most training studies, notwithstanding musical training, is to disentangle the effects of longitudinal training and pre-existing differences or factors other than the intervention, such as gender, genetic predisposition, general IQ, socio-economic background and parents' influence. Another difficulty of interventions in young populations concerns the fact that children's brains are very inhomogeneous, and therefore comparisons, even within similar age groups, may not be very informative.

    The musician's brain is recognized as a good model for studying neural plasticity Munte et al.

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    The fact that in several studies, a correlation was found between the extent of the anatomical differences and the age at which musical training started strongly argues against the possibility that these differences are preexisting and the cause, rather than the result of practicing music. On the other hand, the contamination of most longitudinal studies with children is that they are correlational, and most do not assign the subjects randomly to either musical education or a control group.

    As a result, the observed positive effects on cognitive functioning may not solely derive from practicing music but also from differences in motivation for learning or general intelligence, musical predispositions aside. Because general cognitive abilities Deary et al. Musical pitch perception Drayna et al. Importantly, these predispositions are typically tested for in children in a music school entrance exam. At least some components of cognitive abilities that are found to be better in the musically-trained stem from innate qualities Irvine, , but it is difficult to expect ecologically-valid intervention studies to be able to untangle this factor from the effect of training Barrett et al.

    They describe how a number of individual traits, such as conscientiousness, persistence, selective attention and self-discipline that are needed in music training, could be the pre-existing qualities that facilitate learning, brain plasticity, as well as far-transfer effects. This particular personality trait is genetically determined to some extent and may be also responsible for motivation to learn.

    Dopamine receptors also play a major role in shaping motivation: Rewarding value of a musical activity could be one of the driving forces for brain plasticity induced by musical training. Due to dopamine's important role in long-term memory formation e. A positive affective experience, such as pleasure and pride derived from first music lessons will likely promote future practice and total duration of training. In practice, it is difficult to control for levels of intrinsic motivation in empirical studies of musical training, such as those conducted by Moreno and colleagues Besson et al.

    Other factors that affect music performance ability are emotional support from parents and a nurturing relationship with the teacher characterized by mutual liking Sloboda, Although these are not the focus of this article, they greatly affect a child's motivation to practice and the learning outcome, and should be taken into consideration in future studies investigating effects of musical training compared to other forms of long-term training intervention. Variance within musicians may also be a variable contributing to the musical training effect.

    The level of musical training is linked to pleasurable experience when listening to music Gold et al. However, little is known about individual variability in music-induced positive emotional responses. It is possible, for instance, that individuals who experience deeply rewarding musical emotions are drawn to taking on musical training again, with potential genetic influences such as in individuals with William's syndrome, Levitin, Later on, pleasure from the performance of music may add to the intrinsic motivation to continue training, thus forming a self-reinforcing cycle in which a student with innate predispositions to rewarding musical emotions experiences satisfaction with his own performance which encourages the student to practice.

    In addition, as with any skill learning that takes years to master, a high tolerance to frustration and perseverance are personality traits that would render a student more likely to continue the training Barrett et al. Interestingly, musicians may differ in the level of enjoyment they derive from their artistic activity, with a particular difference between popular, jazz- and folk- vs.

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    Although studies mostly concentrate on musicians trained in playing a particular instrument, the type of education they received may affect the outcome not only due to instructional differences but also through differences in motivation. One of the study's conclusions was that popular music artists tend to have higher levels of intrinsic motivation and reportedly learning to play an instrument out of own desire and later age at training commencement than classical musicians. The latter, who may have been confronted with higher demands for discipline and compliance in the formal educational system, tended to value technical skills higher than pleasure, and presumably had higher levels of extrinsic motivation for awards in adult career, and for teacher's praise during training.

    Although brain plasticity studies have so far mainly concentrated on classical music education, it may be important to note that students with classical and non-classical music education may actually differ in personality traits such as conscientiousness, Corrigall et al. The aforementioned consideration of motivation as a learning-modulating variable leads us to the question of what happens to the learning outcomes and skill transfer in children who are forced to learn to play an instrument.

    In this case, music training may be an unpleasant and stressful experience. However, evidence form more ecological designs shows that stress impairs word learning and recall performance in comparison to no stress Schwabe and Wolf, This has to do with the role of the amygdala in memory formation under stress: The equivalent of such a switch in a typical learning situation would be moving away from deep, reflective processing under supportive, non-demanding circumstances to superficial processing under test-anxiety, which profoundly affects factual memory Fransson, Stress derived from fear of punishment therefore affects the way we learn and often leads to worse performance than reward motivation.

    The effect depends on the task at hand but a negative impact has been found in the formation of spatial Murty et al. Although we cannot exhaustively elaborate on the literature treating motivation, learning and transfer in education research, suffice it to say that some forms of punishment motivation resulting in stress have a negative impact on learning Lepine et al.

    In the context of musical education, we suggest thus that the aforementioned influence of personality and intrinsic motivation should be taken into account in future studies. For example, in random assignment studies on the impact of musical training, participants should also be asked to declare their personal motivation to adhere to the training at least before and after the intervention.

    Furthermore, personality questionnaires could be incorporated to test for traits that affect the learning style e. These factors could then be used as covariates in the analysis of the effect of musical training in both behavioral and neuroimaging studies. Such information would help determine the extent of the influence of personality and motivational disposition on the long-term adherence to the program as well as its outcome in terms of transfer skills. This could be particularly pertinent given the fact, that these factors could not only limit the positive effects of musical activities but even be detrimental to cognitive and emotional development if the activity represents mainly a source of stress and negative affect.

    In addition, this information might also help to disentangle the real impact of the training from the influence of personality and motivation. Here we want to point at one specific aspect, which could represent an underlying mechanism of the beneficial transferrable effects of musical training. This specific feature is related to the fact that musical activities are usually based on rhythm.

    Most musical styles have an underlying temporal pattern that is called meter, which defines a hierarchical structure between time points London, Ontogenetically, rhythm discrimination is observed in infants as young as 2 months of age Trehub and Hannon, Like adults, 7-months old infants can infer an underlying beat, categorizing rhythms on the basis of meter Hannon and Johnson, , and 9-month old infants can more readily notice small timing discrepancies in strongly metrical than in non-metrical rhythms Bergeson and Trehub, This means that you will not need to remember your user name and password in the future and you will be able to login with the account you choose to sync, with the click of a button.

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    Scope Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience is a leading journal in its field, publishing rigorously peer-reviewed research that advances our understanding of the mechanisms of Central Nervous System aging and age-related neural diseases. The most-cited journal series in the Neurosciences field See journal impact. This journal has no chief editors. Learn more View all Suggest a Topic. By role Most viewed Most publications. There are no results to display. Click on any of the keywords to find further editors related to it. Another advantage of brain games is that their cognitive benefits can be felt long into old age.

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