The province and the states, a history of the province of Louisiana under France and Spain (1904)
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Many estimate of about 1 in 70 being the national average for  of the Anglo-American settlers owned slaves. Mexico granted Texas a one-year exemption from the national edict of edict outlawing slavery, but Mexican president Anastasio Bustamante ordered that all slaves be freed in Bustamante outlawed the immigration of United States citizens to Texas in These Anahuac Disturbances coincided with a revolt in Mexico against the current president.
Texans took advantage of the lack of oversight to agitate for more political freedom, resulting in the Convention of Among other issues, the convention demanded that U. After presenting their petition, courier Stephen F. Austin was jailed for the next two years in Mexico City on suspicion of treason.
The vague unrest erupted into armed conflict on October 2, at the Battle of Gonzales , when Texans repelled a Mexican attempt to retake a small cannon. The revolt was justified as necessary to protect basic rights and because Mexico had annulled the federal pact. The majority of the colonists were from the United States; they said that Mexico had invited them to move to the country, but they were determined "to enjoy" the republican institutions to which they were accustomed in their native land.
Many of the Texas settlers believed the war to be over and left the army after the initial string of victories. His force was large but ill-trained. News of the defeats sparked the Runaway Scrape , where much of the population of Texas and the Texas provisional government fled east, away from the approaching Mexican army. It overturned the Mexican prohibition of slavery, although it allowed slaveholders to free their slaves if they desired.
Austin , known as the Father of Texas , died December 27, , after serving two months as Secretary of State for the new Republic. In , the capital was moved to the new town of Austin by the next president, Mirabeau B. Internal politics of the Republic were based on the conflict between two factions. The nationalist faction, led by Mirabeau B.
Lamar , advocated the continued independence of Texas, the expulsion of the Native Americans , and the expansion of Texas to the Pacific Ocean. Their opponents, led by Sam Houston, advocated the annexation of Texas to the United States and peaceful co-existence with Native Americans. Although Texas governed itself, Mexico refused to recognize its independence. They soon headed back to the Rio Grande after briefly occupying San Antonio.
A Texas militia retaliated at the Battle of Salado Creek. Mexico's attacks on Texas intensified the conflict between the political factions in an incident known as the Texas Archive War in Austin residents, suspicious of the president's motives because of his avowed disdain of the capital, forced the archives back to Austin at gunpoint. The Texas Congress admonished Houston for the incident, and the incident would solidify Austin as Texas's seat of government for the Republic and the future state.
On February 28, , the U. Congress narrowly passed a bill that authorized the United States to annex the Republic of Texas if it so voted. The legislation set the date for annexation for December 29 of the same year. On October 13 of the same year, a majority of voters in Texas approved a proposed constitution that specifically endorsed slavery and the slave trade. This constitution was later accepted by the U. Congress, making Texas a U. The Mexican government had long warned that annexation would mean war with the United States.
When Texas joined the U. In June , President James K. On November 10, ,  Polk ordered General Taylor and his forces south to the Rio Grande, into disputed territory that Mexicans claimed as their own. On April 25, , a 2,strong Mexican cavalry detachment attacked a man U. The Mexican cavalry routed the patrol, killing 16 U. Both nations declared war. In the ensuing Mexican—American War , there were no more battles fought in Texas, but it became a major staging point for the American invasion of northern Mexico.
One of the primary motivations for annexation was the Texas government's huge debts. The United States agreed to assume many of these upon annexation. However, the former Republic never fully paid off its debt until the Compromise of Intensified migration to Texas after statehood raised the population to about , Societies such as the Texas Emigration and Land Company now pledged to settle colonists who would agree to constitute a militia for defense against the Indians; in return they would receive a grant of acres of choice land.
Most of the newcomers continued to migrate from the states of the lower South; slavery was granted legal protection by the Texas constitution of The Texas population by was quite diverse, with large elements of European whites from the American South , African Americans mostly slaves brought from the east , Tejanos Hispanics with Spanish heritage , and about 20, recent German immigrants. The new state grew rapidly as migrants poured into the fertile cotton lands of east Texas. The central area of the state was developed more by subsistence farmers who seldom owned slaves.
Texas in its Wild West days attracted men who could shoot straight and possessed the zest for adventure, "for masculine renown, patriotic service, martial glory and meaningful deaths. The Germans were the largest group immigrating directly from Europe. The Czech-American communities are characterized by a strong sense of community, and social clubs were a dominant aspect of Czech-American life in Texas. By , the Czech population numbered ; by there were more than 60, Czech-Americans in Texas. In the summer of , a slave panic erupted in North and East Texas amid rumors of arson by slaves and abolitionists.
Called the "Texas Troubles", between 30 and blacks and whites were lynched by vigilantes. The events were used to arouse support for secession. As part of the Cotton Kingdom , planters depended on slave labor. The Secession Convention immediately organized a government, replacing Sam Houston when he refused to take an oath of allegiance to the Confederacy. Texas declared its secession from the United States on February 1, , and joined the Confederate States of America on March 2, With few battles in its territory, Texas was mainly a "supply state" for the Confederate forces until mid, when the Union capture of the Mississippi River made large movements of men, horses or cattle impossible.
Texas regiments fought in every major battle throughout the war. The 2nd Texas Cavalry Battalion U. Support for the Confederacy was perhaps weakest in Texas; Elliott estimates that only a third of the white men in early supported the Confederacy. Many unionists supported the Confederacy after the war began, but many others clung to their unionism throughout the war, especially in the northern counties, the German districts, and the Mexican areas.
Local officials harassed unionists and engaged in large-scale massacres against unionists and Germans. In Cooke County suspected unionists were arrested; 25 were lynched without trial and 40 more were hanged after a summary trial. Draft resistance was widespread especially among Texans of German or Mexican descent; many of the latter went to Mexico.
Potential draftees went into hiding, Confederate officials hunted them down, and many were shot. During the 20th century, national historiographical trends influenced the scholarship on the Civil War in Texas.
Beginning in the s, historians focused on military campaigns in Texas and other areas of the Southwest, a region previously neglected. Since the s, scholars have shifted their attention to South Texas, exploring how its relations with Mexico and Mexican Americans affected both Confederate and Union Civil War military operations. Also since the s, the "New Social History" has stimulated research in war-related social, economic, and political changes.
This historiographical trend is related to a growing interest in local and regional history. When the news arrived in Galveston, on June 19, that they had been set free, the freed slaves rejoiced, creating the celebration of Juneteenth.
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The State had suffered little during the War but trade and finance was disrupted. Angry returning veterans seized state property, and Texas went through a period of extensive violence and disorder.
Most outrages took place in northern Texas; outlaws based in the Indian Territory plundered and murdered without distinction of party. Hamilton as provisional governor on June 17, Hamilton had been a prominent politician before the war. He granted amnesty to ex-Confederates if they promised to support the Union in the future, appointing some to office.
On March 30, , although Texas did not meet all the requirements, Congress restored Texas to the Union. Many free blacks were able to become businessmen and leaders. Through the young Republican Party blacks rapidly gained political power. Like other Southern states, by the late s white Democrats regained control of the state legislature. They passed a new constitution in that segregated schools and established a poll tax to support them, but it was not originally required for voting.
Within the Republican Party the Lily-white movement emerged, a movement to wrest control of the party by whites and eliminate black influence altogether. The movement had its origins in Texas but spread across the nation. This in addition to wider efforts to restrict the influence of non-whites rapidly reversed the fortunes of the black population. Racial violence continued by whites against blacks as they enforced white supremacy. Despite this, freedmen pursued education, organize new churches and fraternal organizations, and entered politics, winning local offices.
By the s, more than , blacks were voting in state elections. Hawley was elected to Congress from the state by a plurality, when most white voters split between the Democratic and Populist parties. Democrats were determined to end competition by Republicans and Populists, and reviewed what other Southern states were doing to disenfranchise blacks and poor whites.
Mississippi's new constitution of had survived a Supreme Court case, although in practice it was highly discriminatory against freedmen. Much of Texas politics of the remainder of the 19th century centered on land use. Guided by the federal Morill Act , Texas sold public lands to gain funds to invest in higher education. In , the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas opened, and seven years later the University of Texas at Austin began conducting classes.
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New land use policies drafted during the administration of Governor John Ireland enabled individuals to accumulate land, leading to the formation of large cattle ranches. Many ranchers ran barbed wire around public lands, to protect their access to water and free grazing. This caused several range wars. The coming of the railroads in the s ended the famous cattle drives and allowed ranchers to market their cattle after a short drive, and farmers move their cotton to market cheaply.
They made Dallas and other cities the centers of commercial activity. Worth became the gateway to the west, via the Fort Worth and Denver Railway. Governor Lawrence Sullivan Ross had to personally intervene to resolve the Jaybird-Woodpecker War among factions of Democrats in Fort Bend County ; at bottom, it was a racial conflict. The majority population was black by a large margin, and had been electing county officers for 20 years. But, the white elite Democrats wanted their own people in power.
Conflict became violent and the Jaybirds ordered several blacks out of town. Tensions increased and a total of seven people were killed. In the fall of , the Democratic Party created "white-only pre-primary elections," which in practice were the only competitive contests in the county, and thus disenfranchised the blacks. Adams declared it unconstitutional  in the last of the white primary cases. Under Jim Hogg , the state turned its attention toward corporations violating the state monopoly laws.
In , Texas filed a lawsuit against John D. Hogg and his attorney-general argued that the companies were engaged in rebates, price fixing , consolidation, and other tactics prohibited by the state's antitrust act. The investigation resulted in a number of indictments, including one for Rockefeller. Hogg requested that Rockefeller be extradited from New York , but the New York governor refused, as Rockefeller had not fled from Texas. Rockefeller was never tried, but other employees of the company were found guilty.
Galveston was the first city to implement a city commission government, and its plan was adopted by other small cities across the United States. In the aftermath of the Galveston disaster, action proceeded on building the Houston Ship Channel to create a more protected inland port. Houston quickly grew once the Channel was completed, and rapidly became the primary port in Texas. Railroads were constructed in a radial pattern to link Houston with other major cities such as Dallas-Fort Worth, San Antonio, and Austin. By the Dallas population reached 38, as banking and insurance became major activities in the increasingly white-collar city, which was now the world's leading cotton center.
It was also the world's center of harness making and leather goods. Businessmen took control of civic affairs; with little municipal patronage, there was only a small role for the Democratic Party to play. The predominantly black Republican Party was essentially closed out of politics by the disenfranchisement in of most blacks through imposition of a poll tax see below.
Determined to control politics in the state, reduce competition from Republicans and Populists, and close blacks out of politics, in the Democrat-dominated state legislature passed a poll tax as a requirement for voting. Given the economic difficulties of the times, the poll tax caused participation by African Americans, poor whites, and Mexican Americans to drop sharply, effectively disenfranchising more than one-third of the population of the state.
By the early 20th century, the Democratic Party in Texas started using a " white primary. By , the number of black voters had dropped from more than , in the s to 5, The state also passed a law for white primaries. When the Supreme Court ruled in that white primaries established by political parties were unconstitutional, in the Texas state legislature passed a bill that authorized political parties to establish their internal practices.
The Democratic Party reinstated the white primary. That law survived until before another Supreme Court case ruled that it was unconstitutional. After , the NAACP and other organizations worked to register black voters and participation increased. But the major disenfranchisement continued until passage in the mids of civil rights legislation, including the Voting Rights Act of , to provide for federal oversight in areas in which historically minorities did not vote in expected numbers based on population.
Texans in marked an icon of progress with the construction of the first skyscraper west of the Mississippi. Dallas became the regional headquarters of the Federal Reserve in , strengthening its dominance of Texas banking. The city had reached , population by when the effects of the Stock Market Crash hit Texas, causing a sharp drop in the prices of oil, cotton and cattle; growth came to a standstill. On the morning of January 10, , Anthony F. Lucas , an experienced mining engineer, drilled the first major oil well at Spindletop , the little hill south of Beaumont, Texas.
The East Texas Oil Field , discovered on October 5, , is located in east central part of the state, and is the largest and most prolific oil reservoir in the contiguous United States. Other oil fields were later discovered in West Texas and under the Gulf of Mexico. The resulting Texas Oil Boom permanently transformed the economy of Texas, and led to its most significant economic expansion after the Civil War. The economy, which had experienced significant recovery since the Civil War, was dealt a double blow by the Great Depression and the Dust Bowl.
After the Stock Market Crash of , the economy suffered significant reversals. Thousands of unemployed Mexican citizens received one-way bus tickets to their home villages in Mexico. Farmers and ranchers were especially hard hit, as prices for cotton and livestock fell sharply.
Beginning in and lasting until , the Dust Bowl , an ecological disaster of severe wind and drought, caused an exodus from Texas and the surrounding plains, in which over , Americans were homeless, hungry and jobless. For the majority of farmers who remained, the New Deal 's Agricultural Adjustment Act was a crash program started in that in two weeks signed up cotton growers, even as agents and committeemen faced poor roads, bureaucratic delays, inadequate supplies, balking mules, and language barriers.
It brought recovery by the mids, raising cotton prices by controls on how much farmers could plant. World War II had a dramatic effect on Texas, as federal money poured in to build military bases, munitions factories, POW detention camps and Army hospitals; , young men left for service; the cities exploded with new industry; the colleges took on new roles; and hundreds of thousands of poor farmers left for much better-paying war jobs, never to return to agriculture. The Bracero Program brought in , Mexicans to work temporarily. Existing military bases in Texas were expanded and numerous new training bases were built: The good flying weather made the state a favorite location for Air Force training bases.
In the largest aviation training program in the world, , graduated from programs at 40 Texas airfields, including 45, pilots, 12, bombardiers, 12, navigators, and thousands of aerial gunners, photographers, and mechanics. Hundreds of thousands of American and some allied soldiers, sailors and airmen trained in the state.
All sectors of the economy boomed as the homefront prospered. There were fourteen prisoner-of-war camps in the state. The men in the camps were put to work to supplement the local farm labor lost to the war. Previously a largely rural area, East Texas became more urban as workers were recruited for the oil, shipbuilding, and aircraft industries.
East Texans made many contributions to the war effort, both at home and in the armed forces. High schools had patriotic programs as well, but so many teachers and older students left for the military or for defense jobs that budgets were cut, programs dropped, and the curriculum had to be scaled down.
Hospitals reported a shortage of supplies and medical personnel, as many doctors and most of the younger nurses joined the services. Harmon General Hospital, one of the Army's largest, opened in Longview in November with hospital buildings and a capacity of 2, beds. The facility was designed for the treatment of soldiers with central nervous system syphilis, psychiatric disorders, tropical illnesses, and dermatological diseases. At the end of the war, the facility was adapted for use as the campus of LeTourneau University. Baylor University , like most schools, was successful in the multiple missions of aiding national defense, recruiting soldiers, and keeping the institution operational while the war continued.
It prepared Air Force pilots for full-fledged military aviation training. The efforts of Clent Breedove and M. Dagley, private contractors for the Civilian Pilot Training Program at the university site since , with Harold Humphries as chief pilot, brought an economic boost to Lubbock.
Austin State Teacher's College in Nacogdoches. Nowhere were the wartime effects greater than in Houston , which in was a city of , population dependent on shipping and oil. The war dramatically expanded the city's economic base, thanks to massive federal spending. Energetic entrepreneurs, most notably George Brown, James Elkins and James Abercrombie, landed hundreds of millions of dollars in federal wartime investment in technologically complex facilities.
Houston oil companies moved from being refiners and became sophisticated producers of petrochemicals. Especially important were synthetic rubber and high octane fuel, which retained their importance after the war. The war moved the natural gas industry from a minor factor to a major energy source; Houston became a major hub when a local firm purchased the federally-financed Inch pipelines.
Other major growth industries included steel, munitions, and shipbuilding. Tens of thousands of new migrants streamed in from rural areas, straining the city's housing supply and the city's ability to provide local transit and schools. For the first time, high-paying jobs went to large numbers of women, blacks and Mexican Americans. The city's African-American community, emboldened by their newfound prosperity, increased its agitation for civil rights; they backed and funded the legal case of Smith v.
Allwright , in which the Supreme Court ruled against the latest version of the white primary in support of voting rights. Throughout East Texas, black family growth and dissolution came more rapidly than in peacetime; blacks were more mobile as an adjustment to employment opportunities. There was a more rapid shift to factory labor, higher economic returns, and a willingness of whites to tolerate the change in black economic status so long as the traditional " Jim Crow " social relations were maintained.
Beginning in , Texas was hit with a devastating drought that extended until Rainfall decreased 30 to 50 percent, while temperatures rose, killing crops, livestock, and triggering a rise of dust storms. As a result, the number of Texas farms and ranches declined by nearly ,, and Texas experienced a period of mass urbanization as the rural population moved to the city to rebuild their livelihoods.
The state's rural population declined from more than a third of the population to a quarter. This included increasing access to groundwater, and creating lakes by damming rivers. On Friday, November 22, , in Dallas, Texas, at The Texas Governor, John B. Connally , was also shot but survived. The episode caused a national outrage focused on right wing elements in Dallas that had long been hostile to Kennedy.
The Sixth Floor Museum at Dealey Plaza , located where the assassin is believed to have fired the shots, has become a historic tourist site. The wartime financing of university research, curricular change, campus trainee programs, and postwar veteran enrollments changed the tenor and allowed Texas schools to gain national stature. From through the s, Texas modernized and dramatically expanded its system of higher education. Under the leadership of Governor Connally, the state produced a long-range plan for higher education, a more rational distribution of resources, and a central state apparatus that managed state institutions with greater efficiency.
Because of these changes, Texas universities received federal funds for research and development during the John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Beginning around the midth century, Texas began to transform from a rural and agricultural state to one that was urban and industrialized. Prior to the midth century Texas was essentially a one-party state, and the Democratic primary was viewed as "the real election". The Democratic Party had conservative and liberal factions, which became more pronounced after the New Deal.
The state's conservative white voters began to support Republican presidential candidates by the midth century. After this period, they supported Republicans for local and state offices as well, and most whites became Republican Party members. The shift to the Republican Party is much-attributed to the fact that the Democratic Party became increasingly liberal during the 20th century, and thus increasingly out-of-touch with the average Texas voter.
Despite these efforts, the legislature passed a map heavily in favor of Republicans, based on data and ignoring the estimated nearly one million new residents in the state since that date. Career attorneys and analysts at the Department of Justice objected to the plan as diluting the votes of African American and Hispanic voters, but political appointees overrode them and approved it. Perry , but the court ruled in favor of the state and Republicans.
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In the Texas elections , the Tea Party movement made large gains, with numerous Tea Party favorites being elected into office, including Dan Patrick as lieutenant governor,   Ken Paxton as attorney general,   in addition to numerous other candidates  including conservative Republican Greg Abbott as governor. Items from these collections can be copied into your own private collection.
Create your own Private Collection by searching or browsing to find items of interest and then adding them to a collection. Boolean terms must be in uppercase. Search this index Full-text Catalog. Advanced full-text search Advanced catalog search Search tips Full view only. Main Content Similar Items The province and the states, a history of the province of Louisiana under France and Spain, and of the territories and states of the United States formed therefrom Goodspeed, Weston Arthur,