Aggressive Behavior: Current Perspectives (The Springer Series in Social Clinical Psychology)
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Additionally, training adults and adolescents in effective strategies to address cyberbullying is needed to mitigate the associated negative effects of cyberbullying. It is important for researchers to begin looking at how younger children interface with technology.
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Cyberbullying prevention and intervention programs should target all grade levels. Although teenagers are an important population to study given their salient developmental concerns, more work is needed to examine how younger adolescents for example, 9—year-olds are affected by cyberbullying experiences. This has implications for involvement in subsequent cyberbullying.
Their results showed a moderate, significant relationship between cybervictimization and psychological well-being. Specifically, children who experienced more victimization online were likely to experience more negative affect, more loneliness, and poorer relationships with their parents and peers. Similarly, Jackson and Cohen found a positive relationship between loneliness and cyberbullying victimization among 3rd through 6th graders.
Further, cyberbullying victimization was related to fewer friendships, lower rates of optimism in describing peer relationships, and lower peer acceptance. Additional work is needed with this younger age group to help increase our understanding of the impact of cyberbullying on adolescent health. It is important to note that the majority of studies investigating the relationship between cyberbullying behaviors and adolescent health have been correlational in nature.
For example, it is possible that depressive symptomology could either be an antecedent or an effect of cyberbullying victimization. Longitudinal study designs permit us to examine both of these possibilities with more clarity. However, more longitudinal work is needed to increase our understanding of the temporal nature of variables related to cyberbullying experiences. Findings from the current literature have significant implications for health care professionals, educators, and caring adults.
It is clear that adolescents who are involved in cyberbullying experiences require support. However, evidence suggests that the majority of adolescents do not seek help from adults when involved in cyberbullying. Therefore, it is important to take a proactive approach. Support could come from multiple professional communities that serve youth: Sensitive probing about cyberbullying experiences is warranted when addressing adolescent health issues such as depression, substance use, suicidal ideation, as well as somatic concerns.
Routine screening techniques can be developed to assist in uncovering the harm endured through cyberbullying to help support adolescents recovering from associated trauma. Finally, the study findings described above also suggest a strong need for comprehensive, school-based programs directed at cyberbullying prevention and intervention. Education about cyberbullying could be integrated into school curriculums and the community at large, for example, by engaging adolescents in scholarly debates and community discussions related to cyberbullying legislation, accountability, and character.
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Current perspectives: the impact of cyberbullying on adolescent health
Adolesc Health Med Ther. Published online Aug 1. The full terms of the License are available at http: Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Cyberbullying has become an international public health concern among adolescents, and as such, it deserves further study. Table 1 Findings from literature on cyberbullying victimization and adolescent health using cross sectional design.
Open in a separate window. Does sex matter with respect to cyberbullying victimization?
Cyberbullying perpetration and problem behaviors Generally speaking, studies that have examined the impact of cyberbullying perpetration on adolescent health have shown that those adolescent perpetrators of cyberbullying were more likely to engage in problem behaviors including higher levels of proactive and reactive aggression, property damage, 23 illegal acts, 71 substance use, delinquency, 72 , 74 and suicidal behavior. Table 2 Findings from literature on cyberbullying perpetration and adolescent health using cross sectional design. What about those adolescents who are both victims and perpetrators of cyberbullying?
How do the developmental changes in risk factors affect subsequent cyberbullying? Potential mediating and moderating processes that may influence the effect of cyberbullying on adolescent health The message of past studies is clear: Coping strategies Schenk and Fremouw 44 examined the coping strategies used by targets of cyberbullying. Social support Research suggests that different forms of support may mitigate the effects of traditional forms of victimization on psychological well-being. Prevention and intervention Given the deleterious effects of cyberbullying, effective prevention and intervention efforts must be a priority.
Social support Past research has suggested that social support may be a powerful protective factor in mitigating the negative effects associated with cyberbullying.
What predicts positive bystander behavior? What predicts negative bystander behavior? When should prevention and intervention efforts begin? Footnotes Disclosure The author reports no conflicts of interest in this work. Hinduja S, Patchin JW. Bullying Beyond the Schoolyard: Preventing and Responding to Cyberbullying. Electronic bullying among middle school students.
New bottle but old wine: Patchin JW, Hinduja S. Bullies move beyond the schoolyard: Youth Violence Juv Justice. Willard NE, Steiner K.
Baker CK, Helm S. Pacific youth and shifting thresholds: Slonje R, Smith PK. Australian Journal of Guidance and Counselling. The online disinhibition effect. Bullying in the Digital Age. Principles of Cyberbullying Research: Definitions, Measures, and Methodology. The impact of cyberbullying on substance use and mental health in a multiethnic sample.
Current perspectives: the impact of cyberbullying on adolescent health
Matern Child Health J. Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties. Prevalence and frequency of Internet harassment instigation: Wigderson S, Lynch M. Cyber- and traditional peer victimization: Psychological, physical, and academic correlates of cyberbullying and traditional bullying. Does the association with psychosomatic health problems differ between cyberbullying and traditional bullying?
J Child Psychol Psychiatry. Juvonen J, Gross EF. Extending the school grounds? Following you home from school: Cyberbullying among Turkish adolescents. Psychosocial risk factors associated with cyberbullying among adolescents: A comparison of victimization in internet chatrooms and victimization in school. Journal of Media Psychology: Theories, Methods, and Applications. Devine P, Lloyd K. Internet use and psychological well-being among year-old and year-old children.
Child Care in Practice. Processes of cyberbullying, and feelings of remorse by bullies: Eur J Dev Psychol. Longitudinal predictors of cyber and traditional bullying perpetration in Australian secondary school students. Cyberbullying victimisation in adolescence: Bonanno RA, Hymel S. Cyber bullying and internalizing difficulties: J Community Appl Soc Psychol. Cyberbullying perpetration and victimization among adolescents in Hong Kong.
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Child Youth Serv Rev. Relationships among cyberbullying, school bullying, and mental health in Taiwanese adolescents. Peer victimization, depression, and suicidiality in adolescents. Suicide Life Threat Behav. Bullying in school and cyberspace: Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health. Cyber and traditional bullying: Price M, Dalgleish J. Cyberbullying experiences, impacts and coping strategies as described by Australian young people. Electronic and school-based victimization: The relative importance of online victimization in understanding depression, delinquency, and substance use.
Prevalence, psychological impact, and coping of cyberbully victims among college students. Raskauskas J, Stoltz AD. Involvement in traditional and electronic bullying among adolescents. National Center for Missing and Exploited Children; Youth Internet Safety Survey. Examining characteristics and associated distress related to Internet harassment: Cyberbullying in a rural intermediate school: The influence of the cyber-social environment on fear of victimization: Beran T, Li Q.
Journal of Educational Computing Research. The emotional impact of bullying and cyberbullying on victims: The emotional impact on victims of traditional bullying and cyberbullying: Self-esteem and loneliness in relation to cyberbullying in three European countries. Cyberbullying in the Global Playground: Research from International Perspectives.
John Wiley and Sons; Cyberbullying, school bullying, and psychological distress: Am J Public Health. Differences between peer victimization in cyber and physical settings and associated psychosocial adjustment in early adolescence. Cyberbullying among students with intellectual and developmental disability in special education settings.
Linkages between depressive symptomatology and Internet harassment among young regular Internet users. Bullying, cyberbullying, and suicide. Cyber bullying and physical bullying in adolescent suicide: Cyberbullying and subjective health: Cyberbullying and the digital self.
Examining the overlap in Internet harassment and school bullying: The relationship between cyberbullying and school bullying. The Journal of Student Wellbeing. Prevalence and predictors of Internet bullying. Clustering of Internet risk behaviors in a middle school student population.
Longitudinal risk factors for cyberbullying in adolescence. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology. Cyberbullying victimization and behaviors among girls: Journal of Social Sciences. A longitudinal study of cyberbullying: Characteristics of college cyberbullies.
Offline consequences of online victimization: Youth engaging in online harassment: Schultze-Krumbholz A, Scheithauer H. Social-behavioral correlates of cyberbullying in a German student sample. Do cyberbullies suffer too? Traditional and nontraditional bullying among youth: Trends in youth Internet victimization: Risk factors for involvement in cyber bullying: The need to belong: Mapping developmental precursors of cyber-aggression: The bidirectional relationships between online victimization and psychosocial problems in adolescents: Lazarus RS, Folkman S.
Stress, Appraisal, and Coping. Coping with stress during childhood and adolescence: Journal of Applied Research on Children: Informing Policy for Children at Risk. Youth views on cyberbullying. Patchin JW, Hinduja S, editors. Cyberbullying Prevention and Response: Sticks and stones can break my bones, but how can pixels hurt me?
Cyberbullying in Turkish middle schools: Peer victimization and depressive symptoms: Bauman S, Newman ML. Testing assumptions about cyberbullying: Social support as a moderator between victimization and internalizing-externalizing distress from bullying. Perceived social support among bullies, victims, and bully-victims. Kochenderfer-Ladd B, Skinner K. Affective and cognitive empathy as mediators of gender differences in cyber and traditional bullying.
Davis S, Nixon Cl. Patchin J, Hinduja S, editors. Social influences on cyberbullying behaviors among middle and high school students. Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory. J Pers Soc Psychol. Explicit- and implicit bullying attitudes in relation to bullying behavior.
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