La motivation au travail dans les services publics (Logiques de gestion) (French Edition)

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This paper presents a summary of current views on HRM reform in France and presents the results of a survey of researchers in public-sector management, which highlights the two main French perspectives on HRM reform. The conclusion proposes some possible new approaches to public-sector HRM reform in France. When seen from a universalistic perspective, the objective of HRM reform is to erase the differences between HRM in the private and public sectors, as private-sector HRM practices are considered the only viable alternative.

Researchers who adopt this perspective posit that all organizations should adopt some HRM practices best practices in order to improve their performance Pfeffer However, despite the universalistic claim of these theories, the private sector has remained the dominant context for empirical studies of best practices Gould-Williams Perspectives on new public HRM management are the norm in public organizations, although it has often been shown that they do not result in better performance!

Furthermore, the disparities and sometimes contradictions between what are considered best practices in different contexts Becker and Gerhart ; Boselie et al.

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Despite the fact that some countries, including France, have not embarked on radical changes Nomden , there are major similarities between the reforms implemented by different European countries. In most European countries, career- based, continuous and organized employment relationships are being called into question and civil-service salaries are becoming more flexible. Nevertheless, career- based management and unilateral relationships remain important.

Performance-related pay has also shown its limits in many public Pearce et al. The modernization of HRM is increasingly calling into question the traditional fundamental values of public organizations - equality, integrity, continuity, caution and neutrality - and proposing new values, such as efficiency, flexibility, innovation, risk and change, which are often contrary to those traditional values. Hence, public-sector reformers must also consider ethical issues. Modernization of personnel management in France: Personnel management is career oriented: Personnel management is governed by terms of employment that include rules for recruitment involving competitive exams , appraisal, training, remuneration, career structure, etc.

In France, however, reforms have always been based on a certain form of status quo. Public-sector HRM reforms have been mostly incremental and limited; rather than replacing existing rules, they have merely introduced new ones. Nevertheless, reforms have tended to follow international trends in public-sector HRM: An Act was passed in to make staff appraisals for public employees obligatory and to base career progression on the results of these appraisals.

The new Act gives managers some room for budgetary maneuver, assigning global staff budgets and allowing middle managers to choose where they allocate the means they are given. Private-sector style contracts for public employees have been on the increase for twenty years increasing from 2.

Motivation of public employees at the municipal level in Switzerland | David Giauque -

With the recent HRM reforms, job security for public employees has been weakened, even in France Shim Over the last two decades, the use of performance-related rewards in the French civil service has increased. Local government has been particularly willing to introduce performance-related pay Crozet and Desmarais Some public organizations have attempted to decentralize personnel manage- ment Bernard ; Ansel In France, as in many other countries, HRM reform has not proved to be a solution for the problems of public organizations.

All three branches of public service - the civil service, the health service and local government - are subject to the same general terms of employment3 and differences between the branches are in the degree of change implemented rather than in the nature of that change. Even if it is generally considered to have introduced greater changes than the other two branches, local government is open to the same criticisms as the civil service and the health service.

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Technical criticisms focus on the complexity of terms of employment, the difficulties of employee mobility and the lack of recognition of individual merit, etc. Responses to this type of criticism tend to be incremental change. Solutions tend to involve radical changes to the terms of employment. New HRM projects in local government have often failed, despite the greater room for maneuver found in this branch of public service Desmarais ; Crozet and Desmarais Local government bodies have introduced many new managerial tools; however, they continue to apply traditional rules based on seniority and equality.

Failures have also occurred in other public organizations.

For example, the introduction of staff appraisals in universities has inspired more debate than concrete action Desmarais and Nilles Somewhat paradoxically, tools intended to fight bureaucracy have been implemented in a very bureaucratic manner! The French-lag interpretation, which states that France is going in the same direction as other reforming countries but the late realization of the need for reform has caused it to lag behind Sallard Faced with these contradictions, French research into public HRM has struggled to come up with new proposals, as researchers hesitate between critical and universalistic prescriptive postures.

In order to analyze these difficulties, we carried out a survey among researchers in public-sector HRM. Research method and data collection Data were collected through structured questionnaires sent by Internet to selected research organizations: