LUKE: The Gospel A Radical New Translation (Bible Wisdom for Today Book 7)
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Get to Know Us. English Choose a language for shopping. Not Enabled Word Wise: Enabled Amazon Best Sellers Rank: Amazon Music Stream millions of songs. Amazon Advertising Find, attract, and engage customers. Amazon Drive Cloud storage from Amazon. Alexa Actionable Analytics for the Web. The story of Jesus literally continues in the story of the earliest Christian communities as they continue Jesus' ministry, proclaiming the message of his salvation in the power of the Holy Spirit.
The Gospel of Luke in several ways looks forward to Acts for example, in the Gospel's attention to the Holy Spirit, who plays a key role in Acts , and Acts recalls the Gospel for example, as Peter's and Paul's deeds resemble those of Jesus. Because Acts so clearly presents itself as a sequel to Luke, scholars commonly refer to both books as Luke-Acts, to emphasize their unity as a two-volume literary product.
Luke-Acts reveals that its author was well educated and quite familiar with Israel's traditions and Greek literary conventions. It is unknown whether he was a Jew or a Gentile, whether the Gospel was written for a Jewish or Gentile audience, and where the Gospel was written. Luke's proficiency with the Greek language is perhaps the most sophisticated among all the New Testament authors. Even though some Christian traditions identify this author as the physician named in Colossians 4: Subscribe to this Site. Make personal notes Track your learning.
Summary Outline Background Introductory Issues Theological Themes Summary Beginning with angels announcing the conceptions of John the Baptist and Jesus Christ, and concluding with the resurrected Jesus being carried up into heaven, the Gospel according to Luke offers an account of the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth. Where Do I Find It? When Was It Written? How Do I Read It?
King James Version - Wikipedia
The Acts of the Apostles. Because the same author is responsible for both Luke and Acts and because the two books share many literary and thematic connections, it is profitable to read them together as a two-part narrative about Jesus and his earliest followers. It is customary to speak of "Luke-Acts," referring to both books as a unified literary creation. Interpreters have speculated about the author's motives for writing both books, sometimes wondering whether the book of Acts may subtly diminish Jesus' importance by making the Christian church appear too important in its own right.
However, both the Gospel of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles clearly situate Jesus and the good news on center stage. Both books proclaim Jesus as God's means of salvation for Israel and the whole world and as the Messiah who will come again. Acts helps readers appreciate how Jesus and the message about him continue to impact the world and its different cultures, even after Jesus' physical departure from the earth. Luke's Gospel has much to say about wealth and possessions, including two instances where Jesus commends almsgiving Luke The giving of alms entails more than simply handing over money and walking away; it implies creating a real association with the poor.
Jesus' world, like today's, was one of radical inequalities among its socioeconomic classes. Conventions of patronage regulated that society, meaning that the wealthy patrons would give money or political favors to others clients in exchange for loyalty, honor, or political support. When Jesus praises almsgiving, he calls for people to give to the poor without expecting any kind of recognition or reciprocity. To give alms is to refuse to insist upon the privileges that society grants to those with status and power; to give alms is to create relationships of solidarity in authentic community.
The death of Jesus. This Gospel describes Jesus' death in a unique way, emphasizing his innocence and faithfulness. At the crucifixion, Luke mentions the presence of many who support Jesus and grieve his death There is no description of the general public deriding him. A criminal turns to Jesus, defends him, and is promised a place with him in Paradise Jesus dies with an expression of trust on his lips, quoting Psalm The Roman centurion who witnesses the execution praises God and declares Jesus' innocence The first main scene of Jesus' public ministry in Luke has him speaking to the people of his hometown, Nazareth, in Luke 4: In the Nazareth synagogue, Jesus cites two passages from Isaiah, both of which use language of "release.
In this important scene, as well as in others throughout Luke, Jesus characterizes the reign of God as release from all forms of oppression and injustice and as liberation from sin and the ways that sin results in people's subjugation to spiritual and social evils. Although Luke's Gospel describes Jesus encountering opposition from a wide array of people, it offers more clarity about which people are involved in Jesus' arrest and prosecution.
When Jesus predicts his death in Luke 9: Also, Herod Antipas's violent intentions become clear in Luke Once Jesus reaches Jerusalem, Luke consistently names the chief priests, scribes, and sometimes the elders as those who oppose Jesus most vehemently. Pharisees are not named as part of the opposition in Jerusalem. Indeed, the last time Luke mentions any Pharisees is in Luke The first four verses of the Gospel of Luke resemble prologues in certain historical writings from the ancient world.
This resemblance suggests that the author was familiar with conventions of history-writing, but this does not mean that Luke transmits history as if it were raw chronological data presented from a disinterested perspective. Like all who wrote history in his time and in modern times , the author of Luke wrote to shape readers' perspectives on a historical figure. The Gospel of Luke interprets the history it tells through a theological lens, amplifying the theological significance of the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth.
The stories told there, in what are sometimes called "the Lukan infancy narratives," are unique to this Gospel. These accounts create a powerful introduction to Luke and to its sequel, Acts. Even though people often have treated these stories with excessive sentimentality, in Luke they serve an important function, anchoring Jesus' history firmly in Israel's history.
They declare that the same God who has been faithful to the people of Israel is again being true to God's people in sending Jesus and his forerunner, John. They introduce important themes that will recur throughout Luke and Acts, including prophecy, liberation, conflict, and the salvation of God extending to Gentiles. This large section of text, which interpreters commonly refer to as the "travel narrative," is composed mostly of stories that appear only in Luke's Gospel. Disagreement exists over the degree to which the travel narrative might possess a sense of coherence or clear thematic purpose.
Some see in the design of the narrative an attempt to make Jesus' story resonate with memories of Moses and the exodus journeys of the Hebrew people. Others conclude that in these chapters the Gospel author presents material about Jesus loosely grouped according to a few themes but with no comprehensive arrangement. This Gospel is famous for its scenes that involve people eating. Frequently banquets serve as settings for Jesus' parables in Luke. In Jesus' culture, sharing food and offering hospitality to others were ways of forging and demonstrating strong ties and obligations among people.
Gospel of Luke
A meal could create and represent binding communal relationships and commitments. Jesus' desire to eat with others reflects God's promises to provide for people's needs, emphasizes the image of the kingdom of God as a banquet Much of the material that is unique to Luke's Gospel consists of parables from Jesus. A parable is usually a short story used to illustrate an aspect of the kingdom of God in a way that invites hearers or readers to probe the connections on their own.
Parables function as metaphors, fleshing out spiritual ideas through the power of potent suggestions rather than precise descriptions. Many of Jesus' parables emphasize how different God's ways are from humanity's standards of fairness, piety, status, and prudence. The prosecution of Jesus. Luke's Gospel emphasizes that, despite many opportunities to find Jesus guilty of a crime, the legal proceedings against him consistently yield no definitive verdict. Pontius Pilate is unconvinced by the testimony against Jesus Luke includes an additional hearing before Herod Antipas, a ruler of Galilee, who also cannot find reason to convict Jesus Through these trial scenes the Gospel highlights that Jesus dies on the cross as an innocent man.
Luke presents Jesus' resurrection as something other than death's reversal or a reentry into his former manner of living. When the resurrected Jesus appears to his followers in Luke 24, they experience him as both hidden and recognizable. He certainly is real, an embodied person, but his friends' minds need to be opened before they can realize who he is.
Jesus is resurrected to a new kind of reality. His resurrection brings his followers to a point of new understanding. Luke, like Mark and Matthew, describes Jesus encountering Satan in the wilderness before beginning his public ministry. Yet only Luke's account of this scene concludes with the ominous statement that the devil went away from Jesus "until an opportune time" Luke 4: In Luke, this opportune time is Jesus' passion. About verses in Luke, most of which consist of sayings attributed to Jesus, appear in identical or similar form in Matthew and nowhere else among the biblical Gospels.
However, the genealogy and the birth narrative differs drastically from the Matthean version. Unique to Luke is John the Baptist's birth story, the census and travel to Bethlehem , the birth in a manger, and angelic annunciation to shepherds and a story from Jesus' boyhood. While Matthew, written for a Jewish audience, emphasizes the Davidic line and places Jesus in the context of kings Herod and the three kings from the Orient , Luke uses another Old Testament theme, that of the "enemy brother," as Jesus and John are introduced as cousins.
Luke also sets the story in the larger Roman context the census and introduces shepherds, which would have been unthinkable in Matthew's account. The shepherds emphasize Jesus' humble origins and connection to the common man.
Luke emphasizes Jesus miracles, recounting 20, four of which are unique. Like Matthew, it includes a collection of Jesus' sayings in the form of a sermon, but unlike the Matthean Sermon on the Mount, Luke refers to it as the Sermon on the Plain, suggesting not Moses giving the Law but Jesus' accessibility. More than a dozen of Jesus' most memorable parables are unique to Luke. The parables in Luke emphasize ethical and moral concerns, such as the Parable of the Good Samaritan in which the despised Samaritan was the righteous person, not the Levite. Again, this would have been unthinkable in Matthew.
More than the other gospels, Luke mentions women as important among Jesus' followers, such as Mary Magdalene. Luke stresses the importance of Jesus ' innocence, emphasizing that he had committed no crime against Rome , as confirmed by Herod, Pilate, and the thief crucified with Jesus.
In Luke's Passion narrative Jesus prays that God forgive those who crucify him and his assurance to a crucified thief that they will be together in Paradise. Luke's accounts differ from those in Mark and Matthew. Luke tells the story of two disciples on the road to Emmaus, and as in John Jesus appears to the Eleven and demonstrates that he is flesh and blood, not a spirit.
Jesus' commission that the Eleven carry his message to all the nations affirms Christianity as a universal religion. The account of Jesus' ascent at the end of Luke is apparently an addition subsequent to the original redaction. Contemporary scholars generally conclude that the author, possibly a Gentile Christian, wrote the gospel about C.
Most scholars hold the two-source hypothesis as most probable, which argues that the author used the Gospel of Mark and the hypothetical Q document in addition to unique material, as sources for the gospel. The author of Luke is usually agreed to be more faithful to the wording and order of the Q material than was the author of Matthew.
As an alternative to the two-source hypothesis, a few scholars hold to the traditional view that Luke is based on Matthew. The two major hypothesis that hold this position are the Griesbach hypothesis and the Augustinian hypothesis. The problem with this hypothesis is that it is difficult to explain why Luke's accounts of the genealogy and birth narratives are so radically different from that of Matthew while the material that Luke uses from Mark is used virtually verbatim. Like the rest of the New Testament , the gospel was written in Greek. Like Mark but unlike Matthew , the intended audience is generally considered to be gentile, and it assures readers that Christianity is an international religion, not a Jewish sect.
Traditionally, the authorship is ascribed to Paul's physician companion, Luke. Several cities have been proposed as its place of origin with no consensus. Both prefaces are addressed to Theophilus, the author's patron, and the preface of Acts explicitly references "my former book" about the life of Jesus. Furthermore, there are linguistic and theological similarities between the two works, suggesting that they have a common author.
Given this, the internal evidence of the Acts of the Apostles concerning its author pertains to the authorship of the Gospel. This evidence, especially passages in the narrative where the first person plural is used, points to the author being a companion of Paul. The terminus ad quem or latest possible date for Luke is bound by the earliest papyri manuscripts that contains portions of Luke third century  and the mid to late second century writings that quote or reference Luke.
Arguments for a pre date are largely bound up with the complicated arguments concerning the date of the book of Acts, with most proponents arguing for a date around for the Gospel. A few scholars who also argue for an early date of First Epistle to Timothy believe 1 Timothy 5: