Violences et insécurité urbaines: « Que sais-je ? » n° 3421 (French Edition)
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It is a matter of fact that according to the data provided by the Prefecture of Bobigny 7 violent children of 10 are boys. It is important to underline, in any case, that what the girls act violently, they are able to commit crimes quite more heinous than their male colleagues. There is a growing opinion according to which one of the problem of the aggressive behaviours related to the recent riots in the Paris banlieues and all over France have to be due to the role of television and video games.
However, this opinion risks to not take into the proper account the difficulties created by the integration of the immigrants in the educative system, as the movie the Class la Classe, Cantet, describes better than any other media or scientific article. Concerning the official reactions to the problem related to the Internet violence, recently Luc Chatel, French Minister for Education, signed a framework agreement with the director of e- Enfance on June 6th aimed at preventing and treating cyber-bullying in schools.
Actions against bullies may be initiated by either the victim, or in the case of children, their parents. In situations where there is evidence of bullying, the principal will send on the case to e-Enfance, operating under the EU Safer Internet programme. They may then forward the case on to Facebook to suspend or permanently close the accounts. However, it may also lead to educational efforts within the schools to teach the children about the seriousness of cyber-bullying. In the most serious of cyber-bullying cases, the Education Ministry may advise parents to take things further.
The Minister uttered his hope that, through this partnership, students would be educated about good online behaviours. He also thanked Facebook for their cooperation in the initiative and for the work that they had been doing. The organization e-enfance defined some areas of risk for the children surfing the Net, defined as followed: The involuntary exposition to shocking images 3 children out of 10 are voluntary or not put in relation with shocking contents on the Net, generally looking for sites where it is possible even if illegally downloading music or movies.
Furthermore, children are used to accept rendez-vous offered by their new "amis virtuels", and that can be dangerous. Defaming blogs Freedom of expression on internet implies certain rules that parents and children have to be take into account.
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Any child publishing contents in blog has to be aware about the responsibility coming from the publication. Divulgation of personal data trough blogs and chats Children are used to not be aware about the vulnerability of their personal data in internet and in many cases they publish confidential informations the name of the school they attend, the mobile number, etc Children can suffer problems coming from an excessive exposition that in extreme terms can lead to a de- socializing behaviour. The French version of bullyism An alarming declaration issued in by the Ministry of education in France allowed the French to discover a world of violence just around the corner: A specific program was launched involving Cinema Stars and footballer very popular like Zinedine Zidane have been mobilised by the French government in a campaign to reduce the disturbing level of violence in schools.
The announcement coincided with a series of brutal attacks on pupils and staff, and protests by teachers and parents, in towns all over France. In the single most horrifying case, a year-old boy was systematically tortured with heated knives by three class-mates over three months in Longwy, in Lorraine, without the staff of the school noticing.
In another incident, an year-old Spanish boy was hurled over the banisters of a staircase at a school in Mantes-la-Jolie, west of Paris, after he refused to do the Spanish homework of three older boys. In the southern Paris suburbs, a year-old girl was burnt on the face with a cigarette lighter and stabbed in the chest with a craft knife after she resisted a protection racket run by another girl. She escaped serious injury only because she was wearing a thick anorak. His measures included hiring an extra 20, young people as "assistants" and playground monitors and imposing a nationwide code of graded punishments for aggressors.
He also asked Zidane, the star of France's victory in the football World Cup in , and Depardieu, by far the best- known French movie actor, to visit troubled schools to give lectures on civic behaviour. Both men had deprived childhoods. Zidane, whose parents were born in Algeria, is a hero with French teenagers from ethnic Arab backgrounds. The campaign had some effects, basically in posing the question of the violence in School , however many teachers and parents rejected the measures as inadequate.
At one school in Montpellier in the south of France, the College des Aigurelles, teachers and parents were "on strike" and occupying classrooms for two weeks. Although there have been no incidents as extreme as those listed above, pupils, teachers and parents complain that life in the school has sunk into a daily routine of beatings, theft, protection-rackets and food fights. Teachers at another college, at Stains in the north-east suburbs of Paris, went on strike on after a cleaning lady was beaten up by children in the street, in revenge for an earlier "insult".
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She refused to allow them into school before the appointed time. Marie-Pierre, a trained history and geography teacher at the college, told the newspaper Liberation laconically that the favourite game at the school was throwing chairs out of windows during class. The Minister of Education said that the numbers were unacceptable but the first stage of his anti-violence programme had improved the position in at least two of the nine target areas Lyons and Marseilles.
Schools are in the front line. Teachers and parents say that school principals and local education officials prefer to disguise and tolerate violence, rather than gain a bad reputation. When the data are expressly referred to the Primary School, recent studies shows that one in 10 primary schoolchildren in France suffers serious bullying, a report for Unicef shows. The author of the report, Eric Debarbieux, said: Bullied children reported being victims of repeated aggression, ranging from having their break time snacks stolen to being insulted, threatened or even beaten up, being forced to pay money or being subjected to sexual assaults.
The levels of bullying were found to be similar whether the school was in a socially disadvantaged area or not. The report warns against effects of bullying, including dropping out of school or absenteeism, depression and lack of self-esteem in later life. The ministry recently launched a study into victimisation in secondary schools, which will be repeated every two years.
The dominant orientation tends to consider violence in large terms, not limited by the criminal definition and by being under the laws. What is emerging in different researches in France is the fact according to which violence in Schools takes its shape in daily micro-violences, in minors acts of harassment , in not very extraordinary perturbations of the school organization.
The French experts are used to list three categories of expressions of violence in School: The researches followed an another initiative launched in Scandinavia Olweus, and then enlarged to some others European countries. The results specifically referred to France were not so different form other similar situations: They show anxiety and psychical disorders and there were some case of suicide.
Behaviours defined according to their degree of conformity to the social rules, allowing an evaluation of the degree of adaptation of the students to the class social status. These situation are to be considered violent, event though there are not a specific provisions of the criminal laws.
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Are included under this category all the pre-violent acts or better all the behaviours defined as perturbation of the educative and social order established and accepted in the class. It is diffused the idea that these acts can sooner or later be transformed in act of violence. Carra et Faggianelli, The investigation of expression of violence in School taking into account social disorders takes to consider various behaviours: Not in every situation the aggressive act is intentional and the author can hide some other psychological status familiar disorders, dyslexia etc Having analysed a questionnaire survey of 85 schools and conducted follow up interviews, he concluded: Violence is not just criminal violence.
This was confirmed by teachers, who in the first report, collectively named 14 different types of violence in their schools. The research thus gives some perspective to the sensationalist press coverage. By far the most common forms of violence are student on student physical violence and more generalised verbal violence not only by students. However, these were reported in only just over half of the schools surveyed. Violence directed against teachers was reported in only 10 per cent of schools in a sample in which schools in less favoured areas were consciously over-represented Debarbieux, Three years later staff in schools had become more conscious of violence in their institutions.
Almost half of the teachers surveyed considered that there was considerable violence in their school compared to a mere 7 per cent in the earlier study Debarbieux, b. Teachers in England are far less likely to fear or encounter violence Gill and Hearnshaw, ; Blaya, Research conducted for the national school inspectorate, found that nearly half the schools in the sample examined reported racist behaviour by students.
In one in five there was racist behaviour by staff Tallon, Two decades later Debarbieux a: His report confirms the racialisation of the discourse of violence in schools and the negative labelling of minority ethnic students.. The research team reports a close relationship between levels of violence and the feelings of students, particularly those from minority communities, that they are victims of social exclusion Debarbieux, a: In France the term violence is being used as a shorthand expression to describe a feeling that schools are at the mercy of forces that teachers and the institution itself cannot adequately control, including anti-social and disenchanted young people.
In this sense schools are often said to produce violence. Research evidence on violence, student disaffection and exclusion in France A major survey of 'personal safety and violence in schools' based on data from over institutions, was carried out following the riots of Serious assaults by students on staff were reported as occurring in 3 per cent of schools with one third of schools reporting student assaults on staff of less severity. In 6 per cent of schools outsiders had assaulted staff, though in 14 per cent outsiders had assaulted students.
Half of schools reported incidents of staff being verbally abused by parents. Virtually all schools reported assaults by students on other students, in 7 per cent of schools the assault was extremely serious. The survey does not appear to have asked about verbal or physical assaults by staff on students, nor did it inquire about racially aggravated physical or verbal violence.
The results were not sensationalised by the press, nor have they been taken up by political campaigns. Until about , research to support the policy drive to raise standards concentrated on 'disaffection'. This refers to students who appear to have lost motivation and who may start to engage in reactive behaviour including incivility, disruption and violence against school property. A special commission on Education held within the Ministry reported evidence on disaffected students.
The report does not mention violence. Rather it focuses on a group of young people excluded from the benefits of education, whether by absenteeism, formal or informal exclusion from school or by failure to achieve basic skills and minimum formal qualifications. The report notes that these young people, estimated as 8 per cent of all 14 - 16 year olds and between 9 and 16 per cent of 16 - 19 year olds are characterised as predominantly male, disproportionately from African Caribbean backgrounds.
Lower achieving students, African Caribbean boys and children looked after by local authorities are greatly over- represented among those subject to permanent disciplinary exclusion. Moreover, those with statements of special educational needs are reported as being are seven times more likely to be permanently excluded than those without. A link with criminality in the wider world is also established, since the 'disaffected' also includes a high proportion of young offenders and a high prevalence of risk-taking behaviour, such as smoking, drugs and early sexual activity.
Other evidence suggests there are notable differences between the profile of a typical white student excluded from school and that of a typical black student. White students are more likely to be of below average achievement, have a history of trauma and disaffected behaviour, and are likely to be excluded for verbal abuse incivility. Black excluded students are more often of above average achievement and more commonly challenge teachers' judgements OFSTED, ; Osler et al.
Most attention has focused on boys subject to disciplinary exclusion. Girls' exclusion remains under-researched. Our own study of girls and exclusion in six areas of England concluded that because of the links made by the media and policy-makers between boys' violence, exclusion and crime, resources were more likely to be directed at them.
The hyper-visibility of particular behaviours, more commonly exhibited by boys, means that other students, predominately girls, can behave badly, exclude themselves and even drop out of school, without much attention being given to their needs. Their exclusion becomes invisible because it does not match the dominant view of exclusion. Policy responses to school violence in France Both the French and the British governments have invested significant resources to tackle school violence or disaffection, truancy and exclusion.
Schools are required to record details of incidents of violence, though the ministry dropped the weekly monitoring of data, suggested for some schools, in early French Edition Jan 29, Only 3 left in stock - order soon. Tribune libre French Edition Aug 11, Le nouveau chaos mondial.
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