A prendre ou à laisser (La Petite Collection t. 612) (French Edition)

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Check for understanding Pretend to have or actually have a verbal conversation with various people that you know, such as siblings, friends, children, teachers, coworkers, or heads of state. Address them in different ways, depending on their relation to you. Ask them how they are doing, and finally say goodbye. Cardinal numbers Main article: Things of note about numbers: For , it builds upon "soixante" but past that it builds upon a combination of terms for Only the first 21,31,41,51 and 61, but not 71 nor 81 nor 91 have "et un" without a hyphen; but past this it is simply both words consecutively vingt-six, trente-trois, etc with a hyphen in between.

For , it looks much like this list already save that "cent" is added before the rest of the number; this continues up to and onward. Many speakers of French outside of France refer to the numbers 70 to 99 in the same pattern as the other numbers.

2. Sociologie des groupes professionnels en france : un bilan prospectif

For instance, in Switzerland and Belgium, seventy is "septante," 71 is "septante et un," 72 "septante deux," and so on. In Switzerland, Eighty is "huitante" or "octante". Mathematics In french, the addition, subtraction, multiplication and division are as follows: You may sometimes use "un plus un font deux". Toto is an imaginary person that is a dunce at school. There are a lot of funny stories about Toto, one day I will tell you one of them! Combien font huit plus six? Et combien font cinq plus neuf?

The days of the week. Les jours de la semaine. What day is it today? The days of the week are not capitalized in French. Today is what day? Tomorrow is what day? Duhman say kell jzoor 2b Demain c'est [jour]. The months of the year are not capitalized in French. C'est le [ ] [month]. It's [month] [ ]. What time is it? Il est une heure. Il est trois heures. Il est dix heures.

Il est quatre heures cinq. It is five past four. Il est quatre heures et quart.

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It is a quarter past four. Il est quatre heures moins le quart It is a quarter till 4. Il est quatre heures quinze. It is four fifteen. Il est quatre heures et demie. It is half past four. Il est quatre heures trente. It is four thirty. Il est cinq heures moins vingt. It is twenty to five. Il est quatre heures quarante. It is four forty. Bonjour, monsieur le directeur. Est-ce que vous allez bien? Je vais bien merci. Et vous, comment allez-vous?

Le directeur I am well, thank you. And you, how are you? Je l'organiserais le 3 mars vers 14 h. I want to ask you if it is possible to organize a party for my birthday.

À Prendre où à Laisser du 26 Novembre 2014

I would organize it the third of March around Le directeur And you want to organize it where? Daniel In the large conference room on the second floor. We would need it until I hope that I would be invited? Au revoir et encore merci! Daniel Good-bye and thanks again. Lesson 0 - Review G: Pronunciation enn oh pay ku air ess tay ue vay dubl-vay eeks ee-grehk zedh In addition, French uses several accents which are worth understanding. It's going very well merci thank you et toi? For , it builds upon "soixante" but past that it builds upon a combination of terms for Only the first 21,31,41,51,61 and 71, but not 81 nor 91 have "et un" without a hyphen; but past this it is simply both words consecutively vingt-six, trente-trois, etc with a hyphen in between.

What day is today? What day is tomorrow? Asking for the date. Quelle est la date What is the date 3a kell ay lah daht aujourd'hui? Asking for the time. It is [number] hours. The French time system traditionally uses a 24 hour scale. Shorthand for writing times in French follows the format "17h30", which would represent 5: Il est dix-neuf heures moins le quart. It is a quarter to seven, or six forty-five. For phrases relating to the day of the week, see the phrasebook. Times of Day daybreak lit: You're coming to my party? I'm organizing a little party. Daniel March 3rd at You're having it at your place?

Oui c'est chez moi. On va danser toute la nuit. Daniel 4 Yes, it's at my place. I have invited a set of twenty friends. We are going to dance all night. Daniel Until tomorrow, good day. Bien is an adverb meaning well. Its adjective equivalent is bon ne , which means good. Since je vais, meaning I go, uses an action verb, the adverb bien is used.

In English, I'm good, which uses the linking verb am, is followed by an adjective rather than an adverb. This is used in a similar manner to do in English. Instead of You want it? Chez moi is used to say at my place. Chez [name] is used to say at [name's] place. Lesson 0 - Test The following test will confirm your progress in the French introduction.

Try to answer the questions to the best of your ability without turning to the previous chapters or consulting the test answers. Translating English to French Translate the following phrases and sentences into French. Each phrase is worth 1 points. Quel est ton nom? Reading comprehension Fill in the blank Fill in the blanks in these conversations. Every blank is one word. If you haven't done so already, spend a few minutes to first read the course's introductory lessons.

Once that's done, you're ready to begin your very first traditional French lesson! After you have completed this level, you can move on to the next level. Finally, go to the lessons planning page if you would like to help improve this course. La 03 description Lesson La 04 famille Lesson La 06 maison Lesson Le 07 temps Lesson Les 08 voyages Lesson La science Lesson Science Ex L'examen Test Gender, Articles, Subject Pronouns V: Avoir, le, la, and les V: Games, Sports, Places, Playing G: Faire, me, te, nous, and vous V: Household, Housework, Furniture G: Negation, Contractions, Aller V: Museums, Music, Plays G: Elements, Astronomy Chapter test Chapitre l'examen.

Gender of nouns In French, all nouns have a grammatical gender; that is, they are either masculin m or feminin f. Most nouns that express people or animals have both a masculine and a feminine form. For example, the two words for "the actor" in French are l'acteur m and l'actrice f. The two words for "the cat" are le chat m and la chatte f.

However, there are some nouns that talk about people or animals whose gender are fixed, regardless of the actual gender of the person or animal. For example, la personne f the person is always feminine, even when it's talking about your uncle! The nouns that express things without an obvious gender e. This form can be masculine or feminine. For example, la voiture the car can only be feminine; le stylo the pen can only be masculine. Unfortunately, there are many exceptions in French which can only be learned.

There are even words that are spelled the same, but have a different meaning when masculine or feminine; for example, le livre m means the book, but la livre f means the pound! Some words that appear to be masculine like le photo, which is actually short for la photographie are in fact feminine, and vice versa. Then there are some that just don't make sense; la foi is feminine and means a belief, whereas le foie means liver. To help overcome this hurdle which many beginners find very difficult, be sure to learn the genders along with the words.

When you think of a noun in French, think of the noun with its article le or la. Here is a chart which depicts some tendencies of French nouns. Eventually, you will be able to guess the gender of a noun based on tricks like this:. While the long form, professeur, is always masculine, even when referring to female teachers, prof can be either masculine or feminine. If the definite article is l due to elision, m will follow a noun to denote a masculine gender and f will follow a noun to denote a feminine gender.

Unlike English, the definite article is used to talk about something in a general sense, a general statement or feeling about an idea or thing. In French, the definite article is changed depending on the noun's: First letter of the word There are three definite articles and an abbreviation. It is similar to English, where "a" changes to "an" before a vowel. Plurality, pronunciation, and exceptions The plural of most nouns is formed by adding an -s. However, the -s ending is not pronounced. It is the article that tells the listener whether the noun is singular or plural.

Most singular nouns do not end in -s. The -s is added for the plural form of the noun. Fils is one exception. Whenever the singular form of a noun ends in -s, there is no change in the plural form. Fils pronounced feece is also an exception to this rule. Elision Elision refers to the suppression of a final unstressed vowel immediately before another word beginning with a vowel. When pronounced, the vowel sound is dropped. The details on these words will be covered in later sections of the book.

In English, the indefinite articles are "a" and "an". Again, indefinite articles in French take different forms depending on gender and plurality. The articles "Un" and "une" literally mean "one" in French. Liaison Remember that the last consonant of a word is typically not pronounced unless followed by a vowel. When a word ending in a consonant is followed by a word beginning with a vowel sound or silent h , the consonant often becomes pronounced. This is a process called liaison. When a vowel goes directly after un, the normally unpronounced n sound becomes pronounced.

Compare the pronunciation to words without liaison: Liaison also occurs with les and des.

Les professions et leurs sociologies

For example, you are looking at photographs in an album. The English statement "I am looking at photographs. If it is a set of specific pictures, the French statement should be "Je regarde les photographies. On the other hand, if the person is just randomly. To say What is it? You will be using Qu'est-ce que? Remember that the indefinite article un or une must agree with the noun it modifies. Respond according to the pictures. Il y a expresses the existence of the noun it introduces.

Il y a une pomme. The phrase is used for both singular and plural nouns. Il y a des pommes. The -s at the end of the most pluralised nouns tells you that the phrase is there are instead of there is. In spoken French, when both the singular and plural forms almost always sound the same, the article and perhaps other adjectives modifying the noun is used to distinguish between singular and plural versions. You will soon learn that a is the present third person singular form of avoir, the verb meaing to have, and that y is a pronoun meaning there.

The phrase il y a, then, literally translates to he has there. You will see this phrase used in all French tenses. It is important to remember that verb stays as a form of have and not be. Like in English, il y a Where are you from? Subject pronouns French has six different types of pronouns: The pronoun it does not exist in French. Il replaces all masculine nouns, even those that are not human. The same is true with elle and feminine nouns. In addition to the nuances between vous and tu, as discussed earlier, French pronouns carry meanings that do not exist in English pronouns.

The French third person "on" has several meanings, but most closely matches the now archaic English "one". Also, while the third person plural "they" has no gender in English, the French equivalents "ils" and "elles" do. However, when pronounced, they normally sound the same as "il" and "elle", so distinguishing the difference requires understanding of the various conjugations of the verbs following the pronoun. Also, if a group of people consists of both males and females, the male form is used, even with a majority of females — however, this sensibly yields to overwhelming majority: For more, see the Wikipedia entry.

Tenses and Moods French verbs can be formed in four moods, each of which express a unique feeling. Each mood has a varying number of tenses, which indicate the time when an action takes place. The conjugations in the present tense of the indicative mood, the present indicative, is discussed in the next section. There is one conjugation for each of the six subject pronouns. Infinitives The infinitive form is the basic form of a verb. It does not refer to a particular tense, person or subject.

In this book, the infinitive form of the verb is used to identify it. In French, the infinitive is one word. For example, parler translates to to speak, finir translates to to finish, and aller translates to to go. Conjugation French verbs conjugate, which means they take different shapes depending on the subject. Most French verbs will conjugate into many different forms. Most verbs are regular, which means that they conjugate in the same way. The most common verbs, however, are irregular. As in most languages, it is an irregular verb, and is not conjugated like any other verb.

I am a lawyer. You are at the bank. They will become very useful in forming tenses. You are of agreement? To respond positively, you say Oui, je suis d'accord. D'accord corresponds to the English okay. Cities and Nationalities To say what city you are from, you use the preposition de. Il est de Paris. When stating your nationality or job, it is not necessary to include the article. This is an exception to the normal rule. Je suis Australien ne. There is both a masculine and feminine form of saying your nationality - for males and females respectively.

In the next lesson, you will learn how to say the nationality of more than one person. Check for understanding Please use the the nationalities list to find out what your nationality is in French. Then say what city you are from and what nationality you are. Then say what nationality some of your friends are, and what city they are from. For example, Marie est italienne. Elle est de Rome. Adjectives - Les adjectifs Main article: Regular Formation Most adjective changes occur in the following manner: Pronunciation Generally, the final consonant is pronounced only when it comes before an -e.

Most adjectives, such as those above, are affected by this rule. Exceptions and Irregularities Adjectives that end in e in the masculine form do not change in gender. When an adjective, such as gros, ends in -s, it does not change in the masculine plural form. Sometimes the final consonant is doubled in the feminine form. Size and Weight gros se ses fat petit e s small moyen ne s average grand e s tall,big Actions bon ne s good mauvais e s bad Difficulty facile s easy difficile s difficult.

English white gray black red orange yellow green blue violet brown everything but hair brown hair - dark haired pink. Adverbs Expressing Degree assez - rather, enough Il est assez intelligent. The verb avoir "Avoir" can be translated as "to have". Expressing Age Avoir is used to express age. You have what age? I have thirty years]. Il y a un livre.

Il y a des livres. Direct Object Pronouns le, la, and les le, la, and les are called direct object pronouns, because they are pronouns that are, you guessed it, used as direct objects. A direct object is a noun that is acted upon by a verb. Il lance la balle. In the above sentence la balle is the direct object. You have learned earlier that names and regular nouns can be replaced by the subject or nominative pronouns "I, you, he Similary, direct objects, such as "la balle", can be replaced by pronouns.

These are a different set of pronouns accusative. As in English, you would say "She gave him," and not "Her gave he. Le, la, and les can replace either people or inanimate objects. Regular -er Verbs Formation Most French verbs fall into the category of -er verbs. To conjugate, drop the -er to find the "stem" or "root".

Add endings to the root based on the subject and tense. Elision and Liaison In all conjugations, je changes to j ' when followed by a vowel or silent h. If a phrase is negative, ne changes to n'. In all plural forms, the s at the end of each subject pronoun, normally unpronounced, becomes a z sound and the n of on becomes pronounced when followed by a vowel.

It is a type of pronominal verb a verb that includes a pronoun as part of it called a reflexive verb, which means that the action of the verb is reflected back onto the subject. Literally translated, the verb means To amuse oneself. When negating a sentence, remember that the negative goes around the conjugated verb.

Je n'aime pas parler. Besides the new vocabulary you should also have a look at how the verbs are conjugated depending on the subject of the sentence. Qu'est-ce que vous faites? Nous jouons au tennis. Je finis mes devoirs. Je vais au parc. Je viens du stade. You will learn their conjugation in a later lesson.

Thus, mon amie is used instead of ma amie, while ma bonne amie would be okay. Indirect Object Pronouns lui and leur Indirect objects are prepositional phrases with the object of the preposition, a direct object is a noun that receives the action of a verb. Lui and leur are indirect object pronouns. Il lui jette la balle. Il leur jette la balle. Whether lui means to him or to her is given by context. In English, "He throws him the ball" is also said, and means the same thing.

When used with the direct object pronouns le, la, and les, lui and leur come after those pronouns. Il la lui jette. Note that while le, la, and les are used to replace people or inanimate objects, lui and leur are not used to replace innanimate objects and things. Also note that unlike le and la, which are shortened to l' when followed by a vowel, lui is never shortened. Jouer The verb jouer is a regular -er verb meaning to play. It can be used to refer to both sports and instruments.

As always, jouer must be conjugated rather than left in the infinitive. Il habite Rue de Rennes. Partir is used in other phrases. You will learn how to conjugate these verbs in a future lesson. Faire The verb faire is translated to to do or to make. It is irregularly conjugated it does not count as a regular -re verb. Expressions with Faire faire attention - to pay attention faire connaissance - to get acquainted faire la morale - to scold faire la queue - to wait in line s'en faire - to worry.

Meanings me - me, to me te - you, to you singular, informal nous - us, to us vous - you, to you plural, formal. Place in sentences These pronouns are placed before the verb that they modify Je te vois. Je veux te voir. If a perfect tense is used, these pronouns go before the auxiliary verb. Direct Object Replacement Il me voit. Indirect Object Replacement Il me l'appelle. Il te le jette. Il nous le jette. Il vous le jette. Exercises Try to describe your house or bedroom using the vocabulary. You may also wish to talk about what housework you do.

Ma maison a deux chambres: Nous avons [16] aussi un bureau avec trois ordinateurs: La cuisine est toute petite et [18] [19] nous y mangeons le soir. Il y a une petite table et quatre chaises. Le jardin est assez grand et nous y faisons pousser des fleurs. Standard Negation In order to say that one did not do something, the ne The ne is placed before the verb, while the pas is placed after. Formation and Rules Simple negation is done by wrapping ne Je ne vole pas.

In a perfect tense, ne When an infinitive and conjugated verb are together, ne Je ne veux pas voler. Je veux ne pas voler. Je ne le vole pas. He is [a] lawyer. Il n'est pas avocat. He is not [a] lawyer. Nous faisons nos devoirs. We are doing our homework. Nous ne faisons pas nos devoirs. We are not doing our homework. Je joue du piano. I play the piano. Je ne joue pas du piano. I do not play the piano. Vous vendez votre voiture. You sell your car. Vous ne vendez pas votre voiture. You do not sell your car. Je n'ai pas de livre.

Je n'ai pas de livres. Examples Il est belge.. Il n'est pas belge. He is not Belgian. Nous lisons un livre. We read a book. Nous ne lisons pas de livre. We do not read a book. Contractions Contractions have been discussed previously in the form of elision. They are a combination of two or more consecutive words that have been integrated into the language, for example, aujourd'hui. The definite pronoun la remains in full form. Cloudy Weather le nuage cloud Il y a des nuages.

There are some clouds. Cold and Windy Weather Il fait chaud. The sky is clear. The sky is freed. Il fait du vent. The sky is clearing up. The sun is shining. It falls of the hail. It's going to rain. The weather is rainy. Aller The verb aller is translated to to go. It is irregularly conjugated it does not count as a regular -er verb. Formation In the present indicative, aller is conjugated as follows: Usage There is no present progressive tense in French, so aller in the present indicative is used to express both I go and I am going.

Aller must be used with a place and cannot stand alone. Je vais au stade. Instead of a preposition and place, you can use the pronoun y, meaning there. Y comes before the verb. Remember that aller must be used with a place there or a name when indicating that you are going somewhere, even if a place wouldn't normally be given in English. The negative form of aller with the y pronoun has both the verb and pronoun enclosed between ne and pas. Il n'y va pas.

Il va pleuvoir demain. Il va faire froid. Remember that the negative goes around the conjugated verb. Il ne va pas pleuvoir demain. Idioms Allons-y - ahlonzee - Let's go! Liaison Usually, whenever a vowel sound comes after This process is called liaison. However, since allons and allez begins with vowels, nous allons is pronounced nyoozahloh and vous allez is pronounced voozahlay. In order to have a pleasing and clean sound, two liaisons should not go consecutively.

Regular -ir Verbs The second category of regular French verbs is -ir verbs. To conjugate, drop the -ir to find the "stem" or "root". Usage As you can probably tell from their name, possessive adjective are used to express possession of an object. In English the possessive adjective agrees with the subject his sister, her brother. But in French, possessive adjectives act like all other adjectives: Whether the third person singular possessive adjectives son, sa and ses are his or her is indicated by context.

Elle lit son livre. Liaison and Adjective Changes Liaison occurs when mon, ton, and son are followed by a vowel. Il est mon ami. Liaison also occurs with all plural forms, since they all end in s. Ils sont mes amis. Mon, ton, and son are used before a feminine singular noun that starts with a vowel or silent h. Elision to m', t', or s' does not occur.

Bulletin codicologique

Elle est mon amie. Regular -re Verbs The third category of regular verbs is made up of -re' verbs. To conjugate, drop the -re to find the "stem" or "root". Add endings to the root based on the subject and tense, as demonstrated below for the present tense. Vendre The verb vendre is a regular -re verb: Common -re Verbs Compared to -er verbs, -re verbs are not very common.

You will however see the following verbs fairly often: Consonant Beau Nouveau Vieux. Sentences Placement As you have already learned, most adjectives come after the noun they modify in French. Prendre Prendre is an irregular -re verb, and is conjugated differently. Now that you know how to compose French sentences in the present indicative, you can continue on to Wikibook's second French course.

The grammar now becomes a lot more advanced, and each lesson now gives much more information. Also remember to go to the lessons planning page if you would like to help improve this course. Faire des courses Lesson Le transport Lesson Le quotidien Lesson La vie rurale Lesson Shopping, Clothing, Shoes G: Local Travelling, Methods of transportation G: Devoir, Falloir, Reflexive Verbs V: La nourriture Lesson La 10 communication Lesson Meals, Silverware, Dining at a Restaurant G: Mail, Calling Others, Computers. Introduction to Perfect Tenses The next section is optional. You will eventually learn everything that is covered in it, but if you would like a preview, read it, and if not, continue on to the school section.

Introduction to Moods and Tenses Like the above section, this is also optional. You will eventually learn everything in here. The only case when "professeur" can be preceded by feminine determinant is either when contracting it in colloquial language "la prof", or when adding a few words before: Whereas American grade numbers go up as you approach your senior year, they descend in France. You will learn to conjugate it in the next section. While in English, you would say my hand or your hand, the definite article is almost always used in French.

The hand is broken if you speak about your own hand. It is not necessary to add a preposition to the verb. It varies from other '-re' verbs in the plural conjugation, by adding a 'v'. Lire is an irregular french verb, meaning to read.

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It's plural conjugation adds an additional 's'. With most verbs, that auxiliary verb is avoir. Auxiliary Verb - Avoir Conjugate avoir in the present indicative. The culture of France is diverse, reflecting regional differences as well as the influence of recent immigration. Also, try and reflect on how your culture is similar and different to French culture. General Verbs Review Most verbs in French are regular -er verbs. Others are regular -ir or -re verbs or are simply irregular.

Voir is an irregularly conjugated -re verb. How old are you? It costs how much? How much costs [noun]? French butchers do not sell pork, pork products, nor horsemeat. For these products, go to a charcuterie. However, a lot of boucheries are also charcuteries, and are called boucherie-charcuterie 2. In France, bakeries only sell fresh bread; e.

Direct Objects While the subject of a sentence initiates an action the verb , the direct object is the one that is affected by the action. A direct object pronoun is used to refer to the direct object of a previous sentence: Pierre voit le cambrioleur. Pierre sees the burglar. The following table shows the various types of direct object pronouns: French me, m' te, t' le, l' English me1.

The pronoun form with an apostrophe is used before a vowel. The direct object pronoun for nous and vous is the same as the subject. When the direct object comes before a verb in a perfect tense, a tense that uses a past participle, the direct object must agree in gender and plurality with the past participle. For example, in the phrase Je les ai eus, or I had them, the past participle would be spelled eus if the direct object, les, was referring to a masculine object, and eues if les is referring to a feminine object. Indirect Objects An indirect object is an object that would be asked for with To whom?

It is called indirect because it occurs usually together with a direct object which is affected directly by the action: He gives some bread to Pierre. Il lui donne du pain. The following table shows the various types of indirect object pronouns: French me, m' te, t'. The indirect object pronoun for nous and vous is the same as the subject. The indirect object pronouns do not agree with the past participle like the direct object pronouns do. When me, te, nous, and vous are used in a perfect tense, the writer must decide whether they are used as direct or indirect object pronouns.

This is done by looking at the verb and seeing what type of action is being performed. The stem change applies to all forms except nous and vous. Other -exer Verbs peser - to weigh mener - to carry out emmener - to take along amener - to bring surmener - to overwork lever - to raise soulever - to raise. When y is part of the last syllable, it changes to i in order to keep the ay sound. In the present indicative of -yer verbs, this affects all forms except nous and vous. Formation In the present indicative, payer and all other -yer verbs is conjuagted as follows: Other -yer Verbs appuyer - to support employer - to employ essayer - to try essuyer - to wipe nettoyer - to clean tutoyer - to address as tu, to call someone informally.

Irregular Past Participles Many of the verbs you have learned so far have irregular past participles. Practise Conversations Let's practise some of these words and verbs in some everyday shopping talk: Bonjour madame Camille la cliente: Non, je voudrais deux croissants aussi Bernard: Merci beaucoup Useful vocabulary: Est-ce que vous avez des cerises?

The preposition de can indicate an origin, contents, possession, cause, manner, and several other things which will be covered later. When le follows de, the de and le combine into du. Similarly, de and les combine into des. Some other verbs use sortir and partir as stems. Un fauteuil is the physical chair that one sits on. One would normally use "une place" whenever "a seat" is used in English. No article before place, you should not say Prenez la place Les films sont fascinants!

Vous aimez les films? Venir The most common -enir verb is venir. The verb venir is translated to to come. When it means to come from, venir is used with the preposition de. Nous venons du stade. You can also use venir with a verb to state that you have recently accomplished an action. Formation In the present indicative, venir and all other -enir verbs are conjuagted as follows: Directions Sometimes when you go out, you may get lost, or come across someone who is lost.

This should help you ask for and give directions. A common -rir verb is ouvrir. Other Standard -rir verbs In past participle form, -ir is replaced with -ert for these verbs. In a general case, these verbs indicate a change in state or position. I went to the cinema. I came to France. The train has arrived.

She left to go to work. He returned to the restaurant. I fell into the pool. I was born in october. He died in It happened in front of the house. I climbed to the top. He got out of the train. I went out with my friends. I entered my room. He came back early from school. Direct Objects One must know that these verbs take their conjugated avoir when they are immediately followed by a direct object For Example: Phoemx, 22, , p.

Lex Pompeia, domine, qua Bithyni et Pontici utuntur, eos, qui in bulen a censo- ribus leguntur, dare pecuniam non iubet. Sed ii quos indulgeniia tua quibusdam civitatibus super legitimum numerum adicere permisit, et singula milia denario- rum et bina intulerunt. Anicius deinde Maximus proconsul eos etiam qui a censo- ribus legerentur, dumtaxat in paucissimis civitatibus, aliud aliis iussit inferre. Adiit enim quidam indicavitque adversarios suos a Servilio Calvo, clarissimo vi- ro, in triennium relegatos in provincia moran: Quid in persona eorum statuendum sit qui a P.

Servilio Calvo proconsule in triennium relegati et mox eiusdem edicto restituti in provincia remanserunt, proxime tibi rescribam, cum causas eius facti a Calvo requisiero. Plinius Caecilius Secundus ca Originaire de Come en Transpadane, C. Verginius Rufus et Q. Iulius [ -] Cornutus Tertullus ? Illud vero quam insigne quod nobis praefectis aerario consulatum ante quam suc- cessorem dedisti! Quid, quod eundem in annum consulatum. Tu comitis nostris praesidere, tu nobis sanctissimum illud carmen praeire dignatus es, tuo iudicio consulesjacti, tua voce renuntiati sumus, ut idem honoribus nostris suffragator in curia, in campo declarator existeres.

Nam, quod eos potissimum mensi attribuisti quem tuus natalis exornat. Secesseram in municipium, cum mihi nuntiatum est Cornutum Tertullum acce-. Neque enim augeri dignitate quam aequari bonis gratius. Quod mihi cognitum est nonjama, qua alioqui optima et meritissi- mafruitur, sed longis magnisque experimentis. Una diligimus, una dileximus omnesfere quos aetas nostra in utroque sexu aemulandos tulit ; quae societas ami- citiarum artissima nos familiaritate coniunxit.

Accessit vinculum necessitudinis publicae, idem enim mihi, ut scis, collega quasi voto petitus in praejectura aerarii fuit, fuit et in consulatu. Turn ergo qui vir et quantus esset altissime inspexeram, cum sequerer ut magis- trum, ut parentem vererer, quod non tam aetatis maturitate quam vitae mereba- tur. Nous ignorons si C. Puis il obtient, probablement en 78, le gouvernement de la province de Narbonnaise.

Pline pour le tnennium Legatus Augusti pro praetore provinciae Aquitaniae censuum accipiendorum, vers , il. Iulius Proculus pour la Lyonnaise, et un clarissime inconnu pour la Belgique. Mais depuis que S. Fils du proconsul de Pont-Bithynie M. Corbier, suivie par F. Cornelius Senecio Annianus Hadrien?

Q uinto Cornelio, [. Cornelius Senecio Annianus est connu par cette seule inscription. Cornelius Senecio Annianus avec Q. Co[ ], le consul quasi anonyme. Ils s'appuient sur l'avis de R. Cornelius Proculus, et de sor. Comme le polyonyme porte presque tous les noms de. Nous trouvons en effet en mission extraordinaire P. Pactumeius Clemens en Syrie et Ti. Claudius Herodes en Asie An- tius Iulius Quadratus, C. M, 73, , p. SYME, Histona, 17, , p.

Nous connaissons maintenant le cursus complet de ce clarissime. Sa vaillance au combat lui Vaut de recevoir les dona militaria de Trajan. Ces dilectatores restent d'ailleurs mal connus, puisque S. En son absence, il a eu l'honneur d'un consulat suffect avec C. Il devait alors avoir atteint la cinquantaine. PIR, 2, II, p.

Comme il est consul suffect en juillet avec P. SYME, Historia, 18, , p. A notre connaissance, une telle succession de postes de gouverneur ne se rencontre nulle part. Comme nous l'avons vu, il est dans la province ca Roscius Murena ca Groag, suivi par G. Nos conclusions rejoignent celles de A. Cette famille Cretoise avait sans doute quelque lien avec M. Roscius Ccelius, consul suffect en 81, et avec l'ami de Pline le Jeune, Q. SYME, Klio, 30, , p. Nous ne savons rien d'autre sur ce personnage. Pour son premier poste connu 1. C'est probablement pendant cette charge, si les restitutions de J.

Il serait alors vraisemblablement originaire de Paestum. Calpurnius Rufus Claude, avant 48? Selon toute vraisemblance, il faut identifier ce clarissime avec le M. Mais il semble probable, comme le proposent R. A une date inconnue, il est devenu le patron de sa patrie. Il semblerait que Proculus n'ait pas rempli de fonctions du vigintivi- rat, mais il se pourrait aussi qu'il n'ait pas pris soin de l'indiquer, car cette gestion allait de soi.

Mommsen, suivi par H. Caristanius Fronto et C. Antius A ulus Iulius Quadratus Il est probable que cette petite ville du Latium, inscrite dans la tribu Quirina comme A. Si elle a vu juste, A. Nous ignorons tout de sa fille Larcia Priscilla. Iulius Celsus Polemaeanus, C. Antius A ulus Iulius Quadratus et L. Caristanius Fronto46 et C. Antius A ulus Iulius Quadratus ca M, 48, , p. A ulus Iulius Quadratus. REHM, Berlin, , p. Toutefois, comme le note R. Il est ensuite l'adjoint de. II, Cures Sabini, , p. Fils du proconsul de Pont-Bithynie L. En fait, il est beaucoup plus probable qu'il subissait encore un nouveau retard.

En ce domaine encore, Trajan a donc repris la politique de Domitien Iulius [- - -] Cornutus Tertullus, l'ami. PIR 2, V, 2, p. Calpurnius Longus appartenait avant son adoption par un certain L. Calpurnius Longus, dont nous ignorons. Aussi faut- il y renoncer Mais plusieurs savants G. Ils donnent l'exemple de la voie Latine dont nous ne connaissons aucun curateur avant , mais dont on ne peut raisonnablement dire qu'ils n'existaient pas auparavant.

Le consulat suffect de Q. Mitford et proposer les dates suivantes: Les lacunes des fastes de ces provinces nous l'autorisent parfaitement Aemilius Honoratus ca REMY, Epigraphica, 45, , p. Il n'en subsiste que les lettres [ — ]iov[- - -juyei que E. Groag pensait pouvoir restituer en [Ti. Claudius Flavianus Titianus Q. Calpurnius Longus Antonin le Pieux. PIR 1, I, p. Proculus et les noms de L. Sa promotion suivante lui vaut de revenir en Italie comme curateur des voies Claudia, Cassia, Annia, Ciminia. Iulius Frugi III ca Eck, suivi par G. Un certain intervalle est parfaitement plausible.

Les lacunes des fastes consulaires en , , , l'autorisent parfaitement Inscrit dans la tribu Cornelia, Ti. Statius Paullus Postumius Iunior avant Son origine sociale et inconnue. Servilius Pudens ca Il faut sans doute l'identifier avec le Q. IV - Les questeurs. Nec multopost Granium Marcellum, praetorem Bithyniae, quaestor ipsius, Caepio Crispinus, maiestatis postulavit, subscribente Romanio Hispone ; qui formant vitae iniit quam postea celebrem miseriae temporum et audaciae hominumfece- runt: Sed Marcellum insimula- bat sinistros de Tiberio sermones habuisse, inevitabile crimen, cum ex moribus principis foedissima quaeque deligeret accusator obiectaretque reo.

Nam, quia vera erant, etiam dicta credebantur. Addidit Hispo statuam Marcelli altius quam Cae- sarum sitam et alia in statua, amputato capite Augusti, effigiem Tiberii indi- tam. Il arrivait au gouverneur de ne pas s'entendre avec son questeur dont il n'avait pas toujours le choix, puisque, en principe, il pouvait lui aussi tirer au sort sa province2. Asinius Marcellus sous les Flaviens ou Nerva5. Opsius, praeturafuncti, adgrediuntur, cupidine consulatus ad quem non nisi per Seianum aditus ; neque Seiani voluntas nisi scelere quaere- batur. Plancius Varus ca Flaccus interim cognito castrorum Veteranorum obsidio.

Lectos e legionibus Dilio Voculae duo et vicensimae legionis legato tradit, ut quam maximis per ripam iti- neribus celeraret. Caesius Aper ca Geman icus , pont ifex max imus , trib unicia pot estate VII, imp eraior. Choisi comme patron par les habitants de la colonie Alexandria Troas, T. Flavius Montanus, archiereus d'Asie sous Trajan, le savant allemand concluait que T.

JRS, 16, , p. A plusieurs reprises, J. A cette date, c'est encore un honneur important. Son origine est inconnue Cossonius Eggius Marullus, cos. SYME, Historia, 34, , p. Te vero etiam atque etiam repetam enim memi- nisse oportet officii tui titulum ac tibi interpretari quale quantumque sit ordinare statum liberarum civitatium.

Praefuerat provinciae quaestor unus ex candidatis inque ea civitatis amplissimae reditus egregia constitutione Jundaverat. Hoc senatui adlegendum putasti. Essayons de le reprendre ici. Ils avaient sans doute assez peu de contacts avec les autochtones. Quinctilius est inscrit dans l'ordre direct et son cursus municipal dans l'ordre indirect.

Pflaum et comme semble l'admettre B. Certes, cette charge se situe apparemment dans. Il est le premier titulaire certain de ce type de poste hors d'Italie. Nous perdons ensuite sa trace et nous ne savons pas s'il a atteint le consulat. Quoi qu'il en soit, il a ouvert la voie des honneurs aux siens. Quinctilius Condianus et Sex. Quinctilius Valerius Maximus et Sex.

Quinctilius Condianus, furent eux aussi consuls en et Malheureusement, aucun d'eux n'est complet. Elle fournit un terminus post quern: Barbieri avec lesquelles H. Hodot pour les lignes 11 et Gavius Squilla Gallicanus, consul en , son fils inconnu81 et son petit-fils M. Pompeius Macrinus, consul ordinaire en Calestrius Tiro Orbius Speratus ca ZPE, 59, , p. AE , ; cf. Le cursus de T. Il en donne pour preuves deux inscriptions de C. PIR 2, I, p.

Depuis les travaux de R. Duthoy et surtout de F. D'abord curateur des voies Clodia, Cassia et Ciminia ca , il devient. A son retour de. Flavius Sulpicianus Dorio Polymnis ca Nous perdons ensuite sa trace. Comme ce dernier porte le titre d'Armeniacus, mais non celui' de Parthicus. Camodeca la date avec de bons arguments de ca 1 Flavius Sulpicianus Dorio Polymnis. VII Vir epulonum, ca , L. Iulius Maximus Mucianus ca Il est clair que C. Halfmann, qui se fondent sur le surnom de C.

Nous pouvons donc dater de ca sa questure de Pont- Bithynie. Iulius Teres en se qualifiant de "pater senato- rum".

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Tadius Lusius Nepos Paullinus Trajan- Robinson, II, , p. Nous serons donc bref. Tout au long de son bref cursus, Sex. Hedius Rufus Lollianus Avitus. PIR 2, IV, 2, p. III, 84 ; cf. Consul ordinaire en , L. Hedius Rufus Lollianus Avitus: Car, en aucun cas, il ne peut s'agir du L. Il faudrait alors envisager que le gouverneur du Pont-Bithynie soit le Q. Comme le montre le tableau de G. Terentius Scaurianus, premier gouverneur de la nouvelle province de Dacie De cette union naquirent au moins trois fils.

Albinius Saturninus ca Le cursus de L. Didius Severus Iulianus, le futur Empereur, qui gouverna la province ca ECK, BJ, , , p. Didio Iuliano, qui post Pertinacem imperium adeptus est, proavusfuit Salvius Iulianus, bis consul, praefectus Urbi et tuns consultus, quod magis eum nobilem fecit, mater Clara Aemilia, pater Petronius Didius Severus, fratres Didius Pro- culus et Nummius Albinus, avunculus Salvius Iulianus ; avus paternus Insubris Medwlanensis, matemus ex Hadrumetina colonia.

Educatus est apud Domitiam Lucillam, matrem Marci Imperatoris. Inter viginti viros lectus est suffragio mains Mara. Inde Belgicam sancte ac diu rexit. Ibi Chauds, Germaniae populis qui Albam fluvium adcolebant, erumpentibus restitit tumultuariis auxiliis pro- vincialium. Ob quae consulatum meruit testimonio Imperatoris Chattos etiam debel- lavit. Inde Dalmatiam regendam accepit eamque a confinibus hostibus vindica- vit. Post Germaniam infenorem rexit.

Post hoc curam alimentorum meruit, tune factus est reus per quendam Severus clarissimum militem coniurationis cum Sal- vio contra Commodum, sed a Commodo, quia multos iam senatores occiderat et quidem nobiles ac potentes in causis maiestatis, ne tristius gravaretur, Didius liberatus est accusatore damnato.

Absolutus iterum ad regendam provinciam missus est. Bithyniam deinde rexit, sed non ea fama qua ceteras. Fuit consul cum Pertinace et in proconsulatu Africae eidem successif et semper ab eo collega et est successor appellatus. Y Histoire Auguste n'en parle pas et il serait fort difficile de la faire entrer dans la lacune de la pierre de Rome. Toutefois, il ne revint pas tout de suite au premier plan. Si nous avons vu juste, la mort de Perennis en pourrait constituer le terminus post quem de son retour aux affaires.

Mittheil, 20,' , p. Et cum iussu Pertinacis Liuius Larensis, procurator patrimonii, Fabio Chiloni consuli designate dedisset, per noctem Commodi cadauer sepultum. En raison de sa filiation Marcifilius , R. Forsck, 14, Berlin, , p. Tineius Rufus consul suffect en , fils de Q. Il est consul suffect en mars-avril avec P. Indubitablement, il ne peut s'agir de E'?

C'est le cas en Galatie de L. Petronius Verus69 et C. Atticius Norbanus Strabo70, en Cappadoce de C. Fabius Cilo, car il pourrait avoir obtenu une charge de l'administration romaine. Nous ne savons rien de sa descendance. Claudius Demetrius ca ou ca A la fin de son mandat, M. Tineius Sacerdos ca Les lacunes des fastes autorisent les deux solutions. Groag83 suivis par H. Ils se fondent sur l'existence d'un. Claudius Callippianus Italicus ca Nous ne savons rien d'autre de ce clarissime.

Claudius Attalus Paterculianus Attalus, consul et proconsul d'Asie Cette datation est d'autant plus plausible qu'il y a tout lieu de croire que C. Egnatius Victor Lollianus ca III, Venezia, , p. Le dossier de L. Aradius Rufinus Optatus Aelianus II faut donc, selon toute vraisemblance, admettre que L. Pflaum, dans son analyse du Marbre de Thorignym et dans son compte rendu de l'ouvrage de R. Sur tous les documents concernant le fils L. Stein, reprise par H. Nous le retrouvons ensuite comme proconsul d'Asie. Comme Lollianus a accompli dans la partie. Umbricius [- - -].

Umbricius Proculus, un legatus mridicus de la province d'Espagne. Aussi rejetons-nous absolument de nos fastes D. Clodius Albinus en Bithynie PIR 2 II, p. Nous ne disposons d'aucun cas similaire. Dans ces conditions, nous rejetons M. IV- At ilh replett furore, comprehensos adduxerunt eos ad proconsulem Sabi- num.

Nam in ipso tempore persecutions Christianorum fuerant datae a Decio imperatore. Cumque oblati fuissent proconsuh dixerunt: V -Sabinus proconsul ad Lucianum dixit Furius Sabinius Aquila Timesitheus ca Lollius avant J. Sed, dum in hac parte imperii omnia geruntur prospemme, accepta in Germama clade, sub legato M.

Lolho homme in omnia pecumae quam recte facundi cupi- diore, et inter summam vitwrum dissimulationem vitiosissimo. Namque pnvignum Caium Orient praepositum, cum visendi gratia traiecisset Samum, alieniorem sibi sensit ex criminationibus M. Lolli comitis et rectoris eius. Lollii, quern veluti moderator em iuventae filii sui Augustus esse voluerat, perfidiam et plena sub doli ac versuti animi consilia, per Parthum indicta Caesari,famavulgavit.

Cuiusmors, intrapaucosdies,fortuita, anvolun- tana fuent, ignoro. I, 10 ; Poe- tae lat. Tarius Rufus, consul suffect en 16 avant J. Sulpicius Quiri- nius, consul en 12 avant J. En 21 avant J. En avant J. Calpurnius Piso combat les tribus thraces. En 17 avant J. Nous perdons ensuite sa trace jusqu'en 1 avant J. Lollius avait sa revanche. Pour certains, notamment G. Aussi, pour notre part, croirions-nous volontiers que M. Calpurnius Piso Pontifex ca avant J. SYME, Klio, 27, , p.

Et rursus in cognitione caedis Mediolani apud L. Pisonem proconsulem defen- dens reum cum cohiberent lictores nimias laudantium voces et C. Albucius Silo ita excanduisset, ut deplorato Italiae statu, quasi iterum in formam provinciae redigeretur, M. Dumea, quae praediximus, inPannonia Germaniaque geruntur, atroxin Thra- cia bellum ortum, omnibus eius gentis nationibus in arma accensis, Lucii Piso- nis, quem hodieque dihgentissimum, atque eundem lenissimum secuntatis urba- nae custodem habemus, virtus compressit Quippe legatus Caesaris triennio cum his bellavit, gentesqueferocissimas plurimo cum earum excidio, nunc acie, nunc.

De quo viro hoc omnibus sentundum ac praedicandum est, esse mores eius vigore ac lenitate mixtissimos, et vix quem- quam repenn posse, qui aut otium vahdius dihgat, autfacihus suffiaat negotio, et magis, quae agenda sunt, curet sine ulla ostentatione agendi. Pisone noctem continuumque biduum epulando potandoque consumpsit, quorum alten Syriam provinciam, alteri praefecturam urbis confestim detuht, codi- cillis quoque iucundissimos et omnium horarum amicos processus. Rome 27 Acta Fratrum Arvalium. Per idem tempus L. Patrem ei censonum fuisse memoravi ; aetas ad octogensimum annum pro- cessit ; decus triumphale in Thracia meruerat.

Sed praecipua ex ea gloria quod praefectus urbi, recens continuam potestatem et insolentia parendi graviorem mire temperavit. Comme le soulignent M. Calpurnius Piso Cesonnius16 et de Rutilia. Son premier poste connu est un proconsulat extraordinaire en Gaule.

Province distincte jusqu'en 49 avant J. Il est consul en 15 avant J. Sa fonction suivante le conduit en Galatie-Pamphylie ca avant J. Piso Pontifex et non son homonyme L. En effet, en 6 avant J. Nous ne savons rien d'autre de lui, mais E. Sulpicius Quirinius ca avant J. JRS, 26, , p.

Potuit et ille redire Marmaricus ; sed modestior in aestimanda victoria fuit. Tiberium quoque Rhodi agen- tem coluerat Ecci, I, 5, At Romae Lepida, cui super Aemiliorum decus L. Pompeius proavi erant, defertur simulavisse partum ex P. Quirinio divite atque orbo. Caesari ac divoAugusto nurus dederetur. Turn demum ape- ruit Tiberius compertum sibi etiam ex P.

Quirinii servis veneno eum a Lepida petitum. Sub idem tempus, ut mors Sulpicii Quirini publias exsequiisjrequentaretur, petivit a senatu. Nihil adveterem et patriciam Sulpiciorum familiam Quirinius perti- nuit, ortus apud municipium Lanuvium. Quod tune patefecit in senatu, lau-. Lollio, quern auctorem Gaio Caesari pravitatis et discordiarum arguebat. Sed ceteris haud laeta memoria Quirini erat ob intenta, ut memoravi, Lepidae pericula sordidamque et praepotentem senectam.

En 12 avant J. Le magistrat local, C. Lollius43, il prit sa place comme conseiller de C. Sulpicius Quirinius a su parvenir au sommet des honneurs. Servilio, quem prioribus neque suspectis tabulis scriptum compererat, nobilitatem utriusque pecunia hvandam praefatus. A la suite de R. Servilius Vatia Isauricus, consul en 79 avant J. Servilius Isauricus, consul en 48 et 41 avant J. Servilius qui accompagna C. Claudius Pulcher en Asie en 53 avant J. Servilius qui combattit avec Cassius contre les Rhodiens et avec Brutus contre les Lyciens SYME, Mo, 27, , p.

Ai ea pars, quae obviam se effuderat exercitui, quem A.