Long-courrier (Blanche) (French Edition)
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He appeared there as an almost unrecognizable Polish Jewish congregant whose head covering the court ordered to be forcibly removed, and whose scraggly beard became an object of mingled puzzlement and derision. In it was properly stern. Its anger was against the abuse of progress, British inability to sustain philosophe initiatives, and the return to religious war. The Courier laments serious failures in British culture and government. The Crown could neither control nor silence him, but it could put him away for ever.
Though libels against Marie-Antoinette may not yet have been published, malicious gossip regarding her conduct and her roles in the affair of the necklace circulated on both sides of the Chanel. Adulterer, blackmailer, bully, con-man, ingrate, libeller, pimp, poxed, wife-beater, rapist, sodomite, spy, and upstart are appropriate modifiers for a provincial bourgeois who in assumed the quasi-aristocratic title Chevalier de Morande. Harsh attacks became staples, and perhaps none more so than its extended savaging of the Italian nominal Comte Alessandro de Cagliostro, the real Giuseppe Balsamo from Palermo.
The first is psychological. Morande, the self-anointed Chevalier, needed to exorcise his own parvenu demon by demonizing Cagliostro. He hoped sooner or later to return to France and needed at least to be tolerated by the powerful figures and groups he once had blackmailed or offended. Gordon protected Cagliostro from possible French persecution and became his public advocate. Gordon also apparently libeled Marie Antoinette and thus was a felon. Morande could appear to defend the French court he hitherto had defamed by in turn defaming the British aristocrat allied with the false Count who tarnished that court in the affair of the necklace.
Morande tells the French ambassador in London that he indeed is an admirable spy, knows every important person in the navy, the press, the court, and parliament, and can find whatever is necessary to know. Thanks to this multiplicity of resources, he rarely makes a mistake: He also purposely includes remarks that are not consistent with French ministerial views: An international publication partially designed to illumine British politics as guides for French politics became an espionage tool and an instrument of personal ambition and destruction. Another implication is that the bad often drives out the good.
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The Gordon Riots were destructive for London, Britain, Gordon himself, Anglo-French relations, and for many of those associated with him, like Cagliostro. One sad paradox of these events is that aspects of the Gordon Riots anticipated some destructive events of the French Revolution. It once had compiled news, especially British news, for francophone readers and reflected aspects of the free and argumentative British journalistic and political systems. It then became the instrument for Morande to prove himself useful to the France he had slandered and to which he hoped to return for profit and protection.
He died quietly at home in Brissot also returned to France, but as a Girondist and was guillotined in English Version 67, , p. Le Premier Novembre M. Subsequent citations to the Courier will be given as CE with appropriate volume year, and page. Burke would have been so pleased.
Bourique, and his systems of economy. Other Members of Parliament, peers, and ministers, however, sometimes complained about misrepresentation or misunderstanding. Limits and Legacies of Enlightenment: Robert Darnton unwittingly began the squabble when he challenged the benign, liberal, image Brissot well-established in his Memoires: This later was answered by Frederick A.
Leonore Loft, among others, continued to take issue with Darnton, in her Passion, Politics, and Philosophie: Brissot , Westport, CT. This essay includes several more references to others in the debate. A Quarterly Review , 22, , p. I am pleased to leave the resolution of this issue to my betters.
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Voltaire is keen on English comedy. Richmond urged repeal of the Quebec Act but toleration for Catholics within Britain 7, p. Two older but still valuable books on the Gordon Riots are J.
As these citations suggest, there has been a great deal of research regarding the crowd, its contents, and its motivation, and on various contextual matters, like empire, domestic politics, and the American war. The present essay hopes to suggest an international viewpoint. For the other two gaps, see chapters six and seven in Howard D. Lord George interrogates Shelburne regarding the genesis of the Act in and for Scotland: Gordon probably had in mind the new Scottish levies of Catholic soldiers that the Catholic Relief Act allowed.
I suspect that the Courier is referring to the volunteer units in the City of London and Westminster, designed to protect local property. Haywood and Seed, p. Wherein he Recalls, and totally Annuls the perpetual and irrevocable Edict of Nantes ; full of most gracious Concessions to Protestants , London, The text is the familiar Proverbs Such a remark would have been nearly impossible in a 30th of January sermon a century earlier.
For fuller discussion of this legally mandated sermon, see chapter 3 of Weinbrot, Literature, Religion, and the Evolution of Culture. According to Namier and Brooke, by later in the century perhaps one third of the Members did not have such a qualification, p. July June , Lucy S. The Gordon rioters preferred whiskey to melons and left many a trace behind them. The event clearly was well-known and apparently approved of by many. For Gordon to the jury, see the Gazetteer and New Daily Advertiser , 7 February for which a juror gently reprimanded him, and for which he apologized.
This Gazetteer also includes a description from which the Courier could have borrowed, though other newspapers carried comparable enthusiasms: It faced daunting public relations and tactical concerns: Exiling him, presumably to France, still would leave a dangerous rabble rouser free to propagandize among perpetual enemies. Pardoning him would have been a sign of weakness and fear rather than generosity.
That was a characteristic misconception. Gordon invoked the Old Testament as early as this published text. Lord George was troubled by the secular consequences of excommunication by the Church of England; he could not have been troubled by its putative spiritual consequences. I have not, yet, been able to find them either at the London Metropolitan Archives or the Lambeth Palace archives. Much of the non-written process is likely to have been done with episcopal and ministerial winks and nods.
The germane royal Domestic Papers at Kew and, so far as I can tell, the scattered documents of Bishop Lowth of London and Archbishop Moore of Canterbury remain silent regarding this matter. The excommunication was anticipated and predicted in the Public Advertiser for 5 May in the case of Hendry vs. The notice is virtually identical in all places. For the relevant ecclesiastical laws, see Edmund Gibson, Codex juris ecclesiastici anglicani: This required an act of parliament that apparently was not forthcoming. See Gibson, Codex juris ecclesiastici anglicani 2, p.
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Arthur Friedman , Oxford, Clarendon Press, , 2, p. For discussion of the treaty, see W.
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See Burrows, Blackmail, Scandal, and Revolution. The queen also was often discussed in the context of the seedy affair of the necklace involving Cagliostro and Madame de la Motte. By Parkyns Macmahon , London, , p. Much of the French, and in this case Valois, objection to Marie Antoinette was that an Austrian archduchess was not a proper Queen of France. John Bender has discussed prisons and prison reform in his Imagining the Penitentiary: His youthful escapades often were brutal as well.
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