Alien Mathematics (Mathematics in the History of Culture Book 7)

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When the lives of the group are threatened, Bliss uses her abilities and the shared intellect of Gaia to destroy the Solarian who is about to kill them. This leaves behind a small child who will be put to death if left alone, so Bliss makes the decision to keep the child as they quickly escape the planet. Eventually, Trevize discovers Earth, but it, again, contains no satisfactory answers for him it is also long-since deserted. However, it dawns on Trevize that the answer may not be on Earth, but on Earth's satellite — the Moon.

Upon approaching the planet, they are drawn inside the Moon's core, where they meet a robot named R. Olivaw explains that he has been instrumental in guiding human history for thousands of years, having provided the impetus for Seldon to create psychohistory and also the creation of Gaia, but is now close to the end of his ability to maintain himself and will cease to function.

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Despite replacing his positronic brain which contain 20, years of memories , he is going to die shortly. He explains that no further robotic brain can be devised to replace his current one, or which will let him continue assisting for the benefit of humanity, but some additional time can be won to ensure the long term benefit of humanity by merging it with the organic intellect of a human. Once again, Trevize is put in the position of deciding if having Olivaw meld with the child's superior intellect would be in the best interests of the galaxy. The decision is left ambiguous though likely a "yes" as it is also implied that the melding of the minds may be to the child's benefit and that she may have sinister intentions about it.

The plot of the series focuses on the growth and reach of the Foundation, against a backdrop of the "decline and fall of the Galactic Empire". The themes of Asimov's stories were also influenced by the political tendency in SF fandom, associated with the Futurians , known as Michelism. The focus of the books is the trends through which a civilization might progress, specifically seeking to analyze their progress, using history as a precedent. Although many science fiction novels such as Nineteen Eighty-Four or Fahrenheit do this, their focus is upon how current trends in society might come to fruition, and act as a moral allegory on the modern world.

The Foundation series, on the other hand, looks at the trends in a wider scope, dealing with societal evolution and adaptation rather than the human and cultural qualities at one point in time. Furthermore, the concept of psychohistory, which gives the events in the story a sense of rational fatalism, leaves little room for moralization. Hari Seldon himself hopes that his Plan will "reduce 30, years of Dark Ages and barbarism to a single millennium," a goal of exceptional moral gravity.

Yet events within it are often treated as inevitable and necessary, rather than deviations from the greater good. For example, the Foundation slides gradually into oligarchy and dictatorship prior to the appearance of the galactic conqueror, known as the Mule , who was able to succeed through the random chance of a telepathic mutation. But, for the most part, the book treats the purpose of Seldon's plan as unquestionable, and that slide as being necessary in it, rather than mulling over whether the slide is, on the whole, positive or negative.

The books also wrestle with the idea of individualism. Hari Seldon's plan is often treated as an inevitable mechanism of society, a vast mindless mob mentality of quadrillions of humans across the galaxy. Many in the series struggle against it, only to fail. However, the plan itself is reliant upon the cunning of individuals such as Salvor Hardin and Hober Mallow to make wise decisions that capitalize on the trends.

On the other hand, the Mule, a single individual with mental powers, topples the Foundation and nearly destroys the Seldon plan with his special, unforeseen abilities. To repair the damage the Mule inflicts, the Second Foundation deploys a plan which turns upon individual reactions. Psychohistory is based on group trends and cannot predict with sufficient accuracy the effects of extraordinary, unforeseeable individuals, and as originally presented, the Second Foundation's purpose was to counter this flaw.

Later novels would identify the Plan's uncertainties that remained at Seldon's death as the primary reason for the existence of the Second Foundation, which unlike the First had retained the capacity to research and further develop psychohistory. Asimov unsuccessfully tried to end the series with Second Foundation. However, because of the predicted thousand years until the rise of the next Empire of which only a few hundred had elapsed , the series lacked a sense of closure. For decades, fans pressured him to write a sequel.

In , Asimov gave in after a year hiatus, and wrote what was at the time a fourth volume: This was followed shortly thereafter by Foundation and Earth. The story of this volume which takes place some years after Seldon ties up all the loose ends and brings together all of his Robot, Empire and Foundation novels into a single story. He also opens a brand new line of thought in the last dozen pages regarding Galaxia , a galaxy inhabited by a single collective mind.

This concept was never explored further. According to his widow Janet Asimov in her biography of Isaac, It's Been a Good Life , he had no idea how to continue after Foundation and Earth , so he started writing the prequels.

Absolutely not.

The series is set in the same universe as Asimov's first published novel, Pebble in the Sky , although Foundation takes place about 10, years later. Pebble in the Sky became the basis for the Empire series. Thus, all three series are set in the same universe, giving them a combined length of 15 novels, and a total of about 1,, words see the List of books below. The merge also created a time-span of the series of around 20, years. The stand-alone story Nemesis is also in the same continuity; being referenced in Forward the Foundation , where Hari Seldon refers to a twenty-thousand-year-old story of "a young woman that could communicate with an entire planet that circled a sun named Nemesis.

Early on during Asimov's original world-building of the Foundation universe, he established within the first published stories a chronology placing the tales about 50, years into the future from the time they were written circa This precept was maintained in the pages of his first novel Pebble in the Sky , wherein Imperial archaeologist Bel Arvardan refers to ancient human strata discovered in the Sirius sector dating back "some 50, years".

However, when Asimov decided decades later to retroactively integrate the universe of his Foundation and Galactic Empire novels with that of his Robot stories, a number of changes and minor discrepancies surfaced — the character R. Daneel Olivaw was established as having existed for some 20, years, with the original Robot novels featuring the character occurring not more than a couple of millennia after the earlyst century Susan Calvin short stories. Also, in Foundation's Edge , mankind was referred to as having possessed interstellar space travel for only 22, years, a far cry from the 50 millennia of earlier works.

In the spring of , Asimov published an early timeline in the pages of Thrilling Wonder Stories magazine based upon his thought processes concerning the Foundation universe's history at that point in his life, which vastly differs from its modern-era counterpart. Many included stories would later be either jettisoned from the later chronology or temporally relocated by the author.


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Also, the aforementioned lengthier scope of time was changed. For example, in the original s timeline, humanity does not discover the hyperspatial drive until around AD, whereas in the reincorporated Robot universe chronology, the first interstellar jump occurs in AD, during the events of I, Robot. Below is a summarized timeline for events detailed in the series. Asimov's novels covered only of the expected 1, years it would take for the Foundation to become a galactic empire. The novels written after Asimov did not continue the timeline but rather sought to fill in gaps in the earlier stories.

The Foundation universe was once again revisited in 's Foundation's Friends , a collection of short stories written by many prominent science fiction authors of that time. Orson Scott Card 's " The Originist " clarifies the founding of the Second Foundation shortly after Seldon's death; Harry Turtledove 's "Trantor Falls" tells of the efforts by the Second Foundation to survive during the sacking of Trantor, the imperial capital and Second Foundation's home; and George Zebrowski 's "Foundation's Conscience" is about the efforts of a historian to document Seldon's work following the rise of the Second Galactic Empire.

Also, shortly before his death in , Asimov approved an outline for three novels, known as the Caliban trilogy by Roger MacBride Allen , set between Robots and Empire and the Empire series. The Caliban trilogy describes the terraforming of the Spacer world Inferno, a planet where an ecological crisis forces the Spacers to abandon many long-cherished parts of their culture.

Allen's novels echo the uncertainties that Asimov's later books express about the Three Laws of Robotics , and in particular the way a thoroughly roboticized culture can degrade human initiative. After Asimov's death and at the request of Janet Asimov and the Asimov estate's representative, Ralph Vicinanza approached Gregory Benford , and asked him to write another Foundation story.

Ancient Egypt 101

He eventually agreed, and with Vicinanza and after speaking "to several authors about [the] project", formed a plan for a trilogy with "two hard SF writers broadly influenced by Asimov and of unchallenged technical ability: Greg Bear and David Brin. These books are now claimed by some [10] [11] to collectively be a " Second Foundation trilogy", although they are inserts into pre-existing prequels and some of the earlier Foundation storylines and not generally recognized as a new Trilogy.

In an epilogue to Foundation's Triumph , Brin noted he could imagine himself or a different author writing another sequel to add to Foundation's Triumph , feeling that Hari Seldon's story was not yet necessarily finished. He later published a possible start of such a book on his website. More recently, the Asimov estate authorized publication of another trilogy of robot mysteries by Mark W. These novels, which take place several years before Asimov's Robots and Empire , are Mirage , Chimera , and Aurora These were followed by yet another robot mystery, Alexander C.

In , Donald Kingsbury published the novel Psychohistorical Crisis , set in the Foundation universe after the start of the Second Empire. Novels by various authors Isaac Asimov's Robot City , Robots and Aliens and Robots in Time series are loosely connected to the Robot series, but contain many inconsistencies with Asimov's books, and are not generally considered part of the Foundation series.

In November , the Isaac Asimov estate announced the upcoming publication of Robots and Chaos , the first volume in a trilogy featuring Susan Calvin by fantasy author Mickey Zucker Reichert. The book was published in November under the title I, Robot: In Learned Optimism , [13] psychologist Martin Seligman identifies the Foundation series as one of the most important influences in his professional life, because of the possibility of predictive sociology based on psychological principles. He also lays claim to the first successful prediction of a major historical sociological event, in the US elections , and he specifically attributes this to a psychological principle.

In his book To Renew America , U. House Speaker Newt Gingrich wrote how he was influenced by reading the Foundation trilogy in high school. Paul Krugman , winner of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences , credits the Foundation series with turning his mind to economics, as the closest existing science to psychohistory. Businessman and entrepreneur Elon Musk counts the series among the inspirations for his career.

In the nonfiction PBS series Cosmos: In , the Foundation trilogy beat several other science fiction and fantasy series to receive a special Hugo Award for "Best All-Time Series". Heinlein , Lensman series by Edward E. Smith and The Lord of the Rings by J. Asimov himself wrote that he assumed the one-time award had been created to honor The Lord of the Rings , and he was amazed when his work won. The series has won three other Hugo Awards. Foundation's Edge won Best Novel in , and was a bestseller for almost a year. Retrospective Hugo Awards were given in and for, respectively, "The Mule" the major part of Foundation and Empire for Best Novel and "Foundation" the first story written for the series, and second chapter of the first novel for Best Short Story For instance, "The Guide" of the former is a spoof of the Encyclopedia Galactica , and the series actually mentions the encyclopedia by name, remarking that it is rather "dry", and consequently sells fewer copies than the guide; the latter also features the ultra-urbanized Imperial planet Helior, often parodying the logistics such a planet-city would require, but that Asimov's novel downplays when describing Trantor.

It takes place about 2, years after Foundation , after the founding of the Second Galactic Empire. It is set in the same fictional universe as the Foundation series, in considerable detail, but with virtually all Foundation -specific names either changed e. The novel explores the ideas of psychohistory in a number of new directions, inspired by more recent developments in mathematics and computer science , as well as by new ideas in science fiction itself.

The oboe -like holophonor in Matt Groening 's animated television series Futurama is based directly upon the "Visi-Sonor" which Magnifico plays in Foundation and Empire. During the — Marvel Comics Civil War crossover storyline, in Fantastic Four Mister Fantastic revealed his own attempt to develop psychohistory, saying he was inspired after reading the Foundation series.

It's been a while but I'm sure you've made the right connection Asimov was required reading in the 60's. A BBC 7 rerun commenced in July The failure to develop a new franchise was partly a reason the studio signed on to produce The Lord of the Rings film trilogy. Michael Wimer was named as co-producer. This project failed to materialize and HBO acquired the rights when they became available in The "Author's Note" of Prelude to Foundation contains the chronological ordering of Asimov's science fiction books, in which he also said, "they were not written in the order in which perhaps they should be read".

Another alternative is to read the books in their original order of publication, since reading the Foundation prequels prior to reading the Foundation Trilogy fundamentally alters the original narrative structure of the trilogy by spoiling what were originally presented as plot surprises. While not mentioned in the above list, the books The End of Eternity and Nemesis are also referenced in the series. The End of Eternity is vaguely referenced in Foundation's Edge , where a character mentions the Eternals, whose "task it was to choose a reality that would be most suitable to Humanity".

The End of Eternity also refers to a "Galactic Empire" within its story. In Forward the Foundation , Hari Seldon refers to a thousand-year-old story of "a young woman that could communicate with an entire planet that circled a sun named Nemesis", a reference to Nemesis.


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In Nemesis , the main colony is one of the Fifty Settlements, a collection of orbital colonies that form a state. The Fifty Settlements possibly were the basis for the fifty Spacer worlds in the Robot stories. The implication at the end of Nemesis that the inhabitants of the off-Earth colonies are splitting off from Earthbound humans could also be connected to a similar implication about the Spacers in Mark W.

Tiedemann 's Robot books. On the other hand, these references might be just jokes by Asimov, and the stories mentioned could be just those really written by himself as seen in The Robots of Dawn , where Fastolfe makes a reference to Asimov's Liar! As for Nemesis , it was written after Prelude to Foundation , but in the author's note Asimov explicitly states that the book is not part of the Foundation or Empire series, but that some day he might tie it to the others.

Edit this page Read in another language Foundation series. The Foundation Series First edition dust-jacket of Foundation.

Famous Theorems of Mathematics/Fermat's last theorem

Original stories Edit The original trilogy of novels were originally a series of eight short stories published in Astounding Magazine between May and January Foundation trilogy Edit The first four stories were collected, along with a new story taking place before the others, as a fixup published by Gnome Press in as Foundation. Prelude to Foundation Edit Main article: Foundation Isaac Asimov novel. Merging with other series Edit The series is set in the same universe as Asimov's first published novel, Pebble in the Sky , although Foundation takes place about 10, years later.

A military junta takes over the Empire for ten years after Cleon's death, but collapses after imposing a poll tax. The Galactic Empire is well underway into the predicted total collapse. The Galactic Empire is no more. The dark age of the entire Milky Way has begun. Events of Foundation's Edge 12, Golan Trevize searches for Earth with the hopes that its finding will validate his choosing of Galaxia. Impact in nonfiction Edit In Learned Optimism , [13] psychologist Martin Seligman identifies the Foundation series as one of the most important influences in his professional life, because of the possibility of predictive sociology based on psychological principles.

Overview Edit The "Author's Note" of Prelude to Foundation contains the chronological ordering of Asimov's science fiction books, in which he also said, "they were not written in the order in which perhaps they should be read". First collection, which were all included in The Complete Robot , though it also contains a binding text, no longer in The Complete Robot.

Nothing special about 10.

Second collection, which were all included in The Complete Robot. Anthologized in a book with the same title. Contains some minor inconsistencies with later stories. Published in The Complete Robot. Locus Award nominee, [36] 10 [note 1] Forward the Foundation The second Foundation novel although it was the last written by Asimov himself. Actually, it is a collection of four stories, originally published between and , plus an introductory section written for the book in Locus Award nominee, [39] Another alternative is to read the books in their original order of publication, since reading the Foundation prequels prior to reading the Foundation Trilogy fundamentally alters the original narrative structure of the trilogy by spoiling what were originally presented as plot surprises.

Tangential books Edit While not mentioned in the above list, the books The End of Eternity and Nemesis are also referenced in the series. Giskard Reventlov , the first robot able to alter human minds R. Hari Seldon , leader of the Psychohistorical movement which creates the Foundation and the Seldon plan; first First Speaker of the Second Foundation traditional , First Minister of the Galactic Empire under Cleon I, after Eto Demerzel Dors Venabili , Seldon's wife and protector, known as the "Tiger Woman" for her physical prowess and swiftness to action, she is eventually revealed to be a humanoid robot like Daneel.

Hober Mallow , the first "Merchant Prince" during the Foundation's "Trader" days Bel Riose , general of the Galactic Empire The Mule , a mutant who was extremely adept at altering human emotions Bayta Darell , Foundation citizen instrumental in the defeat of the Mule. Ebling Mis , thought to be first person to discover the location of the Second Foundation Arkady Darell , granddaughter of Bayta Darell, who theorizes a location of the Second Foundation Preem Palver , a farmer living on Trantor and First Speaker of the Second Foundation Golan Trevize , councilman of Terminus who discovers the secret location of Earth.

The main character of "Foundation Edge" and "Foundation and Earth". He chose Galaxia as the fate of the galaxy. Janov Pelorat , historian, accompanies Trevize. Therefore at least this part of the book would be located after the events of Foundation and Chaos , Foundation's Triumph and the first chapter of Foundation.

Retrieved July 28, New England Science Fiction Association. La edad de oro II. From Robots to Foundations. Learned Optimism c by Alfred A. In Joy Still Felt: It serves as an excellent antidote to tedious classroom lectures on the difference between inverse and direct proportions. Should you read it if you think you hate math and are turned off by math problems?

Yes, you may even get turned on. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Innumeracy (book) - Wikipedia

Mathematical Illiteracy and its Consequences Hardcover of Innumeracy: Mathematical Illiteracy and its Consequences. Retrieved 30 August Retrieved 1 September Becoming a Primary Mathematics Specialist Teacher. Retrieved 3 September Retrieved 5 September Retrieved from " https: Views Read Edit View history.

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