Analytical Advances for Hydrocarbon Research (Modern Analytical Chemistry)
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Challenges of Modern Analytical Chemistry
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Analytical chemistry is a branch of modern chemistry of special social importance, which affects numerous areas of contemporary life, welfare and safety of societies, progress in all fields of modern technologies. Thorough presence of chemical analysis in all areas of human activity, includes first of all control functions of chemical analysis, namely control of materials of all fabricated items and devices, control of effects of the civilisation development on natural environment, indispensable support of clinical diagnostics, or prevention of terrorist attacks.
The progress of material science, which is essential for development of all areas of technology significantly depends on abilities, and technical possibilities of the most precise and accurate control of the chemical composition of materials and in fact it is the main purpose and goal of chemical analysis, and the subject of its improvement in scientific research in the field of analytical chemistry. Modern analytical chemistry includes numerous fields of experimental and theoretical studies in terms of applications and measuring methodologies of different specificity and requirements from the end-users of analytical information.
Its main areas include environmental and industrial analysis, food control, clinical and pharmaceutical analysis. It includes also investigation of metabolic pathways in living organisms and humans, and development especially sensitive methods for fighting with doping in sport. Continuous progress of analytical methods one can observe in process analysis, and generally in analytical examination in materials science.
Much more specialized areas of application of new analytical methods and analytical instrumentation are archaeometry and examination of art objects, and also design of especially sophisticated instrumentation for space exploration missions. The main objectives of environmental analysis are improvement of detection limits of trace anthropogenic organic pollutants of different origin and their most complete detection, examination of transport pathways and transformations, as well as toxicity towards living flora, fauna and humans.
Analytical Advances for Hydrocarbon Research : Chang Samuel Hsu :
The objects of particular interest in recent decade are perfluo-rinated organic compounds [ 1 ], or trace residues of pharmaceuticals, especially those which are not removed by commonly employed technologies for water and waste treatment. In analysis of inorganic compounds a special attention in recent decades is focused on speciation and metabolic transformations of trace elements, their effects on living organisms and transport in environment.
Increasing demands are addressed to analysts in terms of quality of control of foods, as it is of the most route of uptake of anthropogenic pollutants from environment by living organisms and humans. Particular challenges for analysts in this case are very complex matrices of real samples to be analyzed, and very often limited supply of certified reference materials CRMs. Because of wide need for quality control of food, methods developed for such applications should be accurate, fast and robust.
One of examples can be current trend of developing new methods for detection of genetically modified organisms in foods [ 2 ] Analytical methods developed for clinical analysis should be characterized first of all by high specificity, which is especially achieved employing immunochemical assays. They should require a very small amount of sample, and can not be affected for heavy loaded matrices of physiological fluids of tissue extracts. The pharmaceutical analysis includes quality control of pharmaceutical preparations, examination of metabolism of pharmaceutics in organisms, and also mentioned already determination of environmental residues of pharmaceuticals [ 3 ].
In this particular range of analytical applications a large attention is devoted to development of enantioselective methods for determination of chiral purity of pharmaceuticals. Process analysis is another crucial area of application of chemical analysis directly fort technological purposes. Instruments for process analysis placed within or at the plant installations have to exhibit extreme durability and chemical resistivity in harsh ambient conditions, and provide reliable long-term monitoring with remote control of operation.
Main purposes of design of process analyzers is costeffective carrying of controlled technological processes, ensuring safety of humans, installation and natural environment. It may be considered as coming directly from definition of analytical chemistry, that it is main instrument to control the composition of materials developed for different technological applications.
A rapidly increasing field in this case is nanotechnology, where in search for new materials all most sophisticated modern methods are being employed for elucidation of structures and chemical properties.
A very intense progress of application of analytical measurements is observed in archaeometry, where especially challenging task is development of non-destructive and microanalytical methods of analysis, of which results cannot be overestimated for conservation of art objects and for historians of arts, with special importance of isotope-based or chemical dating. Indispensable contribution has modern analytical chemistry in space exploration where fully automated and remote miniaturized instruments are being developed with predominated spectroscopy methods, but also high-performance separation methods and miniaturized sensors [ 4 ].
A permanent object of improvement of analytical instrumentation for different applications is improving the basic functional parameters of each measuring device such as selectivity of response and concentration range of response, and also in case of multianalyte determinations, the reproducibility of measurements, or possibility as most versatile data processing.
The improvement leading to enhancement of signal resolution concerns both separation methods, as well as spectroscopic, or selected electroanalytical methods. In structural investigations in recent decades, methods of absorptive molecular spectroscopy have been significantly replaced by resonance methods and mass spectrometry.
The most advanced chromatographic and capillary electrophoretic methods reach their full analytical potential in increasingly used systems hyphenated with mass spectrometry MS. A parallel trend is an intensive development of integrated chemical sensors and biosensors for different applications, and employing in their construction various transducers.
Although they are designed mostly for fast and simple single component determinations in various samples, also for instance for determination of optical isomers [ 5 ], it has to be admitted a design of multisensor measuring systems, as matrices of sensors described as electronic noses or tongues.