RELIGION

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To attribute the efficacy of prayers or of sacramental signs to their mere external performance, apart from the interior dispositions that they demand is to fall into superstition. The terms atheist lack of belief in any gods and agnostic belief in the unknowability of the existence of gods , though specifically contrary to theistic e. Christian, Jewish, and Muslim religious teachings, do not by definition mean the opposite of religious.

There are religions including Buddhism, Taoism, and Hinduism , in fact, that classify some of their followers as agnostic, atheistic, or nontheistic. The true opposite of religious is the word irreligious. Irreligion describes an absence of any religion; antireligion describes an active opposition or aversion toward religions in general. Because religion continues to be recognized in Western thought as a universal impulse [ citation needed ] , many religious practitioners [ who?

The first major dialogue was the Parliament of the World's Religions at the Chicago World's Fair , which affirmed universal values and recognition of the diversity of practices among different cultures. The 20th century has been especially fruitful in use of interfaith dialogue as a means of solving ethnic, political, or even religious conflict, with Christian—Jewish reconciliation representing a complete reverse in the attitudes of many Christian communities towards Jews.

Culture and religion have usually been seen as closely related. Paul Tillich looked at religion as the soul of culture and culture as the form or framework of religion. Religion as ultimate concern is the meaning-giving substance of culture, and culture is the totality of forms in which the basic concern of religion expresses itself. Such a consideration definitely prevents the establishment of a dualism of religion and culture. Every religious act, not only in organized religion, but also in the most intimate movement of the soul, is culturally formed.

Ernst Troeltsch , similarly, looked at culture as the soil of religion and thought that, therefore, transplanting a religion from its original culture to a foreign culture would actually kill it in the same manner that transplanting a plant from its natural soil to an alien soil would kill it. For instance, language with its grammar is a cultural element while sacralization of language in which a particular religious scripture is written is more often a religious practice.

The same applies to music and the arts. Criticism of religion is criticism of the ideas, the truth, or the practice of religion, including its political and social implications. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about a cultural system of behaviors, practices and ethics.

For other uses, see Religion disambiguation.


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Not to be confused with Religious denomination. Buddhist modernism New religious movement " Spiritual but not religious " Syncretism. Mystical experience Religious experience Spiritual practice. Ego death Individuation Spiritual development Self-actualization. Humanistic psychology Mindfulness Positive psychology Self-help Self-realization True self and false self.

Mystical psychosis Cognitive science of religion Neuroscience of religion Geschwind syndrome Evolutionary psychology of religion. Religious behaviour and Cult religious practice. Religious studies and Classifications of religious movements. Cognitive science of religion. Major religious groups and List of religious populations. List of religions and spiritual traditions. Faith and rationality , Relationship between religion and science , and Epistemology. Religion and business and Wealth and religion.

Impacts of religion on health. Islam and violence , Christianity and violence , and Judaism and violence. Superstition , Magical thinking , and Magic and religion. Atheism , Agnosticism , Irreligion , Antireligion , and Humanism. Religion portal Spirituality portal. Cosmogony Index of religion-related articles Life stance List of foods with religious symbolism List of religious texts Nontheistic religions Outline of religion Parody religions Philosophy of religion Priest Religion and happiness Religion and peacebuilding Religions by country Religious conversion Social conditioning Socialization Temple Theocracy Theology of religions Timeline of religion Why is there something rather than nothing?

For a discussion on the topic, see: All Societies Have Religions". A History of a Modern Concept. Globalization and Culture, Vol. History in Africa Volume 32 ed. Retrieved 18 December The Global Religious Landscape. Religion in a Secular Age: The Struggle for Meaning in an Abstracted World. The Works of Julius Caesar: Parallel English and Latin. Sic terror oblatus a ducibus, crudelitas in supplicio, nova religio iurisiurandi spem praesentis deditionis sustulit mentesque militum convertit et rem ad pristinam belli rationem redegit.

It understands the language of its country, it obeys commands, and it remembers all the duties which it has been taught. It is sensible alike of the pleasures of love and glory, and, to a degree that is rare among men even, possesses notions of honesty, prudence, and equity; it has a religious respect also for the stars, and a veneration for the sun and the moon. Recovering the Lost Light. The Waning of the Middle Ages.

The Territories of Science and Religion. University of Chicago Press. From Omens to Science.

Featured religions and beliefs

The Task of the Untranslator". The Western Construction of Religion: Myths, Knowledge, and Ideology. Johns Hopkins University Press. Discourse on Civility and Barbarity. The Meaning and End of Religion. Although the Greeks, Romans, Mesopotamians, and many other peoples have long histories, the stories of their respective religions are of recent pedigree.

The formation of ancient religions as objects of study coincided with the formation of religion itself as a concept of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

That there exist in the world such entities as 'the religions' is an uncontroversial claim However, it was not always so. The concepts 'religion' and 'the religions', as we presently understand them, emerged quite late in Western thought, during the Enlightenment.

Religion: why faith is becoming more and more popular | News | The Guardian

Between them, these two notions provided a new framework for classifying particular aspects of human life. Inserting "Religion" into Ancient Texts". Many languages do not even have a word equivalent to our word 'religion'; nor is such a word found in either the Bible or the Qur'an. Edelheit, History of Zionism: A Handbook and Dictionary , p.

Race, Nation, or Religion? Dropsie College Press, Ethics for Anthropological Research and Practice. Jewish ideologies of Peace and Peacemaking". In Omar, Irfan; Duffey, Michael. Peacemaking and the Challenge of Violence in World Religions. Yet despite its ingrained theological tradition, one must acknowledge that the Jewish people did not begin to think of Judaism as a religion until fairly recently. To be clear, the contemporary religious category popularly known as Judaism can be traced back to an ancient Jewish culture traditionally entailing certain fixed ideas about God.

That culture also involved unique rites and behaviors related to the worship of God later to be construed as key elements of the Jewish faith. But these cultural effects did not constitute a religion in the formal sense of the word Nongbri , They entailed no compulsory system of belief or regulatory ritual program by which to measure one's Jewish identity.


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  7. To be a Jew was primarily a matter of national or ethnic identification, a function of being born into a family of Jewish descent or choosing to disavow one's own ancestral culture to become a Jew. By and large, it was not a matter of confession or creed Satlow , It was not until the nineteenth century that Jewish thinkers began to conceive of their ancestral culture in systematized religious terms. Seeking entry into a European civil society dominated by Christian values, many Jews touched by the liberal values of the European Enlightenment undertook to interpret their Judaism in terms analogous to Christianity.

    Archived from the original on 23 March Japanese Journal of Religious Studies Buddhism and the State in Sixteenth-Century Japan. Princeton University Press, Irrelevance of euro-christian Dichotomies for Indigenous Peoples". It will also be helpful to acknowledge from the outset that American Indian religious traditions have never fitted into and dare not be retroactively reduced to the more general modern euro-christian category called "religion", never mind that more discrete category of world religions.

    Indeed traditional elders in all Indian communities have been clear over many generations now that our communities never had a traditional category called "religion" at all see my entry in the "Encyclopedia of the American Indian" from a couple of decades ago. In other words, the category itself is a colonialist imposition that cannot work with any accuracy for Indian folk in the final analysis.

    The first recorded use of "Boudhism" was , followed by "Hindooism" , "Taouism" , and "Confucianism" see figure 6. By the middle of the nineteenth century these terms had secured their place in the English lexicon, and the putative objects to which they referred became permanent features of our understanding of the world. The Invention of Religion in Japan. The early nineteenth century saw the emergence of much of this terminology, including the formation of the terms Boudhism , Hindooism , Taouism , Zoroastri-anism , and Confucianism This construction of "religions" was not merely the production of European translation terms, but the reification of systems of thought in a way strikingly divorced from their original cultural milieu.

    The original discovery of religions in different cultures was rooted in the assumption that each people had its own divine "revelation," or at least its own parallel to Christianity. In the same period, however, European and American explorers often suggested that specific African or Native American tribes lacked religion altogether. Instead these groups were reputed to have only superstitions and as such they were seen as less than human.

    The phrase "World Religions" came into use when the first Parliament of the World's Religions was held in Chicago in Representation at the Parliament was not comprehensive. Naturally, Christians dominated the meeting, and Jews were represented. Muslims were represented by a single American Muslim. The enormously diverse traditions of India were represented by a single teacher, while three teachers represented the arguably more homogenous strains of Buddhist thought.

    The indigenous religions of the Americas and Africa were not represented. They are sometimes called the "Big Seven" in Religious Studies textbooks, and many generalizations about religion have been derived from them. Before the British colonized India, for example, the people there had no concept "religion" and no concept "Hinduism. Until the introduction of that term, Indians identified themselves by any number of criteria — family, trade or profession, or social level, and perhaps the scriptures they followed or the particular deity or deities upon whose care they relied in various contexts or to whom they were devoted.

    But these diverse identities were united, each an integral part of life; no part existed in a separate sphere identified as "religious. It was formed by adding the English suffix -ism, of Greek origin, to the word Hindu , of Persian origin; it was about the same time that the word Hindu , without the suffix -ism, came to be used mainly as a religious term. The name Hindu was first a geographical name, not a religious one, and it originated in the languages of Iran, not of India. They referred to the non-Muslim majority, together with their culture, as 'Hindu'. Since the people called Hindu differed from Muslims most notably in religion, the word came to have religious implications, and to denote a group of people who were identifiable by their Hindu religion.

    However, it is a religious term that the word Hindu is now used in English, and Hinduism is the name of a religion, although, as we have seen, we should beware of any false impression of uniformity that this might give us. Secularity around the World". Understanding Secular People and Societies. It was only in response to Western cultural contact in the late nineteenth century that a Japanese word for religion shukyo came into use.

    It tends to be associated with foreign, founded, or formally organized traditions, particularly Christianity and other monotheisms, but also Buddhism and new religious sects. Introduction to the science of religion. Religionen und ihre zentralen Themen. Literatur Religionsgeschichte , S. Biologische Grundlagen der Religion. University of Chicago Press, p. Retrieved 20 July The Encyclopedia of Religion 2nd ed. Oxford University Press; p. Retrieved 24 April The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences. Current Opinion in Psychiatry. Kaplan and Sadocks Comprehensive Texbook of Psychiatry 10th ed.

    South African Medical Journal. Studies that claim to show no difference in emotional makeup between temporal lobe and other epileptic patients Guerrant et. These patients are said to have a deepening of emotions; they ascribe great significance to commonplace events. This can be manifested as a tendency to take a cosmic view; hyperreligiosity or intensely professed atheism is said to be common.

    London and New York: Oxford University Press US, Redescribing the Public Study of Religion. The beginning and the end of 'religion'. Normally existing within other belief systems, occult systems concentrate on esoteric meanings in texts, often with magical undertones. Apocalyptic suicide cult, with mass suicides in Switzerland, France and Quebec, in preparation for Jesus' second coming.

    Religion: why faith is becoming more and more popular

    Part of the neo-pagan range of religions. God is everywhere, and everything, but is not transcendent and may have no distinct consciousness. Apocalyptic suicide cult that imploded, resulting in the deaths of over adults and children. Belief in multiple gods, often in some form of hierarchy.

    An astika school of Hindu philosophy based around mastering and quieting the mind, involving meditation. God called Jah fathered a black Jesus; marijuana use in rituals. Christian organisation of evangelists organised along military lines, famous for charity work. An atheist religion that uses dark and evil symbology for self-development and anti-religious purposes - Satan itself is not a real being, just a symbol. Derived from the writings of science fiction author L.

    Ron Hubbard, a series of practices called Dianetics is used to clear minds of alien influences and attain a state of mental perfection. Belief that Shamans need to keep good relations with tribal ancestor spirits for the good fortune of the whole tribe. Official collection of practices in Japan, more cultural than religious. Prayer, meditation and self control to become a soldier of God. The belief that the souls of the dead communicate with the living, mostly through Mediums, but, suffered serious credibility problems with the original founders admitted to fraudulently inventing the 'rappings' that formed the communications.

    The basis of much symbology used in many subsequent religions. A relaxed and peaceful religion based on following and accepting the flow of life. The belief in god s. A magical system of discerning True Will with inspiration from a host of Egyptian gods. Spiritualism and Westernized Indian spirituality. A range of Churches ranging from mostly Christian, to those mostly encapsulating native African spirituality. Sun Myung Moon embodied the Second Coming of Christ, and his commercialist church runs a media empire. Poland , Lithuania , Hungary. A liberal and diverse pluralist religion accepting of believers without needing them to leave their current religions.

    Bohemia now Czech Republic. Belief that all people go to heaven.

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    A traditional religion from Haiti with an ethical focus on combating greed and promoting honour. Neo-pagan organisation based around reconstructed elements of folklore. A description of various cultural practices, which are often part of a parent belief system. Malek Taus looks after the world with 6 other angels. Heavily persecuted by Muslims and accused of Devil Worship.

    As this group got more and more excited about establishing a Kingdom of God, in the approach to year , its leaders were arrested amid fears that it would turn into a suicide cult. A world religion These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word 'religion. Middle English religioun , from Anglo-French religiun , Latin religion-, religio supernatural constraint, sanction, religious practice, perhaps from religare to restrain, tie back — more at rely. See more words from the same century. More Definitions for religion.

    See the full definition for religion in the English Language Learners Dictionary. Words that rhyme with religion. Translation of religion for Spanish Speakers. Translation of religion for Arabic Speakers. What made you want to look up religion? Please tell us where you read or heard it including the quote, if possible.

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