Saint Basil the Great (Saints Maligned Misunderstood and Mistreated)
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He knew, of course, what it was to find a friend capricious or mistrustful, or to lose him amidst the sad disputes of the times. If you remain in our com- munion, he says to such a one, this were the best thing that could happen, and worth the most earnest prayer. If others, however, have drawn thee to them, that were sad indeed, for why should not the loss of such a brother be so?
Humanity is the very business of those who practise the healing art, and that man who places their science first among all the pursuits of life, appears to Basil to judge rightly. But his doctor is not only perfectly accomplished in his healing art, but extends his benefits beyond the body and ministers to the mind. Wax candles and dry fruits seem to have been common gifts. We can well understand what misery the distracted condition of the Church must have brought to a soul so full of piety and love. It was no spirit of pro- selytism that impelled Basil to work for Catholic unity, but a spirit of love.
He Is constantly estimating the value of his own property, or of the plate and furniture of anybody with whom he happens to dine. If any one runs up to him quickly, it gives him a palpitation of the heart. If a dog barks, he bursts into a perspiration. Why is interest called tokoq, that is, breeding? It must be called so from its immense fecundity of evil, or from the pangs which it brings on the poor people who endure it.
Basil can even exercise a grim humour upon his own misfortunes, as when the vicar of Pontus threatened to tear out his liver, he replied, " Many thanks: And it is thus that his friend Gregory describes his social character: Whose very smile was many a time praise, whose silence a reproof, punishing the evil in a man's own conscience. If he was not full of talk, nor a jester, nor a holder forth, nor generally acceptable from being all things to all men and show- ing good nature, what then?
Is not this to his praise, not to his blame, among sensible men? Yet, if we ask for this, who so pleasant as he in social inter- course, as I know who have had such experience of him? Who could tell a story with more wit? Who could jest so playfully?
Saints Maligned Misunderstood and Mistreated Part I
The insensibility of the ricK'moves his bitter indignation. People lavish their money on unworthy objects ; but if a poor man, scarce able to speak from hunger, comes into our sight, we turn from him as if he were of a different nature from us ; we shudder at him, we pass by as if we feared that if we walked more slowly we might catch the infection of his misery.
And if he looks upon the ground, filled with shame at his wretched state, we say that he is a hypo- crite j and if he looks us boldly in the face, under the spur of his hunger, we call him an impudent and violent fellow. Yet Basil shows no weak pity. A helper who gives way to the impulse of mere feeling seems to him like a pilot, who, when he ought to be directing the crew and fighting against winds and waves, is himself sea-sick. We must use our reason, and help people as we can.
Do not therefore aggravate sorrow by your presence. Whoever wants to raise up the afflicted, must be above them: Church of the Fathers, p. Here is one on behalf of Leontius, who apparently desires to escape some imposition of the government. Take care of his house just as you would of myself, if you found me not in that condition of poverty in which, by the Divine goodness, I am now, but possessing some property. I know well that in that case you would not make me poor, but would preserve to me what I had, or increase it. But the explanation is added, that Basil's parents have given to this man most of the slaves whom he pos- sesses, as a fund for the support of their son.
He is much dis- appointed that a community of monks, when burnt out, have not resorted to him as the most natural refuge prepared for ihem. Jife did not hinder him from sym- pathy with family troubles. He has received a letter from a bishop, which tells of the death of Urctarius's only son. The heir of a great house, the prop of his race, the hope of his country, the issue of pious parents, brought up among a thousand prayers, in the very flower of his age is snatched away from his father's arms.
But it is the bidding of God that they who have faith in Christ should not sorrow for the dead ; for they believe in the resurrection. Some cause there is, inscrutable to man, why some are carried soon away, and some left longer to endure pain in this world of troubles ; we are not deprived of our son, but have restored him to the Lender. Nor was life extinguished, but changed ; nor did the earth cover him, but heaven received him. Only may we resemble his purity, that we may learn that innocence which obtains the rest of children in Christ.
He was unwilling to write, lest, even though he should give some comfort, yet he might appear to intrude on her grief. But when he reflected that he had to do with a Christian woman, long since schooled in religion and prepared for troubles, he thought it not right that he should be wanting in his duty. A son she has lost, whom when he was alive all mothers blessed, and wished their own to be like him ; and when he was dead lamented him as their own.
We are sad because he is taken away before his time. But how do we know that it ' Ep. We know not how to choose what is most profitable for souls, and define the bounds of human life. Beware of measur- ing your calamity by itself: Compare it with all human things, so will you find comfort. And besides, I have something to say which is the strongest thing of all. Be a comfort to one another. Do not make his trouble harder by wearing yourself out with grief But, indeed, I do not imagine that words can bring comfort ; prayer is what is needed for such a time.
And I pray the Lord Himself to touch your heart with His unspeakable power, to bring light into your soul by holy thoughts, that you may have the spring of consolation within.
But Basil displayed alLthese forms of activity in the highest degree. Add to all his asceticism. We feel compelled to believe that there never has been an age of the world so rich in great intellects and great hearts that Basil would not have justified his title to a high place among them, nor are there many life-histories to which we should more confidently point as examples of the triumph of mind over matter, the spirit over the flesh.
The idea which we derive from Basil's works of the condition of the government in the Eastern Empire is by no means favourable. The sentiment of patriotism, as applied to the Empire at large, does not appear to have existed in his mind. The misfor- tunes of the Imperial arms under Julian, the threat- ening inroads of barbarians under Valens, are alluded to much in the same way as we should men- tion troubles of foreign powers ; they are warnings of the uncertainty of human things, and lamentable events in themselves.
Conquering armies, he tells us, have been conquered in their turn, and become spectacles of misery ; great and victorious cities have been reduced to slavery. The age just past has afforded examples of every kind of calamity which the history of the world records. But the writer shows no sense of personal connection with them. He does love his country ; but it is Pontus, Cappa- docia, or even Caesarea, to which he applies the term.
Basil had not, perhaps, personally very much to endure under Valens. But the failure to harm was, as the history of the affair proves, an example of the weakness and timidity of the Emperor and his officers rather than of their justice. And when his relations to them became amicable, the subjects of his letters to them give a very low notion of the equity and regularity of the administration. Now he writes to Aburgius on occasion of the division of the province, begging him by ail his love for his.
Now the restoration is requested of some corn taken from a poor presbyter by some officer of the government, either on his own account or acting under orders. And now time is requested for getting in by a general subscription the gold which is to be paid as a tax for equipping the military. Or the widow Julitta is condoled with for the oppressions ' Ep.
Basil writes, on occasion of the division of the province, that the order of society is quite broken up, that on account of the treatment dealt out to the magistrates the members of the civic administration have fled to the country, and their town, which formerly had been the resort of learned men as well as a place of wealth, had become a lamentable spec- tacle of decay.
For the present the distress was widespread. Individuals met with reverses which reduced them from affluence to an abject condition ; among whom Maximus, a man of great ability, and formerly prefect, having lost his whole paternal property and all that he had acquired by his ' Ep. And we shall see, in several quotations from Basil's sermons, how prolific a source ' Epp.
He compares the usurers with their monthly demands of interest, to the demons who inflict periodic attacks of epilepsy. Innumerable horses are kept, and their pedi- grees are esteemed according to the nobility of their ancestors, just as those of men. Some are for riding about town, some for hunting, some for journeys. Their reins, and bits, and collars are of silver, adorned with gold. Purple saddle-cloths deck the horses, like bridegrooms ; there are multitudes of mules paired according to their colours, and their drivers in order one after another. Troops of servants of all kinds — overseers, stewards, gardeners ; skilled workmen ol every trade, whether of necessity or luxury ; cooks, confectioners, cupbearers, huntsmen, statuaries, painters ; artists of every species of pleasure.
Troops of camels, some for burdens, some for pasture ; troops of horses, herds of cows, flocks of sheep and of swine, and their keepers ; lands enough to feed all these, and render a revenue to increase the riches of their master. Baths in the city, and baths in the country.
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Houses shining with marbles of all kinds ; one en- crusted with Phrygian stone, another with Laconian or Thessalian ; and some of their houses arranged to keep you warm in winter, others to keep you cool in summer. And we may be sure that the living was not inferior to the magnificence of the houses. The common talk of the people in the forum was of the most corrupting character. The religion of the common people was largely mixed with astrology and belief in charms. Basil re- proaches even Christians as having recourse in tlie sickness of their children to some magician, who will hang a talisman round the patient's neck.
The mass of the Christian population is represented to us as strangely alternating between self-denial and excess. The re- straint of Church fasts is submitted to with a strict- ness scarcely known among ourselves ; but it is succeeded by disgraceful outbreaks of drunkenness and impurity. Even in the midst of the fast Basil gives as a reason for protracting his sermon, that many of the congregation, when they are dismissed, will at once resort to the gaming-table, where they will experience all those alternations of fortune and all those exhibitions of passion which high play calls out.
To what purpose, he asks, is it to fast if your soul be filled with such sinful impulses as these? Even among the clergy the greatest abuses prevail ; and such a thing is known as a bishop going about without either clergy or people. A certain Glycerius had been ordained deacon by him. His qualifications were not high, yet he had considerable aptitude for routine work. But after ordination he wholly neglected his duty, "just as if none whatever had been assigned to him.
And when the parents attempted to rescue these unhappy girls out of his hands, they were assailed with insult by this hopeful youth. Basil writes to Gregory, in whose diocese this worthy had fixed himself for the time being, begging that he may be induced to return, or at least send back such of the maidens as might wish to come back: Another letter to Gregory follows: Two epistles to Amphilochius, Bishop of Iconium, give us a conception of the steps by which church order was attempted to be restored in a district where everything had gone to confusion.
It would be better if bishops could be appointed to all the sees in the district ; but if good men cannot be found for all, the best plan will be to send one bishop to preside over the whole province, provided that he be a man of resolution and courage, and one who, if he finds him- self unable for all the work, will engage others to his aid. If this cannot be done, it will be wiser to com- mence with the small towns and villages and work upwards from them, than to appoint a bishop of the province who might possibly be jealous of the restora- tion of the minor sees, when such a measure should become possible.
The chorepiscopi were wont to accept money for ordination, cloaking their simony under the pretext that they did not receive the fee until after the ordination had been performed. Basil makes no parley with such persons ; they are roundly informed that they shall be excommunicated in case of per- sistence. According to the ancient canons, no one should be ordained except after examination into his character, had by the presbyters and deacons of his neighbour- hood, and reported through the chorepiscopi to the bishop of the diocese.
But now the chorepiscopi were themselves accustomed to ordain whomsoever the presbyters chose to send forward, without ex- amination of character, and often simply for the purpose of escaping military service. So that there were in many villages a multitude of clergy, not one of them all fitted for his office: On the contrary, Basil speaks of the ecclesiastical penalties as being equally effectual with those of the State. What the corporal punishments of the tribunals could not perform, he has known to be effected by the tremendous judgments of God.
The penances which are prescribed in the canonical letters of Basil are of much severity. For fornication four years' penance is to be undergone: Basil gives these directions from the ancient authorities, but confesses that he cannot see the reason of them. A widow who marries again is by the apostle's pre- scription to be despised; but no law against re- marriage is imposed upon men. While second marriages are thus marked with a certain stigma, third marriages are regarded as unlawful by the canons ; Basil speaks of them as existing but only as blots upon the Church.
A presbyter who unknowingly involves himself in an unlawful marriage is to retain his seat among the clergy, but not to be permitted to give the benediction. This canon of itself implies that the marriage of the clergy, though doubtless frowned upon, and in the case of bishops becoming constantly less usual, was neither prohibited nor unused. The allusions in the epistles of St. Basil would lead us to suppose that the present practice of the East — marriage for the parish priests and celibacy for the bishops — represents pretty nearly the state of things in his time.
He decides against them on the sufficient ground that the voice of the Church is against them. The law of Moses does indeed say nothing appHcable to marriage with the sister of a wife after the latter's death.
But the principle that by marriage you acquire the same re- lations as your wife is decisive. The elder fathers had directed that a virgin who, after dedicating herself to God and pro- fessing a life of chastity, should marry, might be received after penance of a year. But in BasiFs time, the monastic tendency having made a large advance, it seemed both possible and needful to go further ; he directs that the marriage is to be counted as adultery, and the offender not to be admitted to com- munion until she has ceased to live with her husband.
Sixteen or seventeen is the earliest age [at which such self-dedication is to be accepted. Something of a passion for vows must have prevailed, since we] find a prohibition of ridiculous ones, such as not to eat swine's flesh. But when we read of these very lengthened periods, we cannot but doubt whether they can have been in all cases really imposed and submitted to. And there are indications in the epistles of St. Basil that the system of discipline as it existed in his time must have admitted large modifications in practice.
The Church by her canons marked her sense of the enormity of the sin ; but in case of earnest repentance the Nicene council allowed the bishop to relax the rigour of the law. He " lays down these rules in order that the fruits of repentance may be well tested ; but he is used to judge such matters not merely by time, but by the manner in which the penance is performed. Church was daily making the ancient canons more and more difficult to maintain; and in writing to Peter, bishop of Alexandria, Basil considers it matter of thankfulness to find that in that place at all events some remains of the primitive discipline still existed.
Not indeed but that the list of churches with which Basil was in communion and correspondence included the best part of the Christian world. For thirteen long years the contest against heresy had lasted, during which period Basil declares that more evils had happened than were recorded to have taken place since the foundation of the Christian Church.
The people had abandoned their houses of prayer and assembled together in desert and solitary places ; women and little children were exposed to storms and snows, winds and wintry ice, and heats of summer; and this they had done that they might not be partakers in the evil leaven of Arianism. The ministries of the Church were in many places wholly in Arian hands. How comes it then that no letters of consolation, no brotherly visit, none of those things which the law of Christian kindness demanded, should have come from the Western bishops?
The miserable condition of the East is known to all the world, and he writes to the Italians as already aware of the miseries which assailed their brethren. They should inform their emperor of the troubles, or if this were impossible, they should send some delegates who should visit and console the afflicted.
But it had no decisive effect in favour of the distracted East, in which peace was not restored until Basil, who had striven for it so earnestly and longed for it so passionately, was in his grave. The decree of that Illyrian council, while implying the duty of the civil power to interfere for the maintenance of truth, yet lays down, as we have seen, with much stringency, the limits which the law of God imposes upon that interference. The same principles are expressed in the epistles of St. On the one hand we have a letter to the magistrates of an Armenian town, congratulating them that, amid their occupation with public cares, they do not forget or undervalue matters ecclesiastical, but are each as anxious about them as about their own concerns and the occupations on which their lives depend ; ' Epp.
But at the same time the principle is laid clearly down, that ecclesiastical administration is conducted by those who are intrusted with the government of the Church, and is confirmed by the people. If the sea be a beautiful thing, is not this crowded congregation more so, in which the mingled voice of men, women, and children follows our prayer to God? We praise the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. And he believes that the extremely long form in which the Liturgy of St.
Basil has reached us is that which was intended for the clergy. The character of that liturgy may perhaps be thus roughly described for the English reader. He must suppose a service far too long to be used in combination with any other or with a sermon. He must suppose the sacrificial idea which is expressed in the first of our post-communion collects to be transferred to the ante-communion, applied distinctly to the elements as representing the sacrifice of Christ, and made the centre for intercessions, supplications, memorials, and ritual of a rich variety.
He must suppose that an invocation of the Holy Spirit, uttered at a point subsequent to the recital of the words of Institution, effects the consecration, which with us is performed by those words alone. And he must suppose the sacramental idea of participation to come in at the conclusion, as the feast upon the completed sacrifice, instead of being, as with us, the first and leading idea of the service. But assuredly, if we were to apply it to the work of St. Basil in the region of theology, it would lead us quite astray.
He was a great orthodox theologian, but he was a man of so pre-eminently practical a spirit, that if the theological controversies in which he mingled had not entered into the moulding of ordinary life, we may feel almost certain that he would not have touched them. He grew up in the midst of the controversies upon the nature of the Son ; and those upon the nature of the Holy Ghost had their origin during the period of his ministry.
Many of his oldest and best friends had been at some period of their Hves deceived by the plausible arguments of Arianism, or semi-Arianisrn, or had been induced to make concessions to error amidst the perplexities of those difficult times. Gregory of Nazianzus the elder had subscribed a semi-Arian creed, and so had Dianius of Caesarea, the beloved teacher of Basil's youth, whose memory he regarded with love and reverence; Meletius of Antioch had received Arian ordination, and Eusebius of Samosata, than whom he had no closer confidant, was tainted in a similar way.
But the persecutions of the reign of Constantius had afforded to many semi-Arians an opportunity of suffering for their faith, which brought them and the orthodox together ; and Athanasius, as well as Basil, was very ready to forget past errors in the case of those who were now willing to draw to their side for the defence of truth. We may be sure then that the words of Basil which we have in this con- troversy are those of one who had weighed well and charitably what could be said upon the other side. Upon the Arian controversy there was no question of drawing up a new creed ; that was sufficiently provided by the creed of Nicaea, upon which Basil always takes his stand, maintaining it on the one hand true, and on the other sufficient.
But the declarations regarding the Holy Spirit which our creed contains were not yet adopted by the Church. This was a degree of moderation unusual at that period ; for it was then that in some church, with which Basil must have been in close connection, the creed was cast nearly into the form to which we give the name of Nicene, and that other creeds were also propounded to supply the obvious insufficiency of the Nicene in respect to the controversies of the day.
Basil's relations to Christian doctrine is impressed upon us by the position which the treatise de Fide holds to the Moralia. Were we sure that it was intended to be as it now stands, a preface to that work, it would inevitably bear the appearance, not indeed of a moralist getting doctrine speedily out of his way, but of a Christian worker laying down briefly, decidedly, and beyond suspicion, the doctrinal principles of his work, in order to devote himself at leisure to that edifice of morality as a basis for which he values truth. Even if we suppose the de Fide to have been composed at an earlier period, this impression appears equally well based, and, on the whole, we can hardly be mistaken in viewing St.
Basil as a man weary of strife and bent upon Christian living as the chief thing, yet driven to treat of doctrines because he believed that they did enter into the moulding of ordinary life and character, and was persuaded, as Professor Huxley expresses it, that "rational expectation and moral action are alike based upon beliefs. Basil's apprehension of the momentous practical danger of Arianism and Sabellianism is summed up in his repeated declaration that if we teach the existence of different beings of different substance, to whom we give the name of God and divine worship, we accept the principle of heathen polytheism, and if we teach the unreality of the personal distinction between the various modes of manifestation of God, we are really returning to Judaism.
The Son is not a name denoting His nature, but is considered as a title of some kind of dignity ; the Holy Ghost is not thought to complete the Holy Trinity, nor partake the divine nature, but to be one of the creatures, joined at random and by chance with the Father and the Son. But the fact is, that not only are in- numerable things of those which are laid up for us in the future, or of those now existing in the heavens, concealed from us, but we cannot even understand clearly the things which exist in our bodies.
As, for instance, with respect to sight, whether it is by receiving the images of visible things that we form our perceptions of them. For my part, I believe that the conception of it passes not only men's understanding, but that of all rational creatures. When we hear the word Peter, we think not of his essence I mean the mate- rial substance , but of the individual qualities which we perceive about him. But the answer lies in considering the nature of the substance of which we speak. We doubtless see in these passages of Basil the thoughts which were the germ of the con- test between Nominalism and Realism.
Now the argument of Eunomius the Anomaean is based upon a refusal frankly to accept the knowledge which God gives us of Himself, going as far as He leads us, but confessing our ignorance where our knowledge really stops short. We grow weary as the argument of Eunomius is repeated in various forms, and pursued through infinite distinctions, that the epithet unbegotten expresses something which belongs to the substance of the Father, and that therefore the Son, who is admittedly begotten, can- not be of the same substance.
But, replies Basil, " if the word unbegotten expresses the substance of the Father, so no doubt must also the terms immutable, invisible, and incorruptible. Now these confessedly are applicable to the Son: Luke, in recording the generations, mounts ' tp. In enumerating those, he surely does not indicate the essence or substance of the various persons named, but their origin. Now if, in recording the human generations, their substance was not denoted, why should we suppose that God's substance is denoted by the denial that any generation took place in His case? He ought not to be worshipped, for "thou shalt worship none other gods but Me.
But when we say Word we must not think of our methods of speech. God requires none such for His utterance. But not in respect of difference of nature, nor yet in respect of priority of time. He said, " My Father is greater than I. And the Apostle declares, that He thought it not robbery to be equal with God.
Plainly He uses the expression greater, because the Father is the cause of His being. For we make comparison of greater and less between things ' Hexaem. He does, indeed, say, " As the Father said unto Me, even so I speak" ; and " the word which ye hear is not mine, but His which sent Me" ; and again, "As the Father gave Me commandment, even so I do. Therefore when He speaks of command- ment we must not understand an imperious injunc- tion conveyed by physical organs, and giving direc- tions regarding conduct to the Son as to a subject ; rather must we think as becomes the Godhead, of a communication of will like the reflection of a form in a mirror, passing from the Father to the Son beyond the limits of time.
For all rational creatures can do something of themselves, for better or for worse: Suffer your mind to range as far as it will, and stretch upwards ; after numberless wanderings and vain endeavours, you will find it return back without any success in placing this beginning behind or beneath it. The beginning is ever found to be above and beyond our thought. In this beginning then was the Word. For if he places the Father in the highest place, and supposes the Son to sit below, he is using a carnal method of imagination which must apply to the one divine person as well as to the other.
Like and unlike are words which refer to qualities ; now God is without quali- ties. The formation of heaven and earth, of the ocean and the firmament, and the elements, and of things above the earth and things beneath, com- mends not the power of the Divine Word so much as His Incarnation and descent to the lowliness and weakness of humanity.
And as death, which was transmitted to us from Adam through our flesh, was swallowed up by the Deity, so was sin destroyed by the righteousness that is in Jesus Christ ; that in the resurrection we might receive back again our flesh, neither subject to sin nor sentenced to death. These be the mysteries of the Church ; these the traditions of the fathers.
I testify to every man who fears the Lord, and looks for the judgment of God, that he be not carried about with divers doctrines If any man teach otherwise, and consent not to the wholesome words of faith, but rejects the oracles of the Spirit, and considers his own teaching preferable to the doctrines of the gospel, such an one avoid. The heresy concerning the Holy Ghost which St. Basil had to oppose was, as he declares, unheard of in the Church up to his time.
Montanus had pro- pounded many false notions concerning Him, but had shrunk from calling Him a creature of the Son, as the Son a creature of the Father. It is impossible, Basil argues, that such a thing should be, were it but for this reason, that no operation of the Son can be separate from that of the Father, for, He says, " all mine are thine, and thine are mine. And since He is the word of the Son, therefore also that of God ; as it is said, the " sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God. But the Son is from the Father by generation, the Spirit, after an unspeakable fashion, from God.
The Saviour is the Word of the Lord, the Holy Ghost the Spirit of His mouth, and both wrought together in the creation of the heavens, and the powers that are therein ; where- fore it is said 'by the word of the Lord were the heavens made, and all the host of them by the breath of His mouth. The creative Word, the maker of all things, communicated being to the angels, and the Holy Ghost added holiness. The heavenly powers themselves are not holy by their own nature ; ' Adv. And they preserve their dignity through perseverance in good, posses- sing freedom of choice, but never falling out of the keeping of Him who is goodness essential.
So that were you to withdraw the Spirit from their rational powers, the choirs of angels were broken up, the pre- eminence of the archangels destroyed, everything were confused, and their life reduced to disorder, lawlessness, and misrule.
Full text of "St. Basil: Letters and Selected Works"
How should the angels say Glory to God in the highest, except through the power of the Spirit ; for none can say that Jesus is the Lord but by the Holy Ghost, and none in the Spirit of God calleth Jesus accursed ; which is what the evil spirits say, thereby confirming my principle that the unseen powers possess free wull, equally capable of turning to virtue or to vice, and on this account re- quiring the aid of the Spirit.
For my part, I believe that Gabriel himself could not foretell the future by any other means than the prescience of the Spirit, because prophecy is one of the gifts of the Holy Ghost. And he who would expel the Spirit, would remove the perfection of things ; since by the mission and communication of the Spirit all ' De Sp. Let no man suppose either that I am preaching three originating persons, or that I am declaring the working of the Son to fail in perfection.
There is one Originating Principle of all things, — creating by the Son, perfecting by the Spirit. Re- gard either the blessings of the patriarchs of old, the help that was given to men through the Law, the types, the prophecies, the courageous deeds done in war, the miracles that were wrought by holy men, or the events which accompanied the advent of the Lord, they were done through the Spirit. For, first, He was present to the human body of our Lord Himself through His anointing, and was insepara- bly united to Him, according to the words, ' On whom thou shalt see the Spirit descending and abiding on Him, this is My beloved Son'; and again, 'Jesus of ' Cont.
For when the Lord, renewing human nature, and rendering back to man again the grace which he had once possessed by the inspiration of the Spirit and had lost, breathed upon His disciples, what said He? For He gave, says St. Paul, first apostles, secondarily prophets, third teachers ; after that work- ing of miracles ; then gifts of healing, helps, govern- ments, diversities of tongues.
For this order is arranged according to the distribution of the gifts of the Spirit. Who then is not elevated in soul when he hears the very names of the Spirit. Saint Teresa of Avila. Our Lady of La Salette. Who are the Angels? Saint Augustine and Saint Monica. Saint Frances Mother Cabrini.
Saint Clare of Assisi. Saint Louis Marie de Montfort. Saint Catherine of Genoa. Saint Germaine de Pibrac. Saint Ignatius of Loyola. Blessed Anna Maria Taigi. Hill of Crosses in Lithuania. Blessed Margaret of Castello. Visionaries Mystics and Stigmatists Part I. Our Lady of Pontmain.
Saint Margaret Mary Alacoque. Saint John of the Cross. Saint Catherine de' Ricci. Our Lady of Banneux.
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Our Lady of Guadalupe. Our Lady of Beauraing. Saint Pade Pio and the Child Jesus. Saint Frances of Rome. Saint Rose of Viterbo. Treasures of the Church Part II. How to write a great review. The review must be at least 50 characters long. The title should be at least 4 characters long. Your display name should be at least 2 characters long. At Kobo, we try to ensure that published reviews do not contain rude or profane language, spoilers, or any of our reviewer's personal information. You submitted the following rating and review. We'll publish them on our site once we've reviewed them.
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