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William decided to fight for his crown. He also appealed to volunteers to join his army of invasion and won numerous recruits from outside Normandy. On September 27, William and his army set sail for the southeastern coast of England. The following morning he landed, took the unresisting towns of Pevensey and Hastings, and began to prepare for battle. On October 13, Harold emerged from the forest, but the hour was too late to push on to Hastings, and he took up a defensive position instead.
Early the next day, before Harold had prepared his exhausted troops for battle, William attacked. Harold was killed in the battle, and the English surrendered. William, although newly king of England, was already an experienced ruler. In Normandy he had replaced disloyal nobles and ducal servants with his friends, limited private warfare, and recovered usurped ducal rights, defining the duties of his vassals.
The Norman church flourished under his reign, as he adapted its structures to English traditions. Like many contemporary rulers, he wanted the church in England to be free of corruption but also subordinate to him. During his reign, church synods were held much more frequently, and he also presided over several episcopal councils. He also promoted monastic reform by importing Norman monks and abbots, thus quickening the pace of monastic life in England and bringing it into line with continental developments.
William left England early in but had to return in December to deal with rebellions. To secure his hold on. The rebellions, which were crushed by , destroyed the English higher aristocracy and replaced it with an aristocracy of Norman lords, who introduced patterns of landholding and military service that had been developed in Normandy. In William ordered a complex census of all the people and lands of England, which is summarized in. Despite his duties as king, William remained preoccupied with the frontiers of Normandy. While fighting with King Philip I of France to enforce his last outstanding territorial claim, William suffered an injury from which he never recovered.
Before his death, he settled the matter of his inheritance. Although William was tempted to make the loyal Rufus his sole heir, in the end he compromised: Normandy and Maine went to Robert, and England went to Rufus. Henry was given great treasure with which to purchase an appanage. July 29, , Rome [Italy]. He developed ecclesiastical reforms begun by Pope Gregory VII, launched the Crusade movement, and strengthened the papacy as a political entity.
After studies in Soissons and Reims, he took the position of archdeacon in the diocese of Reims, probably holding that position from to Subsequently he became a monk and then prior superior at Cluny, the most important centre of reform monasticism. In he went to Rome on a mission for his abbot, Hugh of Cluny. As pope, Urban II found active support for his policies and reforms among several groups: He attempted, with moderation and tolerance, to reconcile the church-state traditions of his age with ecclesiastical notions of reform.
From Urban was at the height of his success.
Several important church councils took place during this time, the first in at Piacenza, Italy, at which reform legislation was enacted. The second occurred in at Clermont, where Urban preached the First Crusade. In at Rome, reform legislation was again passed. While the First Crusade led to military success with the conquest of Jerusalem in , the project for union failed.
The term Curia Romana first appeared in a bull written by Urban in Urban died in Rome in Despite many problems that were still unsolved, the victory of medieval reform papacy was secured. March 4, , Damascus [now in Syria]. In wars against the Christian Crusaders, he captured Jerusalem on October 2, , ending its nearly nine decades of occupation by the Franks.
From that year until , Saladin zealously pursued a goal of uniting, under his own standard, all the Muslim territories of Syria, northern Mesopotamia, Palestine, and Egypt. This he accomplished by skillful diplomacy backed when necessary by the swift and resolute use of military force. Gradually his reputation grew as a generous and virtuous but firm ruler, devoid of pretense, licentiousness, and cruelty. It was an essential part of his policy to encourage the growth and spread of Muslim religious institutions. He courted their scholars and preachers, founded colleges and mosques for their use, and commissioned them to write edifying works, especially on the jihad itself.
Saladin also succeeded in turning the military balance of power in his favour—more by uniting and disciplining a great number of unruly forces than by employing new or improved military techniques. The losses in the ranks of the Crusaders in this one battle were so great that the Muslims were quickly able to overrun nearly the entire kingdom of Jerusalem. Saladin planned to avenge the slaughter of Muslims in Jerusalem in by killing all Christians in the city, but he agreed to let them purchase their freedom provided that the Christian defenders left the Muslim inhabitants unmolested.
His victory deeply shocked the West and led to the call for the Third Crusade —92 , which matched him against Richard I the Lionheart , whom he was able to fight to a draw. Their stalemate resulted in a peace that gave the Crusaders only a small strip of land from Tyre to Yafo Jaffa. Saladin withdrew to his capital at Damascus, where he died the next year. He consolidated tribes into a unified Mongolia and then extended his empire across Asia to the Adriatic Sea. He may have been born in , in the date favoured today in Mongolia , or in According to legend, his birth was auspicious because he came into the world holding a clot of blood in his hand.
Mongols, was poisoned by a band of Tatars, another nomadic people, in continuance of an old feud. Although the Taychiut searched all night for him, he was able to escape. The title probably meant Universal Ruler. He distributed thousands of families to the custody of his own relatives and companions, replacing the existing pattern of tribes and clans by something closer to a feudal structure. The year was a turning point in the history of the Mongols and in world history, when the Mongols were first ready to move out beyond the steppe.
Mongolia itself took on a new shape. The petty tribal quarrels and raids were a thing of the past. A unified Mongol nation came into existence as the personal creation of Chinggis Khan and has survived to the present day, despite many challenges. Chinggis Khan was ready to start on his world conquest, and the new nation was organized, above all, for war.
His troops were divided up on the decimal system, were rigidly disciplined, and were well equipped and supplied. The generals were his own sons or men he had selected and were absolutely loyal to him. The great conquests of the Mongols, which would transform them into a world power, were still to come. Chinggis Khan first secured his western flank by a tough campaign against the Tangut kingdom of Xixia, a northwestern border state of China.
His forces then fell upon the Jin empire of northern China in In he allowed himself to be bought off, temporarily, with a huge amount of treasure, but in operations were resumed, and Beijing was taken. Subsequently, the more systematic defeat of northern China was in the hands of his general Muqali. During this war the Mongols earned their reputation for savagery and terror. City after city was stormed, the inhabitants massacred or forced to serve as advance troops for the Mongols against their own people. He finally withdrew in and did not lead his armies into war again until the final campaign against Xixia in and Initially his troops were exclusively cavalry, riding the hardy, grass-fed Mongol pony that needed no fodder.
With such an army, other nomads could be defeated, but cities could not be taken. But before long the Mongols were able to undertake the siege of large cities, using mangonels, catapults, ladders, burning oil, and even diverting rivers. It was only gradually, through contact with men from the more settled states, that Chinggis Khan came to realize that there were more sophisticated ways of enjoying power than simply It was a minister of the khan of the Naiman—the last important Mongol tribe to resist Chinggis Khan—who taught him the uses of literacy and helped reduce the Mongol language to writing.
He had intended to turn the cultivated fields of northern China into grazing land for his horses. At the time of his death in , Chinggis Khan had conquered the landmass extending from Beijing to the Caspian Sea, and his generals had raided Persia and Russia. His successors would extend their power over the whole of China, Persia, and most of Russia.
June 24, , Nanjing. During his reign, the Hongwu emperor instituted military, administrative, and educational reforms that centred power in the emperor. The future Hongwu emperor was born as Zhu Chongba, a poor peasant in Orphaned at 16, he became a monk to avoid starvation—a common practice for the sons of poor peasants. In he joined a rebel.
Zhu Yuanzhang attacked and captured towns and cities in eastern China and, on reaching the Yangtze River Chang Jiang delta, encountered educated men of the gentry class. Some decided to join his movement, and Zhu had the foresight to seek their guidance. From them he learned the rudiments of the Chinese language and studied Chinese history and the Confucian classics. More significant, he learned the principles of government and built up an effective administration in local areas alongside the military structure. Moreover, he was persuaded by his scholars to present himself as a national leader against the Mongols rather than as a popular rebel.
After defeating rival national leaders, Zhu proclaimed himself emperor of the Ming dynasty in , establishing his capital at Nanjing. He drove the last Yuan Mongol emperor from China that year and reunified the country by The Hongwu emperor was cruel, suspicious, and irrational, especially as he grew older. Instead of eliminating Mongol influence, he made his court resemble the Mongol court and established himself as the autocratic ruler for the rest of the dynasty. He eliminated the posts of prime minister and central chancellor and had the next level of administration report directly to him.
He restricted certain groups that were prone to intrigue in the past. He prohibited eunuchs from participating in government, forbade the empress to meddle with court politics, and appointed civilian officials to control military affairs. Of lowly peasant origins, he always was aware of the popular.
The Hongwu emperor felt that, after the Mongol expulsion, the scholars were the most dangerous group in country.
1977 Books and Pamphlets Jan-June/R
Nevertheless, his interest in restoring traditional Chinese values involved rehabilitating the Confucian scholar class, and from experience he knew that effective government depended upon the scholars. He therefore encouraged education and purposely trained scholars for the bureaucracy. At the same time he used methods to deprive them of power and position and introduced the use of heavy bamboo as a punishment at court, often beating scholar-officials to death for the slightest offense.
He felt that scholars should be mere servants of the state, working on behalf of the emperor. Southern Manchuria was brought into the empire. Outlying states, such as Korea, the Liuqiu Islands, Annam, and other states, sent tribute missions to acknowledge the supreme rule of the Ming emperor. Not satisfied with the expulsion of the Mongols, he sent two military expeditions into Mongolia, reaching the Mongol capital of Karakorum itself.
Ming forces even penetrated Central Asia, taking Hami in the Gobi and accepting the surrender of several states in the Chinese Turkistan region. When Ming emissaries traversed the mountains to Samarkand, however, they were met with a different reception. Eventually, they were released, and Timur and the Ming exchanged several embassies, which the Chinese regarded as tributary missions. Three missions went to Japan, armed with inducements and threats, but all were unable to curb piracy—because the Japanese authorities were themselves helpless.
Joan of Arc b. Joan was a peasant girl who from an early age believed she heard the voices of St. Upon meeting with his court, she immediately greeted the king, who was hidden among his couriers. She convinced him, his advisers, and the church authorities to support her. On the morning of May 6, Joan and her troops crossed to the south bank of the river and advanced toward a fort. The English immediately evacuated in order to defend a stronger position nearby, but Joan attacked the fort and took it by storm.
Very early on May 7 the French advanced against the fort of Les Tourelles and attacked until the English capitulated, handing Joan and the troops an impressive victory. The French and English armies again came face to face at Patay on June 18, Joan promised success to the French, and indeed the English army was defeated along with its reputation for invincibility. On July 16 Joan and the royal army reached Reims, which opened its gates.
In September , Joan launched an unsuccessful attack on Paris.
Wounded in the fighting, she continued to encourage the soldiers until they finally had to abandon the attack. On May 23, , Joan was captured by the Burgundians and later sold to the English. Joan was brought to trial before a church court. The theologists at the University of Paris, who acted as arbiter in matters concerning the faith—and in collaboration with the English—insisted that she be tried as a heretic and for witchcraft.
The trial began in February with the reading of 70 charges that had been drawn up against Joan. These were based mainly on the contention that her whole attitude and behaviour showed blasphemous presumption, including her claims to hear voices. Perhaps the most serious charge was of preferring what she believed to be the direct commands of God to those of the church. On May 23 Joan was informed that she was condemned to be burned to She hesitantly signed a statement indicating that she recanted, but many historians think she did not understand what was meant.
A few days later, she again asserted that she had been divinely inspired, which was taken to signify relapse. As a result, on May 29, the church court decreed that Joan was to be handed over to the civil authorities. They did so the next morning, and she was burned to death at the stake. Luther was the son of a prosperous copper miner. In he graduated from the University of Erfurt.
He took his M. He was ordained priest in April , and in he went to the University of Wittenberg, where he took his Doctorate of Theology in and received the chair of biblical theology. Luther was moved to public protest in by Johann Tetzel, a Dominican friar, who claimed that the faithful could purchase a letter of indulgence for the forgiveness of their sins. The ostensible purpose of this practice was to fund rebuilding of St. In protest, Luther drew up the Ninety-five Theses and, according to legend, fastened them on the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg, on October 31, These were tentative opinions, to some of which Luther himself was not committed.
The closing section attacked those who refused to recognize that to be a Christian involved embracing the cross and entering heaven through tribulation. Luther sent copies of the theses to the archbishop of Mainz and to his bishop, but further copies were circulated.
The archbishop forwarded the documents to Rome in December , with the request that Luther be inhibited. The pope merely instructed the vicar general of the Augustinians to deal with Luther through the usual channels. In October the Cardinal Cajetan at Augsburg ordered him to recant.
It also denied mass and attacked transubstantiation, made vehement charges against papal authority, and asserted the supremacy of Holy scripture and the rights of individual conscience. In January the pope issued On April 17, , Luther appeared before civic and religious authorities at the Diet of Worms. When required to recant his assertions, he stated that he would not go against his conscience unless convinced of his error either by Scripture or by evident reason.
The emperor cut the proceedings short and Luther was allowed to depart. It declared Luther to be an outlaw whose writings were denounced. The edict fettered his movements for the rest of his days. Luther departed to Wartburg, where he remained until March There he translated the New Testament into German. This volume was published in September and, like his later translation of the Hebrew Bible , had deep and lasting influence on the language, life, and religion of the German people.
In June Luther married Katherina von Bora, a former nun who had fled her convent. His home and family meant a great deal to him and was an emblem for him of Christian vocation. He included domestic life among the three hierarchies of Christian existence in this world, the other two being political and church life. He is remembered for taking six wives in his quest for a male heir.
When his elder brother, Arthur, died in , Henry became the heir to the throne. Henry was determined to engage in military adventure. Europe was consumed by rivalries between the French and Spanish kingdoms, mostly over Italian claims. Against the advice of his older councillors, in Henry joined his father-in-law, Ferdinand II of Aragon, against France and ostensibly in support of a threatened pope, to whom the devout king for a long time paid almost slavish respect. Henry himself displayed no military talent, but a real victory was won by the earl of Surrey at Flodden against a Scottish invasion.
Despite the pointlessness of the fighting, the appearance of success was popular. By Wolsey was archbishop of York, lord chancellor of England, and a cardinal of the church. In Henry pursued a divorce from Catherine, who had not provided a male heir to the throne—after several stillbirths and early deaths, only their daughter Mary born.
This allowed Henry to marry Anne in January The pope retaliated with a sentence of excommunication. The monasteries throughout England were dissolved, and their vast lands and goods were turned over to the king, who in turn granted those estates to noblemen who would support his policies. Although Henry made changes to the government of the church, he refused to allow any changes to be made in its doctrines. Before his divorce he had opposed the teachings of Martin Luther in Assertio septem sacramentorum adversus Martinum Lutherum , which had prompted the pope to give Henry the title Defender of the Faith.
After the separation from Rome, Henry persecuted with equal severity the Catholics who adhered to the government of Rome and the Protestants who rejected its doctrines. The union of England and Wales was completed in , and Ireland was made a kingdom in with Henry as king of Ireland.
Old friends such as Sir Thomas. The king now embarked on the series of matrimonial adventures that made him appear both a monster and a laughingstock. He soon tired of Anne, who failed to produce a male heir. In she was executed, with other members of the court, for alleged treasonable adultery. Henry immediately married Jane Seymour, who bore him his son Edward but died in childbirth But Henry hated her at first sight and at once demanded his freedom, an end achieved by a quick divorce. The Cleves fiasco destroyed Cromwell, enabling his many enemies to turn the king against him.
In July his head fell on the scaffold. Henry had by now become truly dangerous; always secretive and suspicious, now he was beginning to show paranoiac tendencies. Convinced that he controlled everyone, he was in fact readily manipulated by those who knew how to feed his suspicions and pander to his self-righteousness. His temperamental deficiencies were aggravated by what he regarded as his undeserved misfortunes and by ill health.
Henry grew enormously fat. His mind did not weaken, but he grew restless, peevish, and totally unpredictable. Often melancholy and depressed, he was usually out of sorts and always out of patience. In he married the year-old Catherine Howard, whose folly in continuing her promiscuity, even as queen, led to her execution in The next year, he married once more, to the calm and obedient Catherine Parr. In hostilities ensued between the Holy Roman Emperor and the king of France.
Henry joined the emperor; the Scots promptly joined the French. Henry personally managed both the war and the subsequent negotiations, and he displayed amazing energy, despite illness. But energy is not the same thing as competence, and the war proved ruinous. Yet, even after the emperor made peace with France , Henry would not let go until two years later. As the year drew to a close, it was apparent to all observers that the king had not long to live, and he died early the next year. Before Elizabeth reached her third birthday, her father had her mother beheaded on charges of adultery and treason.
She spent much of the time with her half brother Edward. Under a series of distinguished tutors, Elizabeth received the rigorous education normally reserved for male heirs. This attempt, along with her unpopular marriage to the ardently Catholic king Philip II of Spain, aroused bitter Protestant opposition in England.
In a charged atmosphere of treasonous rebellion and inquisitorial repression, Mary suspected Elizabeth of plotting with the Protestants to gain the throne and had her imprisoned for two months in the Tower of London. Elizabeth narrowly escaped death. When Mary died on November 17, , Elizabeth came to the throne amid bells, bonfires, patriotic demonstrations, and other signs of public jubilation. The queen began at once to form her government and issue proclamations.
She reduced the size of the Privy Council, in part to purge some of its Catholic members and to make it more efficient as an advisory body. Elizabeth carefully balanced the need for substantial administrative and judicial continuity with the desire for change, and she assembled a core of experienced and trustworthy advisers, including William Cecil, Nicholas Bacon, Francis Walsingham, and Nicholas Throckmorton. Chief among these was Cecil afterward Lord Burghley , whom Elizabeth appointed her principal secretary of state on the morning of her accession. He was to serve her first in this capacity and after as lord treasurer with remarkable sagacity and skill for 40 years.
Elizabeth restored England to Protestantism. The Act of Supremacy, passed by Parliament and approved in , revived the antipapal statutes of Henry VIII and declared the queen supreme governor of the church. The Act of Uniformity established a slightly revised version of the. Although she restored the Protestant service, she retained many features of Catholicism, including bishops and archbishops. She hoped this compromise would produce unity in the state, but the Catholics, who formed a majority of her subjects, were not reconciled; neither were hardline Protestants.
France and Spain were rivals, and Elizabeth was usually able to play one against the other. She even used courtship as part of her diplomatic game. She refused to marry Philip II of Spain but held out hopes to more than one of his royal relatives when France appeared to be a threat to England. Later, when Philip turned against England, Elizabeth encouraged French princes to pursue her. She also aided the Protestant Netherlands when they revolted against Spain. The alarming increase in religious tension, political intrigue, and violence was not only an internal, English concern. In Pope Pius V excommunicated Elizabeth and absolved her subjects from any oath of allegiance that they might have taken to her.
Elizabeth was under great pressure to become more involved in the continental struggle between Roman Catholics and Protestants, in particular to aid the rebels fighting the Spanish armies in the Netherlands. But she was very reluctant to become involved, in part because she detested rebellion—even rebellion undertaken in the name of Protestantism—and in part because she detested expenditures. She was tried and sentenced to death, with Parliament requesting that the sentence be carried out without delay.
For three months the queen hesitated and then, with every sign of extreme reluctance, signed the death warrant. When the news was brought to her that on February 8, , Mary had been beheaded, Elizabeth responded with an impressive show of grief and rage. For years Elizabeth had cannily played a complex diplomatic game with the rival interests of France and Spain. But by the mids, it became increasingly clear that England could not avoid a direct military confrontation with Spain. Word reached London that the Spanish king, Philip II, had begun to assemble an enormous fleet that would sail to the Netherlands, join forces with a waiting Spanish army led by the duke of Parma, and then proceed to an invasion and conquest of Protestant England.
Always reluctant to spend money, the queen had nonetheless authorized sufficient funds during her reign to maintain a fleet of maneuverable, well-armed fighting ships, to which could be added other vessels from the merchant fleet. Then, while attempting to return to Spain, the fleet was all but destroyed by terrible storms. Having reportedly indicated James VI of Scotland. June 1, , Sumpu. Ieyasu was born as Matsudaira Takechiyo into the family of a local warrior situated several miles east of modern Nagoya, one of many such families struggling to survive in a brutal age of endemic civil strife.
In military adversity compelled his father to send him away as a hostage to the Imagawa family, powerful neighbours headquartered at Sumpu now the city of Shizuoka to the east. In the late s he took a wife, fathered the first of several sons, and began to acquire military experience by leading forces on behalf of Imagawa Yoshimoto, the clan leader. In Imagawa Yoshimoto was slain during a battle with Oda Nobunaga, who was rapidly gaining power.
Within months young Ieyasu took steps to ally himself with Nobunaga, at the same time pacifying the new and inept leader of the Imagawa house long enough to recall his wife and son from Sumpu. During the later s the Imagawa domain disintegrated, and Ieyasu expanded to the east as opportunity permitted. Relying heavily on his alliance with the now-mighty Nobunaga, Ieyasu survived the challenges of endemic war and slowly extended his territory until, by the early s, he had become an important daimyo feudal baron , in control of the fertile and populous area stretching from Okazaki eastward to the mountain barrier at Hakone.
In Nobunaga was wounded by a rebellious subordinate and committed suicide. Toyotomi Hideyoshi, his most brilliant general, quickly avenged the death and. Ieyasu, then in the prime of life, emerged as his principal rival. During the rest of the s, while Hideyoshi busily extended his control over the daimyo of southwestern Japan, Ieyasu strengthened himself as best he could. Instead, he grasped the opportunity to secure his domain and make it as productive as possible. He stationed his most powerful vassals on the perimeter of his territory and along main access routes, keeping the least powerful—and least dangerous to himself—nearer Edo.
He then placed large tracts of land near the town under direct administration by appointed officials. This assured his castle inhabitants easy access to the largest possible supply of foodstuffs, and made detailed land and property surveys in order to regularize taxation. He also confiscated the weapons of all villagers, thereby reducing the likelihood of peasant rebellion, and moved vigorously to attract skilled artisans and businessmen to his new castle town. He undertook engineering projects to enlarge his castle, facilitate urban growth, and assure a water supply for the town populace.
By the end of the decade, Ieyasu had the largest, most reliable army and the most productive and best organized domain in all Japan. A battle ensued in the autumn of at Sekigahara, This triumph left Ieyasu the undisputed master of Japan, and he moved swiftly to make his mastery permanent. He placed a number of his allies in strategic locations near surviving enemies, and secured for himself and his most faithful vassals direct control of much of central Japan.
Two years later Ieyasu formally retired and had the shogunal title assigned to his son Hidetada, intending thereby to assure that the title was recognized as a hereditary Tokugawa prerogative. From until he had Hidetada keep them at work building and enlarging the castle at Edo, which became the largest in the world at the time. Thousands of ships and tens of thousands of men were employed for years on end hauling huge stones and great logs from distant points to Edo. By the time of his death, Ieyasu had brought enduring preeminence to his own family and a lasting peace to Japan.
Courtesy of the National Portrait Gallery, London. Oliver went to the local grammar school and then for a year attended Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge. In August he married Elizabeth Bourchier, and the couple had five sons and four daughters. Cromwell was elected to Parliament in , but King Charles I dissolved that Parliament in and did not call another for 11 years.
Cromwell, in fact, distrusted the whole hierarchy of the Church of England. In Cromwell was elected to the Short and the Long Parliament. Differences between Charles and Parliament, however, eventually erupted into the English Civil Wars, in which Cromwell became a leading military figure on the Parliamentary side. During he acquired a reputation both as a military organizer and a fighting man. He made it a point to find loyal and well-behaved men regardless of their religious beliefs or social status. Although he would not allow Roman Catholics in his army, he accepted devout God-fearing believers from all the Protestant churches.
Appointed a colonel in February, he began to recruit a first-class cavalry regiment. While he demanded good treatment and regular payment for his troopers, he exercised strict discipline. If they swore, they were fined; if drunk, put in the stocks; and if they deserted, they were whipped. After the battle, Prince Rupert gave the. As the civil war dragged on, Cromwell became more and more prominent.
He even led a movement for remaking the parliamentary army as a whole on the model of his own Ironsides. King Charles, left almost defenseless, gave himself up early in the following year to the Scots. Because Charles was a Scot, he thought he could come to some agreement with them. The Scots, however, turned Charles over to the English.
England was now ruled by the army, its great leader, and the part of the Parliament of that was loyal to the Puritan ideals. Cromwell was finally won over to this belief, and the king was tried and beheaded in The Rump thereupon proclaimed the whole of the British Isles a republic under the name of the Commonwealth. As commander in chief and lord lieutenant, he waged a ruthless campaign against the Irish.
The campaign proved difficult, but he defeated the Scots with an army inferior in numbers at Dunbar on September 3, A year later, when Charles II and the Scots advanced into England, Cromwell destroyed that army at Worcester, the battle that ended the civil wars. Cromwell became lord protector, ruling the three nations of England, Scotland, and Ireland with the advice and help of a council of state and a Parliament.
Before Cromwell summoned his first Protectorate Parliament on Sept. His aim was to reform the law, to set up a Puritan Church, to permit toleration outside it, to promote education, and to decentralize administration. In spite of resistance from some members of his council, Cromwell readmitted Jews into the country. He concerned himself with education, founded a college at Durham, and saw to it that grammar schools flourished as they had never done before. We conduct an analysis to see whether continuous real-time data also display a similar memory and, if so, whether such autocorrelations depend on the size of earthquakes within close spatiotemporal proximity.
We explore the question of seismic memory through use of mean conditional intervals and detrended fluctuation analysis DFA. We find that the wave form sign series show power-law anticorrelations while the interval series show power-law correlations. We find size dependence in earthquake autocorrelations: Devastating epidemics in recent ages Greek populations. In the recent Greek ages the most devastating epidemics were plague, smallpox, leprosy and cholera. The Venetians ruling the Ionian Islands effectively combated plague in contrast to the Ottomans ruling all other regions.
In , plague appeared in Patras refugees who were expelled by the Turks from Smyrna and Asia Minor. Inoculation against smallpox was first performed in Thessaly by the Greek women, and the Greek doctors Emmanouel Timonis , Oxford and Jakovos Pylarinos , Venice made relevant scientific publications.
The first leper colony opened in Chios Island. In Crete, Spinalonga was transformed into a leper island, which following the Independence War against Turkish occupation and the unification of Crete with Greece in , was classified as an International Leper Hospital. Cholera struck Greece in brought by the French troops during the Crimean War, and again during the Balkan Wars when the Bulgarian troops brought cholera to northern Greece. Due to successive wars, medical assistance was not always available, so desperate people turned many times to religion through processions in honor of local saints, for their salvation in epidemics.
The data collected on different frequencies, during April-May were studied using different methods of analysis: This program opens the receiver's web-page and automatically retrieves the list of data files to synchronize the user-side data with the receiver's data. Missing zipped files are also automatically downloaded. The application performs primary, statistical correlation and spectral analysis, appends daily files into monthly and annual files and performs 3D colour-coded maps with graphic representations of VLF and LF signals' intensities versus the minute-of-the-day and the day-of-the-month, facilitating a near real-time observation of VLF and LF electromagnetic waves' propagation.
Another feature of the software is the correlation of the daily recorded files for the studied frequencies by overlaying the 24 hours radio activity and taking into account the sunrise and sunset. Data are individually processed spectral power, correlations, differentiation, filtered using bandpass, lowpass, highpass. Coseismic Slip Deficit of the Mw 6. Coseismic surface deformation imaged through interferometric synthetic aperture radar InSAR measurements was used to estimate the fault geometry and slip distribution of the Mw 6. Our best fitting faulting model suggests that the coseismic rupture occurred on a fault plane with high dip angle of The recognized insignificant slip in the Tongonan geothermal field zone implies that the plastic behavior caused by high geothermal gradient underneath the Tongonan geothermal field could prevent the coseismic failure in heated rock mass in this zone.
The predicted Coulomb failure stress change shows that a significant positive Coulomb failure stress change occurred along the SE segment of central Philippine Fault with insignificant coseismic slip and infrequent aftershocks, which suggests an increasing risk for future seismic hazard. Listening to the magnitude 9. Two days prior to the main event, a foreshock sequence occurred , including one earthquake of magnitude 7.
Following the main event, numerous aftershocks occurred around the main slip region; the largest of these was magnitude 7. The entire foreshocks-mainshock-aftershocks sequence was well recorded by thousands of sensitive seismometers and geodetic instruments across Japan, resulting in the best-recorded megathrust earthquake in history.
This devastating earthquake resulted in significant damage and high death tolls caused primarily by the associated large tsunami. Self-similar rupture implied by scaling properties of volcanic earthquakes occurring during the eruption of Mount St. Helens in September of We estimate the seismic moment M0 and spectral corner frequency f0 using a spectral ratio approach for events with a high signal-to-noise SNR ratio that have a cross-correlation coefficient of 0.
A cluster analysis of cross-correlation values indicates that the group of events meeting the SNR and cross-correlation criteria forms eight event families that exhibit largely self-similar scaling. The estimated values suggest self-similar scaling within families, as well as between five of eight families i. We speculate that differences in scaled energy values for the two families with variable scaling may result from a lack of resolution in the velocity model. The observation of self-similar scaling is the first of its kind for such a large group of low-frequency volcanic tectonic events occurring during a single active dome extrusion eruption.
The great disaster during the Mw9. Then, a second wave crossed the waterfront minutes after the first wave, carrying a large amount of the debris. It has been described as a violent surging wave only slightly smaller than the first. It is believed that the second wave which flooded the waterfront was originated at the other side of the Port Valdez near the Shoup Bay moraine.
The benchmark consists in simulating with the GPU based Landslide-HySEA model the extent of inundation for two slide events, based on before and after bathymetry data, eye-witness observations of the event, and observed runup distribution. First, both landslides have been simulated separately, studying time series of the water waves at determined locations, runups at different areas and the extent of inundation around the first two blocks inland of Port Valdez. Then, the two landslides are triggered at the same time and the joint effect is studied.
Obtained results are satisfactory and they agree with the existing observations. Journal of Scientific Computing, 48 1: A new Savage-Hutter type model for submarine avalanches and generated tsunami. In particular, the article provides documentary evidence about the results regarding the parts related to the study of resilience cognitive objective and of social relations objective tied to the educational intervention , five years after the earthquake.
A control group made by 55 subjects, homogeneous for sex and age, has been identified in the primary schools of Borgorose, a little town near Rieti Central Italy. The comparison with the control group made by 55 subjects who were not from L'Aquila allowed to check that, 5 years after the disaster, the context of life produces a meaningful discrepancy in terms of responses to the stress and to the ability of resilience, and this fact is definitely negative for children from L'Aquila.
On the other hand, data related to social relations allowed to verify how the educational intervention. Bridge seismic retrofit measures considering subduction zone earthquakes. Over the years, earthquakes have exposed the vulnerability of reinforced concrete structures under: The recent occurrence of highly devastating earthquakes near instrumented regions, e. Credit Molly Solomon One of Hawai'i's oldest and most.
Earthquakes are unpredictable and devastating natural disasters. They can cause massive destruction and loss of life and survivors may suffer psychological symptoms of severe intensity. Our goal in this article is to review studies published in the last 20 years to compile what is known about posttraumatic stress disorder PTSD occurring after earthquakes.
The review also describes other psychiatric complications that can be associated with earthquakes , to provide readers with better overall understanding, and discusses several sociodemographic factors that can be associated with post- earthquake PTSD. Terms used for electronic searches included, but were not limited to, posttraumatic stress disorder PTSD , posttraumatic symptoms, anxiety, depression, major depressive disorder, earthquake , and natural disaster.
The relevant information was then utilized to determine the relationships between earthquakes and posttraumatic stress symptoms. It was found that PTSD is the most commonly occurring mental health condition among earthquake survivors. Major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, social phobia, and specific phobias were also listed. The PTSD prevalence rate varied widely. It was dependent on multiple risk factors in target populations and also on the interval of time that had elapsed between the exposure to the deadly incident and measurement. Females seemed to be the most widely-affected group, while elderly people and young children exhibit considerable psychosocial impact.
The Great Kanto earthquake and F. How many recall the following striking sentence from The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald, which appears on the second page of the novel, where Fitzgerald first introduces Gatsby? Now, however, as a Japanese seismologist and an American geophysicist and student of Japanese culture , we would be greatly remiss for failing to take greater note of this statement.
Indeed, as The Great Gatsby was published in , it occurred to us that the earthquake Fitzgerald might have been thinking of was the Great Kanto earthquake , which occurred on September 1, and devastated the Tokyo metropolitan area. Near real-time aftershock hazard maps for earthquakes.
Stress interaction modelling is routinely used to explain the spatial relationships between earthquakes and their aftershocks. On 28 October a M6. By making some well supported assumptions concerning the source event and the geometry of any likely triggered event it was possible to map those areas most likely to experience further activity. Using Google earth, it would further have been possible to identify particular settlements in the source area which were particularly at risk and to publish their locations globally within about 3 hours of the first earthquake.
Such actions could have significantly focused the initial emergency response management. We argue for routine prospective testing of such forecasts and dialogue between social and physical scientists and emergency response professionals around the practical application of these techniques.
Pre-seismic geomagnetic and ionosphere signatures related to the Mw5. To emphasize the relationship between the pre-seismic geomagnetic signals and Vrancea seismicity, in this work it is hypothesized that before an earthquake initiation, the high stress reached into seismogenic volume generates dehydration of the rocks and fracturing processes followed by release of electric charges along the faulting systems, which lead to resistivity changes.
These changes were explored on September by the normalized function Bzn obtained from the geomagnetic data recorded in ULF range 0. Similar information is provided by registrations of the magnetic and electron concentration variations in the ionosphere over the Vrancea zone, by Swarm satellites, 4 days and 1 day before the earthquake. Observing these facts i. In this paper the authors have tried to analyze the chain of observations made and data collected and stored month wise w. Further, efforts have also been made to provide the statistical analysis of the ionospheric variability caused due to detected electromagnetic burst in ULF frequency ranges in the context of natural variability in order to distinguish the variability introduced by other sources.
In brief, it could be concluded that there is possibility of getting the electromagnetic precursors in the ionosphere at different frequency ranges due to excess release of tectonic energy as a result of occurrence rate of the earthquakes in the region. The Bam Iran earthquake: Rupture of a blind strike-slip fault. Surface displacements and decorrelation effects, mapped using Envisat radar data, reveal that over 2 m of slip occurred at depth on a fault that had not previously been identified.
It is common for earthquakes to occur on blind faults which, despite their name, usually produce long-term surface effects by which their existence may be recognised. However, in this case there is a complete absence of morphological features associated with the seismogenic fault that destroyed Bam. Earthquakes , November-December Other parts of the world suffered fatalities and significant damage from earthquakes. In Iran, an earthquake killed one person, injured many, and destroyed a number of homes.
Earthquake fatalities also occurred in the Azores and in Algeria. Looking toward the assessment of a multi-parametric system for dynamically updating seismic hazard estimates and earthquake short term from days to weeks forecast, a preliminary step is to identify those parameters chemical, physical, biological, etc. Among the different parameters, the fluctuations of Earth's thermally emitted radiation, as measured by sensors on board of satellite system operating in the Thermal Infra-Red TIR spectral range, have been proposed since long time as potential earthquake precursors.
Since , a general approach called Robust Satellite Techniques RST has been used to discriminate anomalous thermal signals, possibly associated to seismic activity from normal fluctuations of Earth's thermal emission related to other causes e. Thanks to its full exportability on different satellite packages, RST has been implemented on TIR images acquired by polar e.
Italy, Turkey, Greece, California, Taiwan, etc. A submarine landslide source for the devastating Chenega tsunami, southern Alaska. Brothers, Daniel; Haeussler, Peter J. During the Great Alaska earthquake Mw 9. Dangerous Passage is a glacimarine fjord in western Prince William Sound, which experienced a tsunami that devastated the village of Chenega where 23 of 75 inhabitants were lost — the highest relative loss of any community during the earthquake.
Previous studies suggested the source of the devastating tsunami was either from a local submarine landslide of unknown origin or from coseismic tectonic displacement. Here we present new observations from high-resolution multibeam bathymetry and seismic reflection surveys conducted in the waters adjacent to the village of Chenega.
The seabed morphology and substrate architecture reveal a large submarine landslide complex in water depths of — m. These results, combined with inverse tsunami travel-time modeling, suggest that earthquake - triggered submarine landslides generated the tsunami that struck the village of Chenega roughly 4 min after shaking began. Unlike other tsunamigenic landslides observed in and around Prince William Sound in , the failures in Dangerous Passage are not linked to an active submarine delta.
The requisite environmental conditions needed to generate large submarine landslides in glacimarine fjords around the world may be more common than previously thought. On the behavior of site effects in central Mexico the Mexican volcanic belt - MVB , based on records of shallow earthquakes that occurred in the zone between and The Mexican volcanic belt MVB is a seismogenic zone that transects the central part of Mexico with an east-west orientation. The seismic risk and hazard of this seismogenic zone has not been studied in detail due to the scarcity of instrumental data as well as because seismicity in the continental regime of central Mexico is not too frequent.
The purpose of this article is to analyze the behavior of site effects in the MVB zone based on records of shallow earthquakes data not reported before that occurred in the zone between and We present a general overview of site effects in the MVB, a classification of the stations in order to reduce the uncertainty in the data when obtaining attenuation parameters in future works, as well as some comparisons between the information presented here and that presented in previous studies.
A regional evaluation of site effects and Fourier acceleration spectrum FAS shape was estimated based on 80 records of 22 shallow earthquakes within the MVB zone. Data of 25 stations were analyzed. Site effects were estimated by using the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio HVSR methodology. The results show that seismic waves are less amplified in the northeast sites of the MVB with respect to the rest of the zone and that it is possible to classify two groups of stations: Most of the sites in the first group showed small Near-simultaneous great earthquakes at Tongan megathrust and outer rise in September The Earth's largest earthquakes and tsunamis are usually caused by thrust-faulting earthquakes on the shallow part of the subduction interface between two tectonic plates, where stored elastic energy due to convergence between the plates is rapidly released.
The tsunami that devastated the Samoan and northern Tongan islands on 29 September was preceded by a globally recorded magnitude-8 normal-faulting earthquake in the outer-rise region, where the Pacific plate bends before entering the subduction zone. Preliminary interpretation suggested that this earthquake was the source of the tsunami. Here we show that the outer-rise earthquake was accompanied by a nearly simultaneous rupture of the shallow subduction interface, equivalent to a magnitude-8 earthquake , that also contributed significantly to the tsunami. The subduction interface event was probably a slow earthquake with a rise time of several minutes that triggered the outer-rise event several minutes later.
However, we cannot rule out the possibility that the normal fault ruptured first and dynamically triggered the subduction interface event. Our evidence comes from displacements of Global Positioning System stations and modelling of tsunami waves recorded by ocean-bottom pressure sensors, with support from seismic data and tsunami field observations.
Evidence of the subduction earthquake in global seismic data is largely hidden because of the earthquake 's slow rise time or because its ground motion is disguised by that of the normal-faulting event. Earthquake doublets where subduction interface events trigger large outer-rise earthquakes have been recorded previously, but this is the first well-documented example where the two events occur so closely in time and the triggering event might be a slow earthquake.
As well as providing information on strain release mechanisms at subduction zones, earthquakes such as this provide a possible mechanism for the occasional large tsunamis generated at the Tonga. A devastating earthquake and tsunami hit Japan on March 11, , followed by several long and intense aftershocks. Although unusual pre- earthquake behaviors have been previously reported in laboratory animals, little is known about behavioral and physiological changes that occur after a great earthquake.
In the present study, the effects of Tohoku earthquake on mice behavior were investigated. They also displayed enhanced anxiety, and in a formal fear memory task, showed significantly greater tone- and context-dependent conditioned freezing. Water maze performance of earthquake -experienced mice showed the quicker acquisition of the task, faster swim speed and longer swim distance than the naive mice. Serum corticosterone levels were elevated compared to the naive mice, indicating that the earthquake and aftershocks were stressful for the mice.
These results demonstrate that great earthquakes strongly affect mouse behaviors and physiology. Although the effects of a variety of experimental manipulations on mouse behaviors in disease models or in models of higher cognitive functions have been extensively examined, researchers need to be aware how natural phenomena, such as earthquakes and perhaps other natural environmental factors, influence laboratory animal behaviors and physiology.
The Mentawai earthquake sequence on the Sumatra megathrust. The Sumatra Megathrust has recently produced a flurry of large interplate earthquakes starting with the giant Mw 9. All of these earthquakes occurred within the area monitored by the Sumatra Geodetic Array SuGAr , which provided exceptional records of near-field co-seismic and postseismic ground displacements.
The most recent of these major earthquakes , an Mw 8. The earthquake sequence provides an exceptional opportunity to understand the variability of the earthquakes along megathrusts and their relation to interseismic coupling. The InSAR, GPS and teleseismic modeling shows that earthquakes ruptured a fraction of the strongly coupled Mentawai patch of the megathrust, which is also only a fraction of the rupture area. It also released a much smaller moment than the one released in , or than the deficit of moment that has accumulated since.
Both earthquakes of consist of 2 sub-events which are 50 to km apart from each other. On the other hand, the northernmost slip patch of 8. Sunda megathrust earthquakes of recent years include a rupture of a strongly coupled patch that closely mimics a prior rupture of that patch and which is well correlated with the interseismic coupling pattern Nias-Simeulue section , as well as a rupture sequence of a strongly coupled patch that differs substantially in the details from its most recent predecessors Mentawai section. We conclude that 1 seismic asperities are probably persistent features which arise form heterogeneous strain build up in the interseismic period; and 2 the same portion of a megathrust can rupture in different ways depending on whether asperities break as isolated events or cooperate to produce.
Induced earthquake during the Kumamoto earthquake Mw7. Importance of real-time shake monitoring for Earthquake Early Warning.
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Sequence of the Kumamoto earthquakes Mw6. The M6 event is interpreted as an induced earthquake ; but it brought stronger shaking at the central Oita than that from the Mw7. We will discuss the induced earthquake from viewpoint of Earthquake Early Warning. However, PGD of the Mw7. It is quite difficult to recognize the induced earthquake from displacement waveforms only, because the displacement is strongly contaminated by that of the preceding Mw7. However, displacement magnitude does not necessarily mean the best one for prediction of ground shaking, such as PGA and PGV.
In case of the induced earthquake during the Kumamoto earthquake , displacement magnitude could not be estimated because of the strong contamination. One of the important lessons we learned from eight years' operation of EEW is an issue of the multiple simultaneous earthquakes , such as aftershocks of the Mw9. Based on this lesson, we have proposed enhancement of real-time monitor of ground shaking itself instead of rapid estimation of.
Their Reactions to Devastating Events. A thorough review of the literature reveals that there is little or no information on children's psychological reactions to devastating events, such as the Oklahoma City bombing, the Gulf War, or the recent destruction of the World Trade Center and the Pentagon.
This article explores children's psychological reactions in light of Piagetian theory. Surface expression of coactive slip on a blind fault during the Northridge earthquake sequence, California. Evidence that coactive faulting occurred in the Canoga Park, Winnetka, and Northridge areas during the 17 January , Northridge, California earthquake. They define a deformation zone trending diagonally from near Canoga Park in the southwest, through Winnetka, to near Northridge in the northeast. The deformation zone is about 4. Complete states of strain measured in the northeastern half of the deformation zone show that the directions of principal strains are parallel and normal to the walls of the zone, so the zone is not a strike-slip zone.
The magnitudes of strains measured in the northeastern part of the Winnetka area were large enough to fracture concrete and soils, and the area of larger strains correlates with the area of greater damage to such roads and sidewalks. All parts of the pattern suggest a blind fault at depth, most likely a reverse fault dipping northwest but possibly a normal fault dipping southeast.
The magnitudes of the strains in the Winnetka area are consistent with the strains produced at the ground surface by a blind fault plane extending to depth on the order of 2 km and a net slip on the order of 1 m, within a distance of about to m of the ground surface. The pattern of damage in the San Fernando Valley suggests a fault segment much longer than the 4. The blind fault segment may extend several kilometers in both directions beyond the Winnetka area. This study of the Winnetka area further supports. On the behavior of site effects in Central Mexico the Mexican Volcanic Belt - MVB , based on records of shallow earthquakes that occurred in the zone between and The Valley of Mexico City VM is the sole zone, within the MVB, which has been studied in detail; mainly focusing on the ground amplification during large events such as the subduction earthquake that occurred in Michoacan.
We present a general overview of site effects on the MVB, a classification of the stations in order to reduce the uncertainty in the data to obtain attenuation parameters in future works, and some comparisons between the information presented here and that presented in previous studies. On 19 September , thirty two years after the Michoacan interplate earthquake Mw8.
The earthquake was located near the border of the states of Morelos and Puebla It caused great panic in Mexico City, collapse of 44 buildings, and severely damaged many others. More than persons were killed in the city. It was the second most destructive earthquake in the history of Mexico City, next only to the earthquake. A strong-motion station at CU located on basalt lava flows on main campus UNAM has been in continuous operation since PGA of 59 gal at CU during the earthquake is the largest ever, two times greater than that recorded during the earthquake 29 gal.
The earthquake raised questions that are critical in fathoming the seismic vulnerability of the city and in its reconstruction. Was such an intraslab earthquake Mw 7 at a hypocentral distance of km unexpected? Were the recorded ground motions in the city unusually high for such an earthquake?
Why did the damage pattern during the earthquake differ from that observed during the earthquake? Thus, Mw and R of the earthquake was not surprising. Spectra of intraslab events at CU are enriched at higher frequencies relative to interplate ones because of closer distance, greater depth and higher. Real-time integration of independent observations is expected to significantly improve our present capability of dynamically assess Seismic Hazard.
In this paper a circular area around the barycenter of the observed Thermal Anomalies and not just the convolution of them has been used to define the area from which to collect seismic data required for Natural Time Analysis. Fifteen days prior the date of the first observed Significant Thermal Anomaly STA was the starting time used for collecting earthquakes from the catalog. The changes in the quality of earthquake forecast that were achieved by using each. Earthquakes ; January-February In the United States, a number of earthquakes occurred , but only minor damage was reported.
Arkansas experienced a swarm of earthquakes beginning on January Canada experienced one of its strongest earthquakes in a number of years on January 9; this earthquake caused slight damage in Maine. Earthquakes ; July-August, Earthquake activity during this period was about normal. Deaths from earthquakes were reported from Greece and Guatemala. Three major earthquakes magnitude 7. In the United States, the most significant earthquake was a magnitude 5. Nonlinear principal component analysis NLPCA is implemented to analyze the spatial pattern of total electron content TEC anomalies 3 hours after Japan's Tohoku earthquake that occurred at A geomagnetic storm was in progress at the time of the earthquake.
Analysis results show stark earthquake -associated TEC anomalies that are widespread, and appear to have been induced by two acoustic gravity waves due to strong shaking vertical acoustic wave and the generation of the tsunami horizontal Rayleigh mode gravity wave. The TEC anomalies roughly fit the initial mainshock and movement of the tsunami. Observation of the earthquake -associated TEC anomalies does not appear to be affected by a contemporaneous geomagnetic storm.
Gas and Dust Phenomena of Mega- earthquakes and the Cause. A mega- earthquake suddenly releases a large to extremely large amount of kinetic energy within a few tens to two hundreds seconds and over ten to hundreds kilometer distances in the Earth's crust and on ground surface. It also generates seismic waves that can be received globally and co-seismic ground damages such co-seismic ruptures and landslides.
However, such vast, dramatic and devastating kinetic actions in the Earth's crustal rocks and on the ground soils cannot be known or predicted by people at few weeks, days, hours, or minutes before they are happening. Although seismologists can develop and use seismometers to report the locations and magnitudes of earthquakes within minutes of their occurrence, they cannot predict earthquakes at present.
Therefore, damage earthquakes have caused and would continue to cause huge disasters, fatalities and injuries to our human beings. This problem may indicate that it is necessary to re-examine the cause of mega- earthquakes in addition to the conventional cause of active fault elastic rebounding. In the last ten years, many mega- earthquakes occurred in China and around the Pacific Ocean and caused many casualties to human beings and devastating disasters to environments. The author will give a brief review on the impacts of the mega- earthquakes happened in recent years.
He will then present many gas and dust related phenomena associated with the sudden occurrences of these mega earthquakes. They include the Kunlunshan Earthquake M8. He will discuss the cause of these gas and dust related phenomena. He will use these phenomena and their common cause to show that the earthquakes were caused the rapid migration and expansion of highly compressed and.
Bam, Iran, Radar Interferometry -- Earthquake. The two images from ESA Envisat show similar measures of the radar interferometric correlation in grayscale on the left and in false colors on the right. The Quanzhou large earthquake: The Quanzhou earthquake is the largest earthquake in China's southeast coast in history.
The ancient city of Quanzhou and its adjacent areas suffered serious damage. Analysis of the impact of Quanzhou earthquake on human activities, ecological environment and social development will provide an example for the research on environment and human interaction.
According to historical records, on the night of December 29, , a Ms 8. It affected to a maximum distance of kilometers from the epicenter and caused serious damage. Quanzhou, which has been known as one of the world's largest trade ports during Song and Yuan periods was heavily destroyed by this earthquake. The destruction of the ancient city was very serious and widespread. The city wall collapsed in Putian, Nanan, Tongan and other places. The East and West Towers of Kaiyuan Temple, which are famous with magnificent architecture in history, were seriously destroyed.
Therefore, an enormous earthquake can exert devastating effects on human activities and social development in the history. It is estimated that a more than Ms. This devastating large earthquake that severely destroyed the Quanzhou city was triggered under a tectonic-extensional circumstance.
In this coastal area of the Fujian Province, the crust gradually thins eastward from inland to coast less than 29 km thick crust beneath the coast , the lithosphere is also rather thin 60 70 km , and the Poisson's ratio of the crust here appears relatively high. The historical Quanzhou Earthquake was probably correlated with the NE-striking Littoral Fault Zone, which is characterized by right-lateral slip and exhibiting the most active seismicity in the coastal area of Fujian.
Devastating fourth-degree electrical injuries to the face and head pose significant reconstructive challenges. To date, there have been few peer-reviewed articles in the literature that describe those reconstructive challenges. The authors present the largest case series to date that describes the management of these injuries, including the incorporation of face transplantation. A retrospective case series was conducted of patients with devastating electrical injuries to the face who were managed at two level-1 trauma centers between and Data describing patient injuries, initial management, and reconstructive procedures were collected.
Five patients with devastating electrical injuries to the face were reviewed. After initial stabilization and treatment of life-threatening injuries, all five underwent burn excision and microsurgical reconstruction using distant flaps. Two of the patients eventually underwent face transplantation. The authors describe differences in management between the two trauma centers, one of which had the availability for composite tissue allotransplantation; the other did not.
Also described is how initial attempts at traditional reconstruction affected the eventual face transplantation. The care of patients with complex electrical burns must be conducted in a multidisciplinary fashion. As with all other trauma, the initial priority should be management of the airway, breathing, and circulation. Mickey Mouse, December 18, Uncle Remus, December 25, Mickey Mouse, December 25, Uncle Remus, January 1, Mickey Mouse, January 1, Walt Disney's Donald Duck in Land of the totem poles.
By Walt Disney Productions. Walt Disney's Paint book. Lower level, form X. By group of 6. Lower level, form S. By group of 8. American Council on Education French reading test. Cooperative English test, single booklet edition. By group of Educational Testing Service cooperative American history test; revised series. Educational Testing Service cooperative world history test; revised series.
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Keeping men on their feet. By Frederick Keller Stamm. Fellows C ; 3Jan77; R Introduction to physical biochemistry. Johlin W ; 3Jan77; R Studies in philosophy and science. Rosenfield E ; 3Jan77; R The Winston dictionary for schools. By the Winston dictionary staff. Instructor's manual to accompany A Survey of European civilization, second edition. Ferguson, Geoffrey Bruun, Harry D.
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PWH ; 6Jan77; R The Big red pajama wagon. Pumphrey A ; 6Jan77; R The Flagler story and Memorial Church. By Walter Howard Lee. Venus and the seven sexes. By William Tenn, pseud. Philip Klass A ; 3Jan77; R No wall so high. Schwartz A ; 3Jan77; R In Woman's home companion, Apr. Czenzi Ormonde A ; 3Jan77; R In Woman's home companion, Aug. World's largest crossword puzzle. By Robert Melvin Stilgenbauer. Stilgenbauer A ; 3Jan77; R The Story of our calendar. Ruth Brindze A ; 3Jan77; R By William Hazlett Upson.
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In NEA service weekly, Feb. In NEA service weekly, Jan. The Dictionary of humorous quotations. Edited by Evan Esar. Evan Esar A ; 7Jan77; R The Season of comfort. Gore Vidal A ; 7Jan77; R PWH ; 7Jan77; R The Reign of King John. Julie Elizabeth Painter, Ana F. The American wild turkey. Davis A ; 4Jan77; R The New Funk and Wagnalls encyclopedia. By Joseph Laffan Morse. PWH ; 2Feb77; R Landis A ; 2Feb77; R The Man in the straw hat my story. By Maurice Chevalier, translation by Caroline Clark. By Saint John Perse, pseud. By Walter Dorwin Teague. Lewis Teague C ; 7Jan77; R Warriner A ; 7Jan77; R Teacher's answer key to Common sense English 2.
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In Collier's, the national weekly, Apr. In Collier's, the national weekly, Dec. Simon and Schuster, Inc. Modern dressmaking made easy. By Mary Brooks Picken. Solveig Cox C ; 10Jan77; R Military Academy, revisions by Herman Beukema. Herman Beukema W ; 10Jan77; R The Mathematical theory of communication. The Law of American admiralty, its jurisdiction and practice. Benedict, recompiled by William A. The Law of American admiralty, its jurisdiction and practice; suppl. Walker on patents, cumulative suppl.
By Anthony William Deller. Estates practice guide; suppl. Hahn E ; 10Jan77; R A Treatise on the law of contracts; suppl. Wait's New York practice; suppl. Sermons and discourses By John Henry Newman, edited with a pref. David McKay Company, Inc. PPW ; 7Feb77; R Lane A ; 10Jan77; R Jones A ; 10Jan77; R Ray Morrison A ; 10Jan77; R Navigation the easy way. PWH ; 10Jan77; R Webster's New international dictionary. The Ford owner's handbook of repair and maintenance. By Irwin Taylor Sanders. Peeples A ; 10Jan77; R Don't you cry for me. Weaver A ; 10Jan77; R A Matter of principle.
Ten-key adding listing machine course. Reid A ; 10Jan77; R Alletta Jones A ; 10Jan77; R C ; 10Jan77; R By Edna Becker, pictures by Margaret Bradfield. The Way to power and poise. By David Thomas Gregory. Jackson C ; 10Jan77; R Guiding children in Christian growth. By Mary Alice Jones. By Alice Geer Kelsey. By Jane Kirk Huntley. Elizabeth Merchant E ; 10Jan77; R Faces made to order. In Pulpit digest, Oct. In Saturday evening post, Oct. In The Pulpit digest, Nov. One day for thanks. In Farm journal, Nov. In The Pulpit digest, Dec. Business young folks supper. In The Christian herald, Jan.
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PWH ; 11Jan77; R The Permabook of art masterpieces. Doubleday and Company, Inc. PWH ; 7Feb77; R Things that matter; the best or the writings of Bishop Brent, the presiding bishop's book for Lent. Teacher's manual for Mathematics we use, book 2 and Arithmetic we use, grade 8. The Earth brought forth; a history of Minnesota agriculture to By Merrill Earl Jarchow. The world next door. Peters A ; 13Jan77; R Music in the nation; series of newspaper columns. Haggin A ; 13Jan77; R Hanson W ; 13Jan77; R The Colloid chemistry of the silicate minerals.
PWH ; 14Jan77; R Chemistry of specific, selective and sensitive reactions. Laboratory experiments in biological chemistry. Chemical activities of fungi. By Robert Selph Henry. Two against the North: By Bertrand Shurtleff, illustrator: The Reverend Mister "Red. Walter Loban A ; 13Jan77; R Adventures in English literature.
Celia Oppenheimer A ; 13Jan77; R By Hugh Laurence Nelson. Leslie Roberts A ; 14Jan77; R Peploe C ; 14Jan77; R Beston W ; 14Jan77; R Elizabeth Cadell A ; 14Jan77; R By Delia Goetz, illustrator: Delia Goetz A ; 14Jan77; R Jackson Scholz A ; 14Jan77; R Death on treasure trail: By Don Davis, introd. Paul Brown A ; 14Jan77; R Perry Miller W ; 14Jan77; R James Grossman A ; 14Jan77; R Glassmoyer E ; 7Feb77; R Cocktail and wine digest. Oscar Haimo A ; 7Feb77; R Elinor Lyon A ; 24Jan77; R Tales of the sea and other poems.
By Wallace Worth Ackley. The Legend of Miss Salagawara: By Hisaye Yamamoto DeSoto. Payroll records and accounting. A Man called Horse. Johnson A ; 17Jan77; R Song of a pagan. The Toilers of the sea. By Victor Hugo, adapted by Albert L. PWH ; 17Jan77; R The United States and the Atlantic community. Edited by John A. Proceedings of the Academy of Political Science, May A Ticket to Chinook, Montana. Walt Coburn W ; 17Jan77; R In Street and Smith's Western story, Mar. When the gun-devil laughed. In Street and Smith's Western story, Apr. Wolf man of the crimson ice.
The Secret of Adobe Corrals. Death ramrods the triangle B. In Dime Western magazine, Aug. In Street and Smith's Western story, Aug. Dally man dead man. In Dime Western magazine, Oct. Smoke those Sooners down. In New Western magazine, Dec. By Frederick Benjamin Gipson. Beck Gipson C ; 17Dec76; R The Kid from Mars. West C ; 5Jan77; R The Strange life of August Strindberg. Elizabeth Sprigge A ; 7Jan77; R The Reality of the religious life.
Bett C ; 11Feb77; R Edmond Hamilton A ; 18Jan77; R Expository notes on Ezekiel the Prophet. By Henry Allan Ironside. By Charles Moreland Lesh. A Taste for violence. By Brett Halliday, pseud. Grace Peck Harris Mrs. Harris A ; 5Jan77; R Last operas and plays. Adjusters manual for Singer sewing machines and for trimming and overedging in one operation, automatic oiling system, form By The Singer Manufacturing Company.
Instrucciones para manejar y regular las maquinas Singer para coser y alta velocidad con juego impelente de engranaje para hacer ojales rectos, form W Instructions for installing and adjusting Singer electric transmitters series 46 and 47, form List of parts, machines numbers W11 and W14, form W