Manual of Clinical Oncology (Lippincott Manual)

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Therefore, the required precision and accuracy for a given assay may be different for different applications such as in different diagnoses or for different uses. This also influences the useful working range for a given assay for different diagnosis or uses.

Every laboratory should verify the precision and accuracy of the assays with the instruments and personnel used. The high dose hook effect is an artifact of immunoassay kits, that causes the reported quantity to be incorrectly low when the quantity is high. An undetected hook effect may cause delayed recognition of a tumor.

The hook effect is absent if the reported quantities of tumor marker in a serial dilution are proportional to the dilution. As with other diagnostic tests, tumor markers have a few test characteristics that influence their usability:. As with other tests, predictive value the chance that a positive or negative result represents the truth , depends strongly on the pre-test probability.

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The predictive value may be increased if two or more tests are carried out in parallel. The condition is that the tests have in themselves similar predictive values. Test combinations that will give more exact results are for instance: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved December 28, Hypothyroidism mimicking intra-abdominal malignancy". Territo Contributor Mary C. Retrieved June 6, Comparative analysis in a large sample of unselected older adults vs colorectal cancer patients".

Tumor marker

British Journal of Cancer. Clinical and Experimental Medicine. A promising tumor marker in the diagnosis of gastro-intestinal cancer". A gastrointestinal cancer marker". The Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research.

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A prospective cohort study". European Journal of Gynaecological Oncology. Thyroglobulin Medullary thyroid cancer Calcitonin Carcinoembryonic antigen. Glial fibrillary acidic protein. S protein Melanoma inhibitory activity. Carcinoembryonic antigen Enolase 2 Autocrine motility factor. Common for blood tests CPT — Ferritin Serum iron Transferrin saturation Total iron-binding capacity Transferrin Transferrin receptor. Amylase Lipase Pancreatic lipase.

Retrieved from " https: In this sense, Oliveira 25 shows that health education materials should, in average, be understandable by individuals with six years of schooling, which is the case in the manual used here, where individuals with no education can understand and perform the exercises correctly.

The adversity of incorrect execution of the movement in exercise 6 among lower-educated women of age compared to those with higher education in our study may be related to the volume of images contained in the exercise. The exercise that presents incorrect assessment in the group of individuals with education lower than primary education is among the three exercises of a total of twelve contained in the manual that have three pictures in their description, compared to two images occurring in the cases of exercises where education levels showed no significant difference.

The lower amount of images can be a way to improve the organization, appearance and understanding of the exercises, thus providing their correct execution, since images associated with writing make it easier to comprehend them The present study appears to be the first to investigate the level of reproducibility of a manual from the achievement of beneficiaries themselves.

However, our study has some limitations, such as small sample size, which restricts the extrapolation of the results to the entire Brazilian elderly population with breast cancer, due to the low representativeness in the mentioned service; lack of adherence analysis, even if this is not the purpose of the study; short duration of the intervention protocol, characterized by the possibility of sample attrition and complications in the disease; and the absence of comparison of individual training without supervision in healthy and cancerous elderly women.


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The evaluation protocol was sufficient to check the reproducibility and repeatability of the home physical exercise manual. This evaluation is extremely important because, in the majority of cases, evaluations made with instructional manuals take place in the functional effectiveness of these with its target audience, failing to emerge in the correct execution of the movement. Furtheremore, the manual managed to reach older women of all levels of schooling.


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Thus, the manual presents promising characteristics for its use in outpatient health services that promote functional self-care of their patients. With these results, together with the available literature, it is possible to ascertain the importance of physical exercise at home and the use of new technologies such as instructional manuals for exercises aimed at the rehabilitation and health improvement of women with breast cancer.

This new technology can be considered as a low-cost and proven reproducibility practice for public health, assisting physiotherapists and physical rehabilitation professionals in general in offering guidelines with higher quality and safety to users in health services. However, it is important to carry out research addressing protocols with a greater number of individuals and studies that investigate the use of exercises in the form of DVDs in combination or in contrast with the printed manual. Rio de Janeiro, RJ: International Agency for Research on Cancer; American Cancer Society; CA Cancer J Clin.

Women's perceived benefits of exercise during and after breast cancer treatment. Poltronieri TS, Tusset C. The effect of exemestane, anastrozole, and tamoxifen on lipid profiles in Japanese postmenopausal early breast cancer patients: American Society of Clinical Oncology clinical practice guideline update on adjuvant endocrine therapy for women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer.

Physical activity and sedentary behavior in breast cancer survivors: Lack of exercise is a major cause of chronic diseases. Influence of physical inactivity in psychophysiolocigal state of breast cancer survivors. Eur J Cancer Care Engl. Demographic, clinical, psychosocial, and environmental correlates of objectively assessed physical activity among breast cancer survivors. Quality of life after mastectomy and its relation with muscle strength of upper limb. Breast cancer mortality vs.

Lifestyle and cancer risk. Identification and prediction of physical activity trajectories in women treated for breast cancer. Associations among physical activity, comorbidity, functional capacity, peripheral muscle strength and depression in breast cancer survivors.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. Cancers in Australia in attributable to infectious agents.

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Motivation, exercise, and stress in breast cancer survivors. Rev Lat Am Enfermagem. Rev Bras Crescimento Desenvolv Hum. American College of Sports Medicine. ACSM's Guidelines for exercise testing and prescription, 8th ed. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; Rev Bras Geriatr Gerontol. Rev Bras Med Esporte.

Effects of home-based exercise training on VO2 in breast cancer patients under adjuvant or neoadjuvant chemotherapy SAPA: Eur J Phys Rehabil Med.

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J Gen Intern Med. Adherence to use of a home-based exercise DVD in people with Huntington disease: Barriers to home-based exercise program adherence with chronic low back pain: Ann Phys Rehabil Med. Comprehension of drug treatment between patients with diabetes mellitus treated at SUS and at private doctor's office in Barbacena, Minas Gerais.