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Many stolpersteine are dedicated not only to Jewish people and members of the political resistance, but also to soldiers of the Italian army who were disarmed, deported to Germany, and had to work as forced laborers there. They were given special status so that they were not protected as prisoners of war under the Geneva Conventions after Italy left the coalition of the Axis powers after 8 September In France where 75, Jews were deported to the concentration camps, initial efforts to install Stolpersteine were rejected.
The Mayor of La Baule has consistently refused to elaborate on his reasoning and there is no record of the Municipal Council of La Baule having sought a declaration from the Conseil d'Etat in respect of these objections. Surprisingly, stolpersteine have also been installed in Switzerland and Spain , even though these countries were never occupied. Stolpersteine in Switzerland mostly remember people who were caught smuggling illegal written material at the German border.
In Spain, a large number of Republicans who fled from Spain to France after Francisco Franco 's victory were caught by the Nazis after they had invaded France, and were either handed over to the Vichy regime , or deported to Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp. About 7, Spanish people were held prisoner there, and were subjected to forced labour ; more than half of them were murdered. The survivors were denationalized by the Franco regime, and became stateless persons, who were denied any form of recognition as victims, and deprived of any reparation.
Even in countries where no stolpersteine are installed, such as the United States, the decentralized monument of the stolpersteine has attracted media attention. The text usually starts with the words: Stolperschwellen are installed at Stralsund main station. A stolperschwelle was set up in Thessaloniki in front of the house in which Alois Brunner and Adolf Eichmann had planned the deportation and annihilation of The city of Villingen-Schwenningen heatedly debated the idea of allowing stolpersteine in , but voted against them.
Unlike many other German towns, the city council of Munich in rejected the installation of stolpersteine on public property, following objections raised by Munich's Jewish community and particularly its chairwoman, Charlotte Knobloch, then also President of the Central Council of Jews in Germany , and herself a former victim of Nazi persecution.
Stolperstein - Wikipedia
She objected to the idea that the names of murdered Jews should be inserted in the pavement, so that people might accidentally step on them with their feet. The vice president of the Central Council, Salomon Korn, however, warmly welcomed the idea at the same time. Christian Ude , then mayor of Munich, warned against an "inflation of monuments".
Demnig also took part in the discussion, stating that "he intends to create a memorial at the very place where the deportation started: In other cities, permission for the project was preceded by long, sometimes emotional discussions. In Krefeld , the vice-chairman of the Jewish community, Michael Gilad, said that Demnig's memorials reminded him of how the Nazis had used Jewish grave stones as slabs for sidewalks. They have been stored in Brussels where they are regularly exhibited. The majority of German towns welcome the installation of Stolpersteine. In Frankfurt am Main , which had a long tradition of Jewish life before the Holocaust, the th stolperstein was set in May ,  and newspapers publish progress reports and invitations for citizens to sponsor further memorial stones.
In Frankfurt, the victim's descendants are not allowed to sponsor stolpersteine; these have to be paid for by the current inhabitants of the house, ensuring that they will respect the monument. People's attention is drawn towards the stolpersteine by reports in newspapers and their personal experience. Their thoughts are directed towards the victims. It is the emptiness, void, lack of information, the maw of the forgotten, which gives the monuments their power and lifts them from the banality of a statistic. Often the installation of a new stolperstein is announced in local newspapers or on the cities' official websites and is accompanied by a remembrance gathering.
Citizens, school children and relatives of the persons who are commemorated on the plates are invited to take part. Stolpersteine are installed in places where they are exposed to all kinds of climatic conditions, dust and dirt. As the brass material of the plates is subject to superficial corrosion , it will become dull over time if it is not cleaned from time to time.
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Demnig recommends regular cleaning of the plates. Many regional initiatives have set up schedules for cleaning and acts of remembrance, when stolpersteine are adorned with flowers or candles. Often remembrance days are chosen for these activities:. In May , the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung published an invitation to all citizens to clean the stolpersteine in front of their homes on 5 May , the same day when Israel officially celebrated Yom HaShoah.
Stolperstein for politician Max Eichholz in Hamburg. Stolperstein for Max and Olga Mayer in Heidelberg. Stolpersteine for the Weissfisch family in Bratislava. Stolpersteine for murdered schoolboys in Thessaloniki. Stolpersteine for the Pollack family in Amsterdam. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. List of cities by country that have stolpersteine. Stolperstein for Josep Soler Torrens in Spain.
Stolper-steine for the victims of the massacre of Meina. Retrieved 26 February Archived from the original on 21 October Retrieved 10 December Archived from the original on 18 July Retrieved 18 June Archived from the original on 30 October Retrieved 24 December Dieser Personenkreis wird im nachstehenden kurz als 'zigeunerische Personen' bezeichnet. This group of persons will henceforth be called 'gypsie persons'.
The admission will occur by family, regardless of their degree of bastardism, to the concentration camp gypsie camp of Auschwitz. Anthony's church receives the Coventry Cross of Nails domradio. Archived from the original on Er erinnert an Eleonora Levi. Die Welt , April , retrieved 4 May Rheinische Post online-version , 31 January , retrieved 20 February Het Parool in Dutch.
Retrieved 23 July Retrieved 27 August Retrieved 11 May A compromise was found. Stolpersteine erinnern an Gelehrte. The issue at hand is food offered to idols. This knowledge led them to insist that it was perfectly fine for them to eat food offered to idols. Paul, however, was concerned for those who had been saved out of idol worship. For these people, eating food offered to idols was akin to idol worship itself. They closely associate eating food offered to idols with worshiping the idols themselves.
But take care that this right of yours does not somehow become a stumbling block to the weak. And so by your knowledge this weak person is destroyed, the brother for whom Christ died. Paul is ultimately concerned that the Corinthians will encourage fellow believers to act against their consciences. This is the issue at the heart of the stumbling block issue. Let me put a modern day spin on it. You however, are convinced that smoking cigars is wrong. Maybe you were brought up within a certain church tradition in which you were taught that smoking cigars is categorically wrong.
Do I have to stop all cigar smoking because I know you think I am doing something wrong? My liberty in Christ is not restricted simply by what other people might think of me. But and this is really important , if I smoke a cigar around you and that, in turn, leads you to smoke a cigar even though you think it is sin, then I have become a stumbling block.
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My liberty in Christ has actually encouraged you to sin against your conscience. Therefore, if food makes my brother stumble, I will never eat meat, lest I make my brother stumble. This fits perfectly in line with the commands of Jesus.
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He calls me to love others more than I love myself. To lay down my life for my brothers and sisters in Christ.
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To die to my own preferences. If smoking a cigar or watching a movie or listening to an album or reading a book will lead you to violate your conscience then I will cheerfully give up that right when I am with you. Love always triumphs over liberty. Unity always triumphs over personal rights.
I am prizing my rights in Christ more than your relationship with the Lord.